Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were used for the task of multimodal study of healthy and adenomatous mouse colon. The results from each modality were compared with histology, which served as the gold standard. The ApcMin/+ genetic mouse model of colon cancer was compared with wild-type mice. In addition, a special diet was used for the task of studying the origins of a 680  nm autofluorescent signal that was previously observed in colon. The study found close agreement among each of the modalities and with histology. All four modalities were capable of identifying diseased tissue accurately. The OCT and LSCM images provided complementary structural information about the tissue, while the autofluorescence signal measured by LIF and LSCM provided biochemical information. OCT and LIF were performed in vivo and nondestructively, while the LSCM and histology required extraction of the tissue. The magnitude of the 680  nm signal correlates with chlorophyll content in the mouse diet, suggesting that the autofluorescent compound is a dietary metabolite.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  28. A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, "Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement," Appl. Opt. 43, 113-121 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. R. Tumlinson, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution OCT for in vivo imaging colon disease model mice," in Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, D. A. Benaron, and G. E. Cohn, eds., Proc. SPIE 5692, 307-315 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. R. Tumlinson, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution OCT for in vivo imaging colon disease model mice," in Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, D. A. Benaron, and G. E. Cohn, eds., Proc. SPIE 5692, 307-315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and A. M. Nuijs, "Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: a comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Bio-Med. Opt. 9, 274-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, "Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement," Appl. Opt. 43, 113-121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, "Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Rouse, A. Kano, J. A. Udovich, S. M. Kroto, and A. F. Gmitro, "Design and demonstration of a miniature catheter for a confocal microendoscope," Appl. Opt. 43, 5763-5771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

R. S. DaCosta, H. Andersson, and B. C. Wilson, "Molecular fluorescence excitation-emission matrices relevant to tissue spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 384-392 (2003), http://eemdb.uhnres.utoronto.ca/cgi-bin/WebObjects/WebFluor.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Ashby, J. Wen, P. Chowdhury, T. A. Casey, M. A. Rasmussen, and J. W. Petrich, "Fluorescence of dietary porphyrins as a basis for real-time detection of fecal contamination on meat," J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 3502-3507 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

R. V. Kuranov, V. V. Sapozhnikova, N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, E. V. Zagainova, and S. A. Petrova, "Combined application of optical methods to increase the information content of optical coherent tomography in diagnostics of neoplastic processes," Quantum Electron. 32, 993-998 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. J. McLaren, P. Anikijenko, S. G. Thomas, P. M. Delaney, and R. G. King, "In vivo detection of morphological and microvasculature changes of the colon in association with colitis using fiberoptic confocal imaging," Dig. Dis. Sci. 47, 2424-2433 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chu, S. Chu, and M. H. Montrose, "Apical Na+/H+ exchange near the base of mouse colonic crypts," Am. J. Physiol. 283, C358-C372 (2002).

2001 (5)

K. Kataoka, E. Suzaki, and K. Komura, "The Golgi apparatus of goblet cells in the mouse descending colon: three-dimensional visualization using a confocal laser scanning microscope," Histochem. Cell Biol. 116, 329-335 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, "Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system," Opt. Commun. 188, 267-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fu, C. T. Chia, C. L. Tang, C. H. Diong, and C. Seow, "Changes in in-vivo autofluorescence spectra at different periods in rat colorectal tumor progression," in Diagnostic Optical Spectroscopy in Biomedicine, T. G. Papazoglou and G. A. Wagnières, eds., Proc. SPIE 4432, 118-123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, "Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection," in Biomedical Diagnostic, Guidance, and Surgical-Assist Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, and D. A. Benaron, eds., Proc. SPIE 4254, 23-30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

H. W. Wang, J. Willis, M. I. F. Canto, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, "Quantitative laser scanning confocal autofluorescence microscopy of normal, premalignant, and malignant colonic tissues," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 46, 1246-1252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, "Power-efficient nonreciprocal interferometer and linear-scanning fiber-optic catheter for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 531-533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Ma and D. Dolphin, "The metabolites of dietary chlorophylls," Phytochem. 50, 195-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 21, 543-545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. K. Su, K. W. Kinzler, B. Vogelstein, A. C. Preisinger, A. R. Moser, C. Luongo, K. A. Gould, and W. F. Dove, "Multiple intestinal neoplasia caused by a mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene," Science 256, 668-670 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 777-786 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

C. Sun, E. Duzman, J. Mellot, L.-H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, "Spectroscopic, morphologic, and cytotoxic studies on major fractions of hematoporphyrin derivative and photofrin II," Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 171-179 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A. D.

