Abstract

We use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure glucose-induced changes in Intralipid and in mouse skin samples in vitro. Mouse skin samples are cultured in a CO2 incubator before measurements are made with different amounts of added glucose concentrations. The results show that the glucose-induced changes in the OCT slope value vary between 20%  and  52%30mM glucose in different mouse skin samples. This change is much larger than the change in 2% Intralipid (2.1%/30  mM) and in 5% Intralipid (0.86%30mM). Hence the results show that OCT has potential to monitor glucose-induced changes in tissues in vitro.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005

M. Kinnunen, Z. Zhao, and R. Myllylä, "Comparison of the pulsed photoacoustic technique and the optical coherence tomography from the viewpoint of biomedical sensing," in The Fourth International Conference on Advanced Optical Materials and Devices (AOMD-4), A. Rosental, ed., Proc. SPIE 5946, 468-480 (2005).

2004

W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Ko, D. C. Adler, J. G. Fujimoto, D. Mamedov, V. Prokhorov, V. Shidlovski, and S. Yakubovich, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography imaging with a broadband superluminescent diode light source," Opt. Express 12, 2112-2119 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, "Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 2874-2883 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kirillin, A. V. Priezzhev, M. Kinnunen, E. Alarousu, Z. Zhao, J. Hast, and R. Myllylä, "Glucose sensing in aqueous Intralipid suspension with an optical coherence tomography system: experiment and Monte Carlo simulation," in Optical Diagnostics and Sensing IV, G. L. Cote and A. V. Priezzhev, eds., Proc. SPIE 5325, 164-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Alarousu, J. Hast, M. Kinnunen, M. Kirillin, R. Myllylä, J. Plucinski, A. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, T. Prykäri, J. Saarela, and Z. Zhao, "Noninvasive glucose sensing in scattering media using OCT, PAS and TOF techniques," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2003: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine V, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 5474, 33-41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kinnunen, A. P. Popov, J. Plucinski, R. Myllylä, and A. V. Priezzhev, "Measurements of glucose content in scattering media with time of flight technique; comparison with Monte Carlo simulations," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2003: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine V, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 5474, 181-191 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Larin, T. V. Ashitkov, I. Larina, I. Petrova, M. Eledrisi, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, "Optical coherence tomography and noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: a review," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2003: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine V, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 5474, 285-290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Larin, T. Akkin, R. O. Esenaliev, M. Motamedi, and T. E. Milner, "Phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry for the detection of analyte concentration," Appl. Opt. 43, 3408-3414 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. K. Wang and V. V. Tuchin, "Enhance light penetration in tissue for high resolution optical imaging techniques by the use of biocompatible chemical agents," in Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine VII, V. V. Tuchin, J. A. Izatt, and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4956, 314-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Zaccanti, S. Del Bianco, and F. Martelli, "Measurements of optical properties of high-density media," Appl. Opt. 42, 4023-4030 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bondani, D. Redaelli, A. Spinelli, A. Andreoni, G. Roberti, P. Riccio, R. Liuzzi, and I. Rech, "Photon time-of-flight distributions through turbid media directly measured with single-photon avalanche diodes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2383-2388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Giusto, R. Saija, M. A. Iati, P. Denti, F. Borghese, and O. I. Sindoni, "Optical properties of high-density dispersions of particles: application to intralipid solutions," Appl. Opt. 42, 4375-4380 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xu, C. Zhang, X. Wang, L. Zhang, and J. Tian, "Measurement and analysis of light distribution in Intralipid-10% at 650 nm," Appl. Opt. 42, 5777-5784 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, "Precision of measurement of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3027-3037 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriquez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, T. V. Ashitkov and R. O. Esenaliev, "Specificity of noninvasive blood glucose sensing using optical coherence tomography technique: a pilot study," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1371-1390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Bednov, E. V. Savateeva, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Glucose monitoring in whole blood by measuring laser-induced acoustic profiles," in Biomedical Optoacoustics IV, A. A. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE 4960, 21-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, M. S. Eledrisi, and R. O. Esenaliev, "Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with optical coherence tomography, a pilot study in human subjects," Diabetes Care 25, 2263-2267 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, "Signal degradation by multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: a Monte Carlo study towards optical clearing of biotissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2281-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and H. Chen, "The effects of different doses of glucose on scattering properties of skin," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2001: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine III, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 4707, 244-247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, and M. Motamedi, "Noninvasive monitoring of glucose concentration with optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 992-994 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Larin, I. Larina, M. Motamedi, V. Gelikonov, R. Kuranov, and R. Esenaliev, "Potential application of optical coherence tomography for non-invasive monitoring of glucose concentration," in Optical Diagnostics and Sensing of Biological Fluids and Glucose and Cholesterol Monitoring, A. V. Priezzhev and G. L. Cote, eds., Proc. SPIE 4263, 83-90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mateasik, F. Uherek, D. Jr. Chorvat, D. Tazka, and J. Kyselovic, "Imaging of mouse aorta using OCT," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2000: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine II, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 4241, 153-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. A. Bednov, A. A. Karabutov, E. V. Savateeva, W. F. March, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Monitoring glucose in vivo by measuring laser-induced acoustic profiles," in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. A. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE 3916, 9-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. McNichols and G. L. Coté, "Optical glucose sensing in biological fluids: an overview," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 5-16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Thrane, H. T. Yura, and P. E. Andersen, "Analysis of optical coherence tomography systems based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 484-490 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Malin, T. L. Ruchti, T. B. Blank, S. N. Thennadil, and S. L. Monfre, "Noninvasive prediction of glucose by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 45, 1651-1658 (1999).
[PubMed]

