Abstract

We investigate the effect of the cross-sectional profile of an array of metallic nanowires on the feasibility of a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensor. Calculations were performed using rigorous coupled-wave analysis with an emphasis on the extinction properties of the LSPR structure. The results indicate that the nanowire structure, particularly that of a T-profile, delivers an extremely linear sensing performance over a wide range of the target refractive index with much enhanced sensitivity. The extinction-based LSPR structure also involves a relatively large dimension and thus is expected to provide a feasible biosensor using current semiconductor technology.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Wei, "Resonant field enhancements from metal nanoparticle arrays," Nano Lett. 4, 153-158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Enoch, R. Quidant, and G. Badenes, "Optical sensing based on plasmon coupling in nanoparticle arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3422-3427 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, "Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337-7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, "Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity," Nano Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 3, 485-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, "A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, D. Emi, C. Hafner, and R. Vahldieck, "Multiple multipole method with automatic multipole setting applied to the simulation of surface plasmons in metallic nanostructures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 101-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (6)

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section," Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. O'Brien II, V. H. Pérez-Luna, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. López, "A surface plasmon resonance array biosensor based on spectroscopic imaging," Biosens. Bioelectron. 16, 97-108 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kalyuzhny, M. A. Schneeweiss, A. Shanzer, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, "Differential plasmon spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring molecular binding to ultrathin gold films," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 3177-3178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (5)

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Nanosphere lithography: tunable localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of silver nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 10549-10556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, and T. Kobayashi, "Local plasmon sensor with gold colloid monolayers deposited upon glass substrates," Opt. Lett. 25, 372-374 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewamer, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, W. Rechberger, B. Lamprecht, A. Leiter, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Design of multipolar plasmon excitations in silver nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3379-3381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lermé, "Introduction of quantum finite-size effects in the Mie's theory for a multilayered metal sphere in the dipolar approximation: application to free and matrix-embedded noble metal clusters," Eur. Phys. J. D 10, 265-277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Lyon, D. J. Pena, and M. J. Natan, "Surface plasmon resonance of Au colloid-modified Au films: particle size dependence," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 5826-5831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Mulvaney, "Surface plasmon spectroscopy of nanosized metal particles," Langmuir 12, 788-800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Kume, N. Nakagawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons: Ag fine particles on Al surface," Solid State Commun. 93, 171-175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylanderm, and I. Lundström, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, W. Rechberger, B. Lamprecht, A. Leiter, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Design of multipolar plasmon excitations in silver nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3379-3381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

Benkovic, S. J.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewamer, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

M. J. O'Brien II, V. H. Pérez-Luna, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. López, "A surface plasmon resonance array biosensor based on spectroscopic imaging," Biosens. Bioelectron. 16, 97-108 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byun, K. M.

K. M. Byun, S. J. Kim, and D. Kim, "Design study of highly sensitive nanowire-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensors using rigorous coupled wave analysis," Opt. Express 13, 3737-3742 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Byun, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, "Investigation of the sensitivity enhancement of nanoparticle-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors using rigorous coupled-wave analysis," in Plasmonics in Biology and Medicine II, T.Vo-Dinh, J.R.Lakowicz, and Z.K.Gryczynski, eds., Proc SPIE 5703, 61-70 (2005).

Cha, S.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Emi, D.

Enoch, S.

Feldmann, J.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fendler, J. H.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Franzl, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Genov, D. A.

D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Wei, "Resonant field enhancements from metal nanoparticle arrays," Nano Lett. 4, 153-158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gotschy, W.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gunnarsson, L.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, "Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337-7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, "A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafner, C.

Hayashi, S.

T. Kume, N. Nakagawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons: Ag fine particles on Al surface," Solid State Commun. 93, 171-175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, C. L.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, "Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337-7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Nanosphere lithography: tunable localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of silver nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 10549-10556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewamer, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hutter, E.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T. R.

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Nanosphere lithography: tunable localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of silver nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 10549-10556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, "Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337-7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kalyuzhny, G.

G. Kalyuzhny, M. A. Schneeweiss, A. Shanzer, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, "Differential plasmon spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring molecular binding to ultrathin gold films," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 3177-3178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasemo, B.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, "Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337-7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Keating, C. D.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewamer, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

K. M. Byun, S. J. Kim, and D. Kim, "Design study of highly sensitive nanowire-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensors using rigorous coupled wave analysis," Opt. Express 13, 3737-3742 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Byun, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, "Investigation of the sensitivity enhancement of nanoparticle-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors using rigorous coupled-wave analysis," in Plasmonics in Biology and Medicine II, T.Vo-Dinh, J.R.Lakowicz, and Z.K.Gryczynski, eds., Proc SPIE 5703, 61-70 (2005).

Kim, S. J.