Andersson, H.

R. S. DaCosta, H. Andersson, and B. C. Wilson, "Molecular fluorescence excitation-emission matrices relevant to tissue spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 384-392 (2003), http://eemdb.uhnres.utoronto.ca/cgi-bin/WebObjects/WebFluor.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anikijenko, P.

W. J. McLaren, P. Anikijenko, S. G. Thomas, P. M. Delaney, and R. G. King, "In vivo detection of morphological and microvasculature changes of the colon in association with colitis using fiberoptic confocal imaging," Dig. Dis. Sci. 47, 2424-2433 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arendt, J. T.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ashby, K. D.

K. D. Ashby, J. Wen, P. Chowdhury, T. A. Casey, M. A. Rasmussen, and J. W. Petrich, "Fluorescence of dietary porphyrins as a basis for real-time detection of fecal contamination on meat," J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 3502-3507 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

A. R. Tumlinson, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution OCT for in vivo imaging colon disease model mice," in Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, D. A. Benaron, and G. E. Cohn, eds., Proc. SPIE 5692, 307-315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, "Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement," Appl. Opt. 43, 113-121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, N. H. Wade, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in murine colon cancer model," Lasers Surg. Med. (to be published).

Bell, B. A.

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, "Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection," in Biomedical Diagnostic, Guidance, and Surgical-Assist Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, and D. A. Benaron, eds., Proc. SPIE 4254, 23-30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

C. Sun, E. Duzman, J. Mellot, L.-H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, "Spectroscopic, morphologic, and cytotoxic studies on major fractions of hematoporphyrin derivative and photofrin II," Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 171-179 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Besselsen, D. G.

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, N. H. Wade, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in murine colon cancer model," Lasers Surg. Med. (to be published).

Bisschop, M. A.

S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and A. M. Nuijs, "Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: a comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Bio-Med. Opt. 9, 274-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blackman, R.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Boyce, G. A.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, B.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, S.

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

Buess, G.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, "Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system," Opt. Commun. 188, 267-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burg, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calhoun, K. H.

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, "Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection," in Biomedical Diagnostic, Guidance, and Surgical-Assist Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, and D. A. Benaron, eds., Proc. SPIE 4254, 23-30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Canto, M. I. F.

H. W. Wang, J. Willis, M. I. F. Canto, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, "Quantitative laser scanning confocal autofluorescence microscopy of normal, premalignant, and malignant colonic tissues," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 46, 1246-1252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Casey, T. A.

K. D. Ashby, J. Wen, P. Chowdhury, T. A. Casey, M. A. Rasmussen, and J. W. Petrich, "Fluorescence of dietary porphyrins as a basis for real-time detection of fecal contamination on meat," J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 3502-3507 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chia, C. T.

S. Fu, C. T. Chia, C. L. Tang, C. H. Diong, and C. Seow, "Changes in in-vivo autofluorescence spectra at different periods in rat colorectal tumor progression," in Diagnostic Optical Spectroscopy in Biomedicine, T. G. Papazoglou and G. A. Wagnières, eds., Proc. SPIE 4432, 118-123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chia, T.

Z. Huang, T. Chia, S. M. Krishnan, and C. Seow, "Study of laser autofluorescence of human colon tissues," in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society New York (IEEE, 1998), pp. 2963-2966.
[PubMed]

Chowdhury, P.

K. D. Ashby, J. Wen, P. Chowdhury, T. A. Casey, M. A. Rasmussen, and J. W. Petrich, "Fluorescence of dietary porphyrins as a basis for real-time detection of fecal contamination on meat," J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 3502-3507 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, J.