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, "Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing," Clin. Chem. 45, 1587-1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

A. J. Berger, T.-W. Koo, I. Itzkan, G. Horowitz, and M. S. Feld, "Multicomponent blood analysis by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 38, 2916-2926 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Chou, C.-Y. Han, W.-C. Kuo, Y.-C. Huang, C.-M. Feng, and J.-C. Shyu, "Noninvasive glucose monitoring in vivo with an optical heterodyne polarimeter," Appl. Opt. 37, 3553-3557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. King, R. E. Aubert, and W. H. Herman, "Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025. Prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections," Diabetes Care 21, 1414-1431 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

A. F. Amos, D. J. McCarty, and P. Zimmet, "The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010," Diabetes Med. 14, S7-S85 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Qu and B. C. Wilson, "Monte Carlo modeling studies of the effect of physiological factors and other analytes on the determination of glucose concentration in vivo by near infrared optical absorption and scattering measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 319-325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O'Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, "Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 943-950 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Arnold, "Non-invasive glucose monitoring," Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 7, 46-49 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Berger, Y. Wang, and M. S. Feld, "Rapid, noninvasive concentration measurements of aqueous biological analytes by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 35, 209-212 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. J. Goetz, G. L. Coté, R. Erckens, W. March, and M. Motamedi, "Application of a multivariate technique to Raman spectra for quantification of body chemicals," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 728-731 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Jensen, P. Bjerring, J. S. Christiansen, and H. Orskov, "Glucose content in human skin: relationship with blood glucose levels," Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 55, 427-432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, H. Liu, T. Kitai, and Y. Zhang, "Effects of solutes on optical properties of biological materials: models, cells, and tissues," Anal. Biochem. 227, 351-362 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, "The influence of glucose concentration upon the transport of light in tissue-simulating phantoms," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1267-1287 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, R. Birngruber, J. Rosperich, and R. Engelhardt, "Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis," Appl. Opt. 34, 6564-6574 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1993

G. B. Christison and H. A. MacKenzie, "Laser photoacoustic determination of physiological glucose concentrations in human whole blood," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 31, 284-290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Quan, G. B. Christison, H. A. MacKénzie, and P. Hodgson, "Glucose determination by a pulsed photoacoustic technique: an experimental study using a gelatin-based tissue phatom," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1911-1922 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Marbach, T. H. Koschinsky, F. A. Gries, and H. M. Heise, "Noninvasive blood glucose assay by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of the human inner lip," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 875-881 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510-519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm," Appl. Opt. 30, 4507-4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, and B.-C. Lin, "Blood glucose measurement by multiple attenuated total reflection and infrared absorption spectroscopy," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458-465 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Bartnik, W. F. Pittermann, N. Mendorf, U. Tillman, and K. Künstler, "Skin organ culture for the study of skin irritancy," Toxicol. In Vitro 4, 293-301 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. Zeller, P. Novak, and R. Landgraf, "Blood glucose measurement by infrared spectroscopy," Int. J. Artif. Organs 12, 129-135 (1989).
[PubMed]

J. C. Pickup, G. W. Shaw, and D. J. Claremont, "In vivo molecular sensing in diabetes mellitus: an inplantable glucose sensor with direct electron transfer," Diabetologia 32, 213-217 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

J. Kao, J. Hall, and J. M. Holland, "Quantitation of cutaneous toxicity: an in vitro approach using skin organ culture," Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 68, 206-217 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Akkin, T.

