Abstract

An autostereoscopic display using a directional backlight with a fast-switching liquid-crystal (LC) display was designed and fabricated to obtain a better perception of 3D images by enhanced resolution and brightness. A grooved light guide in combination with an asymmetric focusing foil was utilized to redirect the emitting cones of light to the left and right eyes, respectively. By designing the groove structures of the focusing foil with rotation from 1.5° to 1.5° in the gradient and having the pitch ratio of the grooved light guide to the focusing foil of less than 3, the boundary angle then shifts from normal viewing and the moiré phenomenon can be suppressed. Cross talk of less than 6% and a LC response time of faster than 7.1  ms further improve the stereoscopic image perception. Additionally, 2D3D compatibility is provided.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. St-Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, J. D. Sutter, and W. J. Plesniak, "Advances in holographic video," in Practical Holography VII: Imaging and Materials, Proc. SPIE 1914, 188-196 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Soltan, J. A. Trias, W. J. Dahlke, R. V. Belfatto, and F. Sanzone, "Laser-based 3D volumetric display system," U.S. patent 5,854,613 (29 December 1998).
  3. I. Sexton, "Parallax barrier 3-D TV," in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies,Proc. SPIE 1083, 84-92 (1989).
  4. H. Morishama, H. Nose, N. Taniguchi, K. Inoguchi, and S. Matsumura, "An eyeglass-free rear-cross-lenticular 3D display," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 923-926.
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. R. L. Travis and S. R. Lang, "The design and evaluation of a CRT-based autostereoscopic display," in Proceedings of Society Information Display (SID) (Society for Information Display, 1991), Vol. 32, pp. 279-282.
  6. T. Sasagawa, A. Yuuki, S. Tahata, O. Murakami, and K. Oda, "Dual directional backlight for stereoscopic LCD," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 2003), pp. 399-402.
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Yeh and L. Silverstein, "Human factors for stereoscopic color displays," Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 1991), pp. 826-829.
  8. A. Lit, "The magnitude of the Pulfrich stereo-phenomenon as a function of binocular differences of intensity at various levels of illumination," Am. J. Psychology , 62, 159-165 (1949).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. St-Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, J. D. Sutter, and W. J. Plesniak, "Advances in holographic video," in Practical Holography VII: Imaging and Materials, Proc. SPIE 1914, 188-196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

I. Sexton, "Parallax barrier 3-D TV," in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies,Proc. SPIE 1083, 84-92 (1989).

1949 (1)

A. Lit, "The magnitude of the Pulfrich stereo-phenomenon as a function of binocular differences of intensity at various levels of illumination," Am. J. Psychology , 62, 159-165 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Belfatto, R. V.

P. Soltan, J. A. Trias, W. J. Dahlke, R. V. Belfatto, and F. Sanzone, "Laser-based 3D volumetric display system," U.S. patent 5,854,613 (29 December 1998).

Benton, S. A.

P. St-Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, J. D. Sutter, and W. J. Plesniak, "Advances in holographic video," in Practical Holography VII: Imaging and Materials, Proc. SPIE 1914, 188-196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dahlke, W. J.

P. Soltan, J. A. Trias, W. J. Dahlke, R. V. Belfatto, and F. Sanzone, "Laser-based 3D volumetric display system," U.S. patent 5,854,613 (29 December 1998).

Inoguchi, K.

H. Morishama, H. Nose, N. Taniguchi, K. Inoguchi, and S. Matsumura, "An eyeglass-free rear-cross-lenticular 3D display," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 923-926.
[CrossRef]

Lang, S. R.

A. R. L. Travis and S. R. Lang, "The design and evaluation of a CRT-based autostereoscopic display," in Proceedings of Society Information Display (SID) (Society for Information Display, 1991), Vol. 32, pp. 279-282.

Lit, A.

A. Lit, "The magnitude of the Pulfrich stereo-phenomenon as a function of binocular differences of intensity at various levels of illumination," Am. J. Psychology , 62, 159-165 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Lucente, M.

P. St-Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, J. D. Sutter, and W. J. Plesniak, "Advances in holographic video," in Practical Holography VII: Imaging and Materials, Proc. SPIE 1914, 188-196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsumura, S.

H. Morishama, H. Nose, N. Taniguchi, K. Inoguchi, and S. Matsumura, "An eyeglass-free rear-cross-lenticular 3D display," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 923-926.
[CrossRef]

Morishama, H.

H. Morishama, H. Nose, N. Taniguchi, K. Inoguchi, and S. Matsumura, "An eyeglass-free rear-cross-lenticular 3D display," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 923-926.
[CrossRef]

Murakami, O.

T. Sasagawa, A. Yuuki, S. Tahata, O. Murakami, and K. Oda, "Dual directional backlight for stereoscopic LCD," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 2003), pp. 399-402.
[CrossRef]

Nose, H.

H. Morishama, H. Nose, N. Taniguchi, K. Inoguchi, and S. Matsumura, "An eyeglass-free rear-cross-lenticular 3D display," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 923-926.
[CrossRef]

Oda, K.

T. Sasagawa, A. Yuuki, S. Tahata, O. Murakami, and K. Oda, "Dual directional backlight for stereoscopic LCD," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 2003), pp. 399-402.
[CrossRef]

Plesniak, W. J.

P. St-Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, J. D. Sutter, and W. J. Plesniak, "Advances in holographic video," in Practical Holography VII: Imaging and Materials, Proc. SPIE 1914, 188-196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sanzone, F.