J. Chu, S. Chu, and M. H. Montrose, "Apical Na+/H+ exchange near the base of mouse colonic crypts," Am. J. Physiol. 283, C358-C372 (2002).

Chu, S.

J. Chu, S. Chu, and M. H. Montrose, "Apical Na+/H+ exchange near the base of mouse colonic crypts," Am. J. Physiol. 283, C358-C372 (2002).

Compton, C. C.

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cothren, R. M.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DaCosta, R. S.

R. S. DaCosta, H. Andersson, and B. C. Wilson, "Molecular fluorescence excitation-emission matrices relevant to tissue spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 384-392 (2003), http://eemdb.uhnres.utoronto.ca/cgi-bin/WebObjects/WebFluor.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deckelbaum, L. I.

G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, P.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, P. M.

W. J. McLaren, P. Anikijenko, S. G. Thomas, P. M. Delaney, and R. G. King, "In vivo detection of morphological and microvasculature changes of the colon in association with colitis using fiberoptic confocal imaging," Dig. Dis. Sci. 47, 2424-2433 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deutsch, T. F.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diong, C. H.

S. Fu, C. T. Chia, C. L. Tang, C. H. Diong, and C. Seow, "Changes in in-vivo autofluorescence spectra at different periods in rat colorectal tumor progression," in Diagnostic Optical Spectroscopy in Biomedicine, T. G. Papazoglou and G. A. Wagnières, eds., Proc. SPIE 4432, 118-123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dolphin, D.

L. Ma and D. Dolphin, "The metabolites of dietary chlorophylls," Phytochem. 50, 195-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dove, W. F.

L. K. Su, K. W. Kinzler, B. Vogelstein, A. C. Preisinger, A. R. Moser, C. Luongo, K. A. Gould, and W. F. Dove, "Multiple intestinal neoplasia caused by a mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene," Science 256, 668-670 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doxtader, M.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

A. R. Tumlinson, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution OCT for in vivo imaging colon disease model mice," in Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, D. A. Benaron, and G. E. Cohn, eds., Proc. SPIE 5692, 307-315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duzman, E.

C. Sun, E. Duzman, J. Mellot, L.-H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, "Spectroscopic, morphologic, and cytotoxic studies on major fractions of hematoporphyrin derivative and photofrin II," Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 171-179 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enders, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 777-786 (1991).
[PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldchtein, F.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiarman, G. S.

G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 777-786 (1991).
[PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T. J.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freund, J.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frisoli, J. K.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fritscher-Ravens, A.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, S.

S. Fu, C. T. Chia, C. L. Tang, C. H. Diong, and C. Seow, "Changes in in-vivo autofluorescence spectra at different periods in rat colorectal tumor progression," in Diagnostic Optical Spectroscopy in Biomedicine, T. G. Papazoglou and G. A. Wagnières, eds., Proc. SPIE 4432, 118-123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, V.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, V. M.

R. V. Kuranov, V. V. Sapozhnikova, N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, E. V. Zagainova, and S. A. Petrova, "Combined application of optical methods to increase the information content of optical coherent tomography in diagnostics of neoplastic processes," Quantum Electron. 32, 993-998 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gerner, E. W.

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, N. H. Wade, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in murine colon cancer model," Lasers Surg. Med. (to be published).

Gladkova, N.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmitro, A. F.

Gnaendiger, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodnow, J.

Gould, K. A.

L. K. Su, K. W. Kinzler, B. Vogelstein, A. C. Preisinger, A. R. Moser, C. Luongo, K. A. Gould, and W. F. Dove, "Multiple intestinal neoplasia caused by a mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene," Science 256, 668-670 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gowda, A.

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, "Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection," in Biomedical Diagnostic, Guidance, and Surgical-Assist Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, and D. A. Benaron, eds., Proc. SPIE 4254, 23-30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hariri, L. P.

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, "Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement," Appl. Opt. 43, 113-121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, N. H. Wade, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in murine colon cancer model," Lasers Surg. Med. (to be published).