Alarousu, E.

M. Kirillin, A. V. Priezzhev, M. Kinnunen, E. Alarousu, Z. Zhao, J. Hast, and R. Myllylä, "Glucose sensing in aqueous Intralipid suspension with an optical coherence tomography system: experiment and Monte Carlo simulation," in Optical Diagnostics and Sensing IV, G. L. Cote and A. V. Priezzhev, eds., Proc. SPIE 5325, 164-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Alarousu, J. Hast, M. Kinnunen, M. Kirillin, R. Myllylä, J. Plucinski, A. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, T. Prykäri, J. Saarela, and Z. Zhao, "Noninvasive glucose sensing in scattering media using OCT, PAS and TOF techniques," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2003: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine V, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 5474, 33-41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Amos, A. F.

A. F. Amos, D. J. McCarty, and P. Zimmet, "The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010," Diabetes Med. 14, S7-S85 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, P. E.

Andreoni, A.

Arnold, M. A.

M. A. Arnold, "Non-invasive glucose monitoring," Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 7, 46-49 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashitkov, T. V.

K. V. Larin, T. V. Ashitkov, I. Larina, I. Petrova, M. Eledrisi, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, "Optical coherence tomography and noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: a review," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2003: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine V, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 5474, 285-290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, T. V. Ashitkov and R. O. Esenaliev, "Specificity of noninvasive blood glucose sensing using optical coherence tomography technique: a pilot study," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1371-1390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashton, H. S.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, "Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing," Clin. Chem. 45, 1587-1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

H. S. Ashton, H. A. MacKenzie, P. Rae, Y. C. Shen, S. Spiers, and J. Lindberg, "Blood glucose measurements by photoacoustics," in Proceedings of CP463, Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena: 10th International Conference, F.Scudieri and M.Bertolotti, eds. (AIP, 1999), pp. 570-572.
[CrossRef]

Aubert, R. E.

H. King, R. E. Aubert, and W. H. Herman, "Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025. Prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections," Diabetes Care 21, 1414-1431 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartnik, F. G.

F. G. Bartnik, W. F. Pittermann, N. Mendorf, U. Tillman, and K. Künstler, "Skin organ culture for the study of skin irritancy," Toxicol. In Vitro 4, 293-301 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. K.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriquez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bednov, A. A.

A. A. Bednov, E. V. Savateeva, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Glucose monitoring in whole blood by measuring laser-induced acoustic profiles," in Biomedical Optoacoustics IV, A. A. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE 4960, 21-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bednov, A. A. Karabutov, E. V. Savateeva, W. F. March, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Monitoring glucose in vivo by measuring laser-induced acoustic profiles," in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. A. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE 3916, 9-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berger, A. J.

Birngruber, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pan, R. Birngruber, J. Rosperich, and R. Engelhardt, "Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis," Appl. Opt. 34, 6564-6574 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjerring, P.

B. M. Jensen, P. Bjerring, J. S. Christiansen, and H. Orskov, "Glucose content in human skin: relationship with blood glucose levels," Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 55, 427-432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blank, T. B.

S. F. Malin, T. L. Ruchti, T. B. Blank, S. N. Thennadil, and S. L. Monfre, "Noninvasive prediction of glucose by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 45, 1651-1658 (1999).
[PubMed]

Boccara, C.

Böcker, D.

Bondani, M.

Boppart, S. A.

Borghese, F.

Chan, E. K.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O'Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, "Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 943-950 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

B. Chance, H. Liu, T. Kitai, and Y. Zhang, "Effects of solutes on optical properties of biological materials: models, cells, and tissues," Anal. Biochem. 227, 351-362 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Y. Zhang, M. Kimura, and B. Chance, "Theoretical and experimental investigation on solute-induced changes in optical properties in living tissues," in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, E.Sevick-Muraca and D.Benaron, eds., Vol. 3 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 10-12.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and H. Chen, "The effects of different doses of glucose on scattering properties of skin," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2001: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine III, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 4707, 244-247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chorvat, D.

A. Mateasik, F. Uherek, D. Jr. Chorvat, D. Tazka, and J. Kyselovic, "Imaging of mouse aorta using OCT," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2000: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine II, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 4241, 153-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.

Christiansen, J. S.

B. M. Jensen, P. Bjerring, J. S. Christiansen, and H. Orskov, "Glucose content in human skin: relationship with blood glucose levels," Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 55, 427-432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christison, G. B.