K. M. Byun, S. J. Kim, and D. Kim, "Design study of highly sensitive nanowire-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensors using rigorous coupled wave analysis," Opt. Express 13, 3737-3742 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Byun, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, "Investigation of the sensitivity enhancement of nanoparticle-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors using rigorous coupled-wave analysis," in Plasmonics in Biology and Medicine II, T.Vo-Dinh, J.R.Lakowicz, and Z.K.Gryczynski, eds., Proc SPIE 5703, 61-70 (2005).

Kobayashi, T.

Kottmann, J. P.

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section," Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, 1995).

Krenn, J. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, W. Rechberger, B. Lamprecht, A. Leiter, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Design of multipolar plasmon excitations in silver nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3379-3381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kume, T.

T. Kume, N. Nakagawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons: Ag fine particles on Al surface," Solid State Commun. 93, 171-175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, W. Rechberger, B. Lamprecht, A. Leiter, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Design of multipolar plasmon excitations in silver nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3379-3381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leiter, A.

J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, W. Rechberger, B. Lamprecht, A. Leiter, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Design of multipolar plasmon excitations in silver nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3379-3381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lermé, J.

J. Lermé, "Introduction of quantum finite-size effects in the Mie's theory for a multilayered metal sphere in the dipolar approximation: application to free and matrix-embedded noble metal clusters," Eur. Phys. J. D 10, 265-277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylanderm, and I. Lundström, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.-F.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

López, G. P.

M. J. O'Brien II, V. H. Pérez-Luna, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. López, "A surface plasmon resonance array biosensor based on spectroscopic imaging," Biosens. Bioelectron. 16, 97-108 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundström, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylanderm, and I. Lundström, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, L. A.

L. A. Lyon, D. J. Pena, and M. J. Natan, "Surface plasmon resonance of Au colloid-modified Au films: particle size dependence," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 5826-5831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malinsky, M. D.

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Nanosphere lithography: tunable localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of silver nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 10549-10556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section," Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, K.

McFarland, A. D.

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, "Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity," Nano Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, "Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337-7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Minami, S.

Mock, J. J.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 3, 485-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Moreno, E.

Mulvaney, P.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mulvaney, "Surface plasmon spectroscopy of nanosized metal particles," Langmuir 12, 788-800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Musick, M. D.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewamer, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, N.

T. Kume, N. Nakagawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons: Ag fine particles on Al surface," Solid State Commun. 93, 171-175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Natan, M. J.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewamer, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Lyon, D. J. Pena, and M. J. Natan, "Surface plasmon resonance of Au colloid-modified Au films: particle size dependence," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 5826-5831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nicewamer, S. R.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewamer, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nylanderm, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylanderm, and I. Lundström, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, M. J.

M. J. O'Brien II, V. H. Pérez-Luna, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. López, "A surface plasmon resonance array biosensor based on spectroscopic imaging," Biosens. Bioelectron. 16, 97-108 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, T.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Park, J.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pena, D. J.

L. A. Lyon, D. J. Pena, and M. J. Natan, "Surface plasmon resonance of Au colloid-modified Au films: particle size dependence," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 5826-5831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Luna, V. H.

M. J. O'Brien II, V. H. Pérez-Luna, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. López, "A surface plasmon resonance array biosensor based on spectroscopic imaging," Biosens. Bioelectron. 16, 97-108 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prikulis, J.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, "Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337-7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Rechberger, W.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, W. Rechberger, B. Lamprecht, A. Leiter, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Design of multipolar plasmon excitations in silver nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3379-3381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roy, D.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rubinstein, I.

G. Kalyuzhny, M. A. Schneeweiss, A. Shanzer, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, "Differential plasmon spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring molecular binding to ultrathin gold films," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 3177-3178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salinas, F. G.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewamer, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Wei, "Resonant field enhancements from metal nanoparticle arrays," Nano Lett. 4, 153-158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, "Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337-7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, W. Rechberger, B. Lamprecht, A. Leiter, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Design of multipolar plasmon excitations in silver nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3379-3381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schneeweiss, M. A.

G. Kalyuzhny, M. A. Schneeweiss, A. Shanzer, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, "Differential plasmon spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring molecular binding to ultrathin gold films," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 3177-3178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 3, 485-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section," Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Wei, "Resonant field enhancements from metal nanoparticle arrays," Nano Lett. 4, 153-158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shanzer, A.

G. Kalyuzhny, M. A. Schneeweiss, A. Shanzer, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, "Differential plasmon spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring molecular binding to ultrathin gold films," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 3177-3178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 3, 485-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section," Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahldieck, R.

Van Duyne, R. P.

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, "Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity," Nano Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, "Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337-7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, "A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Nanosphere lithography: tunable localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of silver nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 10549-10556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vaskevich, A.

G. Kalyuzhny, M. A. Schneeweiss, A. Shanzer, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, "Differential plasmon spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring molecular binding to ultrathin gold films," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 3177-3178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, M.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, 1995).

von Plessen, G.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, J. C.

J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, W. Rechberger, B. Lamprecht, A. Leiter, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Design of multipolar plasmon excitations in silver nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3379-3381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wei, A.