Hayes, G. B.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

A. R. Tumlinson, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution OCT for in vivo imaging colon disease model mice," in Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, D. A. Benaron, and G. E. Cohn, eds., Proc. SPIE 5692, 307-315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herz, P. R.

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, T. Chia, S. M. Krishnan, and C. Seow, "Study of laser autofluorescence of human colon tissues," in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society New York (IEEE, 1998), pp. 2963-2966.
[PubMed]

Ivanc, T. B.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

H. W. Wang, J. Willis, M. I. F. Canto, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, "Quantitative laser scanning confocal autofluorescence microscopy of normal, premalignant, and malignant colonic tissues," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 46, 1246-1252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jäckle, S.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janell, D.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnigan, R. M.

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, "Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection," in Biomedical Diagnostic, Guidance, and Surgical-Assist Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, and D. A. Benaron, eds., Proc. SPIE 4254, 23-30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kano, A.

Kapadia, C. R.

G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kataoka, K.

K. Kataoka, E. Suzaki, and K. Komura, "The Golgi apparatus of goblet cells in the mouse descending colon: three-dimensional visualization using a confocal laser scanning microscope," Histochem. Cell Biol. 116, 329-335 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, L.

G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, R. G.

W. J. McLaren, P. Anikijenko, S. G. Thomas, P. M. Delaney, and R. G. King, "In vivo detection of morphological and microvasculature changes of the colon in association with colitis using fiberoptic confocal imaging," Dig. Dis. Sci. 47, 2424-2433 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinzler, K. W.

L. K. Su, K. W. Kinzler, B. Vogelstein, A. C. Preisinger, A. R. Moser, C. Luongo, K. A. Gould, and W. F. Dove, "Multiple intestinal neoplasia caused by a mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene," Science 256, 668-670 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knittel, J.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, "Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system," Opt. Commun. 188, 267-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Komura, K.

K. Kataoka, E. Suzaki, and K. Komura, "The Golgi apparatus of goblet cells in the mouse descending colon: three-dimensional visualization using a confocal laser scanning microscope," Histochem. Cell Biol. 116, 329-335 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koski, A.

Krishnan, S. M.

Z. Huang, T. Chia, S. M. Krishnan, and C. Seow, "Study of laser autofluorescence of human colon tissues," in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society New York (IEEE, 1998), pp. 2963-2966.
[PubMed]

Kroto, S. M.

Kuranov, R. V.

R. V. Kuranov, V. V. Sapozhnikova, N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, E. V. Zagainova, and S. A. Petrova, "Combined application of optical methods to increase the information content of optical coherent tomography in diagnostics of neoplastic processes," Quantum Electron. 32, 993-998 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lenderink, E.

S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and A. M. Nuijs, "Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: a comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Bio-Med. Opt. 9, 274-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, L.-H.

C. Sun, E. Duzman, J. Mellot, L.-H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, "Spectroscopic, morphologic, and cytotoxic studies on major fractions of hematoporphyrin derivative and photofrin II," Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 171-179 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucassen, G. W.

S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and A. M. Nuijs, "Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: a comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Bio-Med. Opt. 9, 274-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luongo, C.

L. K. Su, K. W. Kinzler, B. Vogelstein, A. C. Preisinger, A. R. Moser, C. Luongo, K. A. Gould, and W. F. Dove, "Multiple intestinal neoplasia caused by a mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene," Science 256, 668-670 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L.

L. Ma and D. Dolphin, "The metabolites of dietary chlorophylls," Phytochem. 50, 195-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Manoharan, R.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mashimo, H.

McLaren, W.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaren, W. J.

W. J. McLaren, P. Anikijenko, S. G. Thomas, P. M. Delaney, and R. G. King, "In vivo detection of morphological and microvasculature changes of the colon in association with colitis using fiberoptic confocal imaging," Dig. Dis. Sci. 47, 2424-2433 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNally, J.

A. R. Tumlinson, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution OCT for in vivo imaging colon disease model mice," in Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, D. A. Benaron, and G. E. Cohn, eds., Proc. SPIE 5692, 307-315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McNichols, R. J.