P. Soltan, J. A. Trias, W. J. Dahlke, R. V. Belfatto, and F. Sanzone, "Laser-based 3D volumetric display system," U.S. patent 5,854,613 (29 December 1998).

Sasagawa, T.

T. Sasagawa, A. Yuuki, S. Tahata, O. Murakami, and K. Oda, "Dual directional backlight for stereoscopic LCD," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 2003), pp. 399-402.
[CrossRef]

Sexton, I.

I. Sexton, "Parallax barrier 3-D TV," in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies,Proc. SPIE 1083, 84-92 (1989).

Silverstein, L.

Y. Yeh and L. Silverstein, "Human factors for stereoscopic color displays," Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 1991), pp. 826-829.

Soltan, P.

P. Soltan, J. A. Trias, W. J. Dahlke, R. V. Belfatto, and F. Sanzone, "Laser-based 3D volumetric display system," U.S. patent 5,854,613 (29 December 1998).

St-Hilaire, P.

P. St-Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, J. D. Sutter, and W. J. Plesniak, "Advances in holographic video," in Practical Holography VII: Imaging and Materials, Proc. SPIE 1914, 188-196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, J. D.

P. St-Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, J. D. Sutter, and W. J. Plesniak, "Advances in holographic video," in Practical Holography VII: Imaging and Materials, Proc. SPIE 1914, 188-196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tahata, S.

T. Sasagawa, A. Yuuki, S. Tahata, O. Murakami, and K. Oda, "Dual directional backlight for stereoscopic LCD," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 2003), pp. 399-402.
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, N.

H. Morishama, H. Nose, N. Taniguchi, K. Inoguchi, and S. Matsumura, "An eyeglass-free rear-cross-lenticular 3D display," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 923-926.
[CrossRef]

Travis, A. R. L.

A. R. L. Travis and S. R. Lang, "The design and evaluation of a CRT-based autostereoscopic display," in Proceedings of Society Information Display (SID) (Society for Information Display, 1991), Vol. 32, pp. 279-282.

Trias, J. A.

P. Soltan, J. A. Trias, W. J. Dahlke, R. V. Belfatto, and F. Sanzone, "Laser-based 3D volumetric display system," U.S. patent 5,854,613 (29 December 1998).

Yeh, Y.

Y. Yeh and L. Silverstein, "Human factors for stereoscopic color displays," Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 1991), pp. 826-829.

Yuuki, A.

T. Sasagawa, A. Yuuki, S. Tahata, O. Murakami, and K. Oda, "Dual directional backlight for stereoscopic LCD," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 2003), pp. 399-402.
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Psychology (1)

A. Lit, "The magnitude of the Pulfrich stereo-phenomenon as a function of binocular differences of intensity at various levels of illumination," Am. J. Psychology , 62, 159-165 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

P. St-Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, J. D. Sutter, and W. J. Plesniak, "Advances in holographic video," in Practical Holography VII: Imaging and Materials, Proc. SPIE 1914, 188-196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Sexton, "Parallax barrier 3-D TV," in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies,Proc. SPIE 1083, 84-92 (1989).

Other (5)

H. Morishama, H. Nose, N. Taniguchi, K. Inoguchi, and S. Matsumura, "An eyeglass-free rear-cross-lenticular 3D display," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 923-926.
[CrossRef]

A. R. L. Travis and S. R. Lang, "The design and evaluation of a CRT-based autostereoscopic display," in Proceedings of Society Information Display (SID) (Society for Information Display, 1991), Vol. 32, pp. 279-282.

T. Sasagawa, A. Yuuki, S. Tahata, O. Murakami, and K. Oda, "Dual directional backlight for stereoscopic LCD," in Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 2003), pp. 399-402.
[CrossRef]

Y. Yeh and L. Silverstein, "Human factors for stereoscopic color displays," Society for Information Display (SID) International Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, 1991), pp. 826-829.

P. Soltan, J. A. Trias, W. J. Dahlke, R. V. Belfatto, and F. Sanzone, "Laser-based 3D volumetric display system," U.S. patent 5,854,613 (29 December 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematics of a directional backlight with a switching LCD. Two restricted viewing cones were sequentially observed by the viewer's left and right eyes, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Schematics of a directional backlight. (b) A large inclined angle of viewing cone was emitted from a microgrooved lightguide. An asymmetric focusing foil was then utilized to redirect light to the eyes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Schematic of the observer's relative position and the viewing angle to the display. A backlight of size 35 mm (l) × 28 mm (w) was placed at a viewing distance of 185 mm. The observer's left and right eyes are located around −10° and 10° to the normal viewing direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Using backlight brightness intensity of 2100 cd∕m2, angular distributions of the backlight module with a LC panel when the (a) left- and (b) right-side LEDs are switched on.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) For the ϕ′ = 90° cross section, the simulated and measured brightness intensity dependences on viewing angles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Rising and falling times measured as the duration between 10% and 90% transmittance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Demonstrated photographs of a directional backlight with a LCD panel at the positions of (a) left and (b) right eyes.

Equations (4)

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n sin θ = sin [ θ ( α β 1 ) ] ,
θ″ = β 1 + β 2 θ ,
β 2 θ‴ = 90 ° θ″ ,
θ‴ = 2 × β 2 + β 1 90 ° sin 1 [ sin ( θ α + β 1 ) n ] ,

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