D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Wei, "Resonant field enhancements from metal nanoparticle arrays," Nano Lett. 4, 153-158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, O.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, I.

Yamamoto, K.

T. Kume, N. Nakagawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons: Ag fine particles on Al surface," Solid State Commun. 93, 171-175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, "Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337-7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, W. Rechberger, B. Lamprecht, A. Leiter, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Design of multipolar plasmon excitations in silver nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3379-3381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

M. J. O'Brien II, V. H. Pérez-Luna, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. López, "A surface plasmon resonance array biosensor based on spectroscopic imaging," Biosens. Bioelectron. 16, 97-108 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

J. Lermé, "Introduction of quantum finite-size effects in the Mie's theory for a multilayered metal sphere in the dipolar approximation: application to free and matrix-embedded noble metal clusters," Eur. Phys. J. D 10, 265-277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (3)

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, "A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kalyuzhny, M. A. Schneeweiss, A. Shanzer, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, "Differential plasmon spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring molecular binding to ultrathin gold films," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 3177-3178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewamer, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (3)

L. A. Lyon, D. J. Pena, and M. J. Natan, "Surface plasmon resonance of Au colloid-modified Au films: particle size dependence," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 5826-5831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, "Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337-7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Nanosphere lithography: tunable localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of silver nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 10549-10556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B. (1)

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

P. Mulvaney, "Surface plasmon spectroscopy of nanosized metal particles," Langmuir 12, 788-800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Wei, "Resonant field enhancements from metal nanoparticle arrays," Nano Lett. 4, 153-158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, "Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity," Nano Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 3, 485-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section," Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylanderm, and I. Lundström, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

T. Kume, N. Nakagawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons: Ag fine particles on Al surface," Solid State Commun. 93, 171-175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, 1995).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

K. M. Byun, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, "Investigation of the sensitivity enhancement of nanoparticle-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors using rigorous coupled-wave analysis," in Plasmonics in Biology and Medicine II, T.Vo-Dinh, J.R.Lakowicz, and Z.K.Gryczynski, eds., Proc SPIE 5703, 61-70 (2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of metallic nanowire arrays with a period Λ on a glass substrate. TM-polarized light is normally incident on a glass substrate. (b) Cross section of a nanowire-modified LSPR biosensor. Binding analytes are modeled as a 3 nm thick dielectric monolayer that covers both nanowires and a glass substrate. (c) Nanowire cross section of rectangular, T-, and inverse T-profiles. For a rectangle, w = 100 nm and d = 20 nm; for a T-profile, w top = 100 nm, w bottom = 50 nm, and d top = d bottom = 10 nm; for an inverse T-profile, w top = 50 nm, w bottom = 100 nm, and d top = d bottom = 10 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extinction spectra of nanowire arrays with a rectangular profile assuming no analytes. For (a) silver and (b) gold nanowires, λLSPR = 562 nm (silver) versus 645 nm (gold) at Λ = 350 nm. The peak extinction and its width (full width at half-maximum) are 1.623 and 36 nm (silver) versus 1.272 and 52 nm (gold).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction spectra of rectangular nanowires of (a) silver and (b) gold at Λ = 350 nm as nd increases from 1.0 to 1.5 (increase is in the direction of the arrow). The inset shows linear regression analysis between nd and λLSPR.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Extinction spectra of nanowire arrays with a T-profile assuming no analytes. For (a) silver and (b) gold nanowires, λLSPR = 546 nm (silver) versus 640 nm (gold) at Λ = 350 nm. The peak extinction and its width (FWHM) are 1.206 and 33 nm (silver) versus 0.957 and 49 nm (gold).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extinction spectra of (a) silver and (b) gold nanowires of a T-profile at Λ = 350 nm as nd increases from 1.0 to 1.5 (increase is in the direction of the arrow). The inset shows linear regression analysis between nd and λLSPR.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Extinction spectra of nanowire arrays with an inverse T-profile assuming no analytes. For (a) silver and (b) gold nanowires, λLSPR = 589 nm (silver) versus 679 nm (gold) at Λ = 350 nm. The peak extinction and its width (FWHM) are 1.214 and 38 nm (silver) versus 0.868 and 42 nm (gold).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Extinction spectra of (a) silver and (b) gold nanowires of an inverse T-profile at Λ = 350 nm as nd increases from 1.0 to 1.5 (increase is in the direction of the arrow). The inset shows linear regression analysis between nd and λLSPR.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Sensitivity (in nm∕RIU) and Squared Correlation Coefficient ( R 2) for Silver and Gold Nanowires of Different Profiles at Λ = 350 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 FWHM of Extinction Spectra (in nm) Calculated for Silver and Gold Nanowires of Different Profiles at Λ = 350 nm

Equations (1)

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E ( ω ) = 9 ω ε m 3 / 2 V c { ε i ( ω ) [ ε r ( ω ) + 2 ε m ] 2 + ε i ( ω ) 2 } .

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