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, "Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection," in Biomedical Diagnostic, Guidance, and Surgical-Assist Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, and D. A. Benaron, eds., Proc. SPIE 4254, 23-30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mellot, J.

C. Sun, E. Duzman, J. Mellot, L.-H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, "Spectroscopic, morphologic, and cytotoxic studies on major fractions of hematoporphyrin derivative and photofrin II," Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 171-179 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messerschmidt, B.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, "Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system," Opt. Commun. 188, 267-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Montrose, M. H.

J. Chu, S. Chu, and M. H. Montrose, "Apical Na+/H+ exchange near the base of mouse colonic crypts," Am. J. Physiol. 283, C358-C372 (2002).

Moser, A. R.

L. K. Su, K. W. Kinzler, B. Vogelstein, A. C. Preisinger, A. R. Moser, C. Luongo, K. A. Gould, and W. F. Dove, "Multiple intestinal neoplasia caused by a mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene," Science 256, 668-670 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, "Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection," in Biomedical Diagnostic, Guidance, and Surgical-Assist Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, and D. A. Benaron, eds., Proc. SPIE 4254, 23-30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nafe, B.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nathanson, M. H.

G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neerken, S.

S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and A. M. Nuijs, "Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: a comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Bio-Med. Opt. 9, 274-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuijs, A. M.

S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and A. M. Nuijs, "Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: a comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Bio-Med. Opt. 9, 274-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, C.

Petras, R. E.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 777-786 (1991).
[PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrich, J. W.

K. D. Ashby, J. Wen, P. Chowdhury, T. A. Casey, M. A. Rasmussen, and J. W. Petrich, "Fluorescence of dietary porphyrins as a basis for real-time detection of fecal contamination on meat," J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 3502-3507 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrova, S. A.

R. V. Kuranov, V. V. Sapozhnikova, N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, E. V. Zagainova, and S. A. Petrova, "Combined application of optical methods to increase the information content of optical coherent tomography in diagnostics of neoplastic processes," Quantum Electron. 32, 993-998 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polglase, A.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poneros, J. M.

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Possner, T.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, "Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system," Opt. Commun. 188, 267-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Preisinger, A. C.

L. K. Su, K. W. Kinzler, B. Vogelstein, A. C. Preisinger, A. R. Moser, C. Luongo, K. A. Gould, and W. F. Dove, "Multiple intestinal neoplasia caused by a mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene," Science 256, 668-670 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasmussen, M. A.

K. D. Ashby, J. Wen, P. Chowdhury, T. A. Casey, M. A. Rasmussen, and J. W. Petrich, "Fluorescence of dietary porphyrins as a basis for real-time detection of fecal contamination on meat," J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 3502-3507 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rava, R. P.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 777-786 (1991).
[PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 777-786 (1991).
[PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, J. M.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouse, A. R.

Sapozhnikova, V. V.

R. V. Kuranov, V. V. Sapozhnikova, N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, E. V. Zagainova, and S. A. Petrova, "Combined application of optical methods to increase the information content of optical coherent tomography in diagnostics of neoplastic processes," Quantum Electron. 32, 993-998 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, H.

A. R. Tumlinson, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution OCT for in vivo imaging colon disease model mice," in Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, D. A. Benaron, and G. E. Cohn, eds., Proc. SPIE 5692, 307-315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J.

Schnieder, L.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, "Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system," Opt. Commun. 188, 267-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schomacker, K. T.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröder, S.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seitz, U.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seow, C.

S. Fu, C. T. Chia, C. L. Tang, C. H. Diong, and C. Seow, "Changes in in-vivo autofluorescence spectra at different periods in rat colorectal tumor progression," in Diagnostic Optical Spectroscopy in Biomedicine, T. G. Papazoglou and G. A. Wagnières, eds., Proc. SPIE 4432, 118-123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, T. Chia, S. M. Krishnan, and C. Seow, "Study of laser autofluorescence of human colon tissues," in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society New York (IEEE, 1998), pp. 2963-2966.
[PubMed]

Sergeev, A.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakhova, N. M.

R. V. Kuranov, V. V. Sapozhnikova, N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, E. V. Zagainova, and S. A. Petrova, "Combined application of optical methods to increase the information content of optical coherent tomography in diagnostics of neoplastic processes," Quantum Electron. 32, 993-998 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sivak, M.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 777-786 (1991).
[PubMed]

Sivak, M. V.

H. W. Wang, J. Willis, M. I. F. Canto, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, "Quantitative laser scanning confocal autofluorescence microscopy of normal, premalignant, and malignant colonic tissues," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 46, 1246-1252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Society, American Cancer

American Cancer Society, "Cancer Facts and Figures 2004" (American Cancer Society, 2004), http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/CAFFlowbarfinalPWSecured.pdf.

Soehendra, N.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

Su, L. K.

L. K. Su, K. W. Kinzler, B. Vogelstein, A. C. Preisinger, A. R. Moser, C. Luongo, K. A. Gould, and W. F. Dove, "Multiple intestinal neoplasia caused by a mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene," Science 256, 668-670 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

C. Sun, E. Duzman, J. Mellot, L.-H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, "Spectroscopic, morphologic, and cytotoxic studies on major fractions of hematoporphyrin derivative and photofrin II," Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 171-179 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzaki, E.

K. Kataoka, E. Suzaki, and K. Komura, "The Golgi apparatus of goblet cells in the mouse descending colon: three-dimensional visualization using a confocal laser scanning microscope," Histochem. Cell Biol. 116, 329-335 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, C. L.

S. Fu, C. T. Chia, C. L. Tang, C. H. Diong, and C. Seow, "Changes in in-vivo autofluorescence spectra at different periods in rat colorectal tumor progression," in Diagnostic Optical Spectroscopy in Biomedicine, T. G. Papazoglou and G. A. Wagnières, eds., Proc. SPIE 4432, 118-123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Terentieva, A.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S. G.

W. J. McLaren, P. Anikijenko, S. G. Thomas, P. M. Delaney, and R. G. King, "In vivo detection of morphological and microvasculature changes of the colon in association with colitis using fiberoptic confocal imaging," Dig. Dis. Sci. 47, 2424-2433 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tumlinson, A. R.

A. R. Tumlinson, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution OCT for in vivo imaging colon disease model mice," in Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, D. A. Benaron, and G. E. Cohn, eds., Proc. SPIE 5692, 307-315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, "Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement," Appl. Opt. 43, 113-121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, N. H. Wade, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in murine colon cancer model," Lasers Surg. Med. (to be published).

Udovich, J. A.

Unterhuber, A.

A. R. Tumlinson, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution OCT for in vivo imaging colon disease model mice," in Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, D. A. Benaron, and G. E. Cohn, eds., Proc. SPIE 5692, 307-315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Utzinger, U.

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, "Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement," Appl. Opt. 43, 113-121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, N. H. Wade, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in murine colon cancer model," Lasers Surg. Med. (to be published).

Van Dam, J.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vieth, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogelstein, B.

L. K. Su, K. W. Kinzler, B. Vogelstein, A. C. Preisinger, A. R. Moser, C. Luongo, K. A. Gould, and W. F. Dove, "Multiple intestinal neoplasia caused by a mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene," Science 256, 668-670 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wade, N. H.

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, N. H. Wade, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in murine colon cancer model," Lasers Surg. Med. (to be published).

Wang, H. W.

H. W. Wang, J. Willis, M. I. F. Canto, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, "Quantitative laser scanning confocal autofluorescence microscopy of normal, premalignant, and malignant colonic tissues," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 46, 1246-1252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weissman, N. J.

Wen, J.

K. D. Ashby, J. Wen, P. Chowdhury, T. A. Casey, M. A. Rasmussen, and J. W. Petrich, "Fluorescence of dietary porphyrins as a basis for real-time detection of fecal contamination on meat," J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 3502-3507 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, A. B.

G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, J.

H. W. Wang, J. Willis, M. I. F. Canto, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, "Quantitative laser scanning confocal autofluorescence microscopy of normal, premalignant, and malignant colonic tissues," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 46, 1246-1252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

R. S. DaCosta, H. Andersson, and B. C. Wilson, "Molecular fluorescence excitation-emission matrices relevant to tissue spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 384-392 (2003), http://eemdb.uhnres.utoronto.ca/cgi-bin/WebObjects/WebFluor.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zagainova, E. V.

R. V. Kuranov, V. V. Sapozhnikova, N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, E. V. Zagainova, and S. A. Petrova, "Combined application of optical methods to increase the information content of optical coherent tomography in diagnostics of neoplastic processes," Quantum Electron. 32, 993-998 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zonios, G. I.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

J. Chu, S. Chu, and M. H. Montrose, "Apical Na+/H+ exchange near the base of mouse colonic crypts," Am. J. Physiol. 283, C358-C372 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Dig. Dis. Sci. (2)

W. J. McLaren, P. Anikijenko, S. G. Thomas, P. M. Delaney, and R. G. King, "In vivo detection of morphological and microvasculature changes of the colon in association with colitis using fiberoptic confocal imaging," Dig. Dis. Sci. 47, 2424-2433 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract—toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (2)

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, "Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo, "Gastroenterology 127, 706-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, "Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105-111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Histochem. Cell Biol. (1)

K. Kataoka, E. Suzaki, and K. Komura, "The Golgi apparatus of goblet cells in the mouse descending colon: three-dimensional visualization using a confocal laser scanning microscope," Histochem. Cell Biol. 116, 329-335 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. (2)

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Wang, J. Willis, M. I. F. Canto, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, "Quantitative laser scanning confocal autofluorescence microscopy of normal, premalignant, and malignant colonic tissues," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. 46, 1246-1252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Agric. Food Chem. (1)

K. D. Ashby, J. Wen, P. Chowdhury, T. A. Casey, M. A. Rasmussen, and J. W. Petrich, "Fluorescence of dietary porphyrins as a basis for real-time detection of fecal contamination on meat," J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 3502-3507 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bio-Med. Opt. (1)

S. Neerken, G. W. Lucassen, M. A. Bisschop, E. Lenderink, and A. M. Nuijs, "Characterization of age-related effects in human skin: a comparative study that applies confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Bio-Med. Opt. 9, 274-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, "Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63-78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sun, E. Duzman, J. Mellot, L.-H. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, "Spectroscopic, morphologic, and cytotoxic studies on major fractions of hematoporphyrin derivative and photofrin II," Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 171-179 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, "Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system," Opt. Commun. 188, 267-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photochem. Photobiol. (2)

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 777-786 (1991).
[PubMed]

R. S. DaCosta, H. Andersson, and B. C. Wilson, "Molecular fluorescence excitation-emission matrices relevant to tissue spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 384-392 (2003), http://eemdb.uhnres.utoronto.ca/cgi-bin/WebObjects/WebFluor.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phytochem. (1)

L. Ma and D. Dolphin, "The metabolites of dietary chlorophylls," Phytochem. 50, 195-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, "Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection," in Biomedical Diagnostic, Guidance, and Surgical-Assist Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, and D. A. Benaron, eds., Proc. SPIE 4254, 23-30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Tumlinson, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, "Endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution OCT for in vivo imaging colon disease model mice," in Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, D. A. Benaron, and G. E. Cohn, eds., Proc. SPIE 5692, 307-315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Fu, C. T. Chia, C. L. Tang, C. H. Diong, and C. Seow, "Changes in in-vivo autofluorescence spectra at different periods in rat colorectal tumor progression," in Diagnostic Optical Spectroscopy in Biomedicine, T. G. Papazoglou and G. A. Wagnières, eds., Proc. SPIE 4432, 118-123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

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[PubMed]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the OCT–LIF system. The OCT superluminescent diode (SLD) source is passed to a 50:50 fiber beam splitter. The reference arm path travels to a collimator, through a neutral-density (ND) filter, and then retraces its path back to the beam splitter after reflection from a retroreflector. The sample arm path is coupled into the dual-modality endoscope, where the light is focused into and collected from the tissue. The light from the two paths is recombined at the beam splitter and travels to a detector. The detector signal is demodulated by a lock-in amplifier, and the data are collected and stored by the computer. The LIF He–Cd laser source is coupled into a multimode fiber and into the dual-modality endoscope. The excitation light illuminates the tissue, and two adjacent collection fibers in the endoscope collect the emission light and carry it to the CCD spectrometer, where the data are recorded by a computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Rendering of the OCT–LIF endoscope tip optics. The OCT channel consists of a single-mode fiber (F) centered on a GRIN lens (G) by a silica ferrule (SF). The GRIN lens focuses the light into a rod prism (R) that bends the beam at 90° through the silica window (W) and into the tissue. The LIF channel consists of three multimode, aluminized, fused-silica fibers. The He–Cd laser is coupled into the excitation channel (Ex). The rod prism (R) reflects the light through the silica window (W) onto the tissue. Autofluorescence from the tissue is collected by the two emission channel fibers (Em) that carry the signal to a spectrometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OCT and histology images of healthy colon. (a) In the OCT image the top reflective surface is the glass window (W) of the endoscope. The mucosa (M), mucosa–submucosa (M∕SM) boundary, and the submucosa–tunica media (SM∕TM) boundary are all clearly visible. Other tissue outside the colon [pancreas (P) and adipose tissue (Ad)] is visible. (b) Structure of the histology closely correlates with the OCT image. The pancreas and adipose tissue in the OCT image can also be seen in the histology.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) LSCM image (10×) of healthy colon. (b) En face histology image (10×) of healthy colon. In both images the regular, circular structure of the crypts is readily discernible. The diameter of the crypt structures in both the LSCM and the histology is in close agreement (of the order of 25–50 μm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

High-magnification (40×) LSCM image of healthy mouse colon. The cellular-level structure of the tissue is clearly visualized, with the cellular boundary characterized by areas of continuous heterogeneous fluorescence. The hypointense areas visible within some of the cells are nuclei. The bright autofluorescent signal from within the cells is an unknown fluorescent component, potentially other cellular organelles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OCT image (top) and corresponding LIF spectra (bottom) of healthy colon taken from a high-chlorophyll diet mouse. The LIF emission peaks at approximately 390 and 450 nm, with an absorption dip at 420 nm that is typical of healthy tissue. The presence of a distinct peak at approximately 680 nm is visible throughout the colon as well.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Average and standard deviation of absolute intensity of the LIF signal at 680 nm in normal-diet mice (1–9) and high-chlorophyll-diet mice (10–18).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) OCT image of colonic adenoma (A). Note the healthy, structured tissue immediately proximal and distal to the adenoma. The adenoma is characterized by a thickening of the mucosal layer and a loss of layered structure. Mucin-filled dilated crypts (DC) can be seen in the adenoma in the OCT image. (b) Corresponding histology. The histology of the adenoma is consistent with the structure seen in the OCT image, including the presence of the dilated crypts. Other abbreviations as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) LSCM image of an adenoma. The consistent crypt structure that characterizes the healthy colon tissue is not visible. The surface of the adenoma appears to have a number of folds. (b) The xy projection of a z stack taken at the edge of the adenoma. The adenoma is denoted by (A), and healthy tissue adjacent to the adenoma is denoted by (H). This LSCM image was taken over a depth of 1.3 mm at z steps of 50 μm to demonstrate the depth scale of the adenoma. The large z steps required to take the image resulted in the staircase appearance of the adenoma edge.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

OCT–LIF spectra of adenoma. The adenoma can be visualized in the OCT image (A). The corresponding LIF signal shows a significant reduction in the 390 and 450 nm signals and a peak in the 680 nm signal over the adenomatous region.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Mean and standard deviation of 680:390 nm, 680:450 nm, and 450:390 nm ratios for each of six groups of mice.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Variability of 390 and 450 nm signals in healthy ApcMin∕+ and C57 control mice. The C57 mice exhibit less variability than do the ApcMin∕+ mice across all diets.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 LIF Data Analysis Groups a

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Table 2 Modality Performance Comparison a

Equations (4)

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# true positives∕(# true positives
+ # false negatives),
# true negatives∕(# true negatives
+ # false positives).

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