G. B. Christison and H. A. MacKenzie, "Laser photoacoustic determination of physiological glucose concentrations in human whole blood," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 31, 284-290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Quan, G. B. Christison, H. A. MacKénzie, and P. Hodgson, "Glucose determination by a pulsed photoacoustic technique: an experimental study using a gelatin-based tissue phatom," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1911-1922 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claremont, D. J.

J. C. Pickup, G. W. Shaw, and D. J. Claremont, "In vivo molecular sensing in diabetes mellitus: an inplantable glucose sensor with direct electron transfer," Diabetologia 32, 213-217 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clermont, A. C.

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, and B.-C. Lin, "Blood glucose measurement by multiple attenuated total reflection and infrared absorption spectroscopy," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458-465 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, "The influence of glucose concentration upon the transport of light in tissue-simulating phantoms," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1267-1287 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl, M. Cope, M. Essenpreis, and D. Böcker, "Influence of glucose concentration on light scattering in tissue-simulating phantoms," Opt. Lett. 19, 2170-2172 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coté, G. L.

R. J. McNichols and G. L. Coté, "Optical glucose sensing in biological fluids: an overview," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 5-16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Goetz, G. L. Coté, R. Erckens, W. March, and M. Motamedi, "Application of a multivariate technique to Raman spectra for quantification of body chemicals," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 728-731 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del Bianco, S.

Denti, P.

Drexler, W.

Dubois, A.

Eledrisi, M.

K. V. Larin, T. V. Ashitkov, I. Larina, I. Petrova, M. Eledrisi, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, "Optical coherence tomography and noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: a review," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2003: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine V, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 5474, 285-290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eledrisi, M. S.

K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, M. S. Eledrisi, and R. O. Esenaliev, "Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with optical coherence tomography, a pilot study in human subjects," Diabetes Care 25, 2263-2267 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelhardt, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pan, R. Birngruber, J. Rosperich, and R. Engelhardt, "Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis," Appl. Opt. 34, 6564-6574 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erckens, R.

M. J. Goetz, G. L. Coté, R. Erckens, W. March, and M. Motamedi, "Application of a multivariate technique to Raman spectra for quantification of body chemicals," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 728-731 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esenaliev, R.

K. Larin, I. Larina, M. Motamedi, V. Gelikonov, R. Kuranov, and R. Esenaliev, "Potential application of optical coherence tomography for non-invasive monitoring of glucose concentration," in Optical Diagnostics and Sensing of Biological Fluids and Glucose and Cholesterol Monitoring, A. V. Priezzhev and G. L. Cote, eds., Proc. SPIE 4263, 83-90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Esenaliev, R. O.

K. V. Larin, T. V. Ashitkov, I. Larina, I. Petrova, M. Eledrisi, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, "Optical coherence tomography and noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: a review," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2003: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine V, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 5474, 285-290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Larin, T. Akkin, R. O. Esenaliev, M. Motamedi, and T. E. Milner, "Phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry for the detection of analyte concentration," Appl. Opt. 43, 3408-3414 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, "Precision of measurement of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3027-3037 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, T. V. Ashitkov and R. O. Esenaliev, "Specificity of noninvasive blood glucose sensing using optical coherence tomography technique: a pilot study," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1371-1390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, M. S. Eledrisi, and R. O. Esenaliev, "Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with optical coherence tomography, a pilot study in human subjects," Diabetes Care 25, 2263-2267 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, and M. Motamedi, "Noninvasive monitoring of glucose concentration with optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 992-994 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Essenpreis, M.

M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, "The influence of glucose concentration upon the transport of light in tissue-simulating phantoms," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1267-1287 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl, M. Cope, M. Essenpreis, and D. Böcker, "Influence of glucose concentration on light scattering in tissue-simulating phantoms," Opt. Lett. 19, 2170-2172 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

Feld, M. S.

Feng, C.-M.

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510-519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

Freeborn, S. S.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, "Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing," Clin. Chem. 45, 1587-1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

T. H. Ko, D. C. Adler, J. G. Fujimoto, D. Mamedov, V. Prokhorov, V. Shidlovski, and S. Yakubovich, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography imaging with a broadband superluminescent diode light source," Opt. Express 12, 2112-2119 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galanzha, E. I.

E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and H. Chen, "The effects of different doses of glucose on scattering properties of skin," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2001: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine III, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 4707, 244-247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gelikonov, V.

K. Larin, I. Larina, M. Motamedi, V. Gelikonov, R. Kuranov, and R. Esenaliev, "Potential application of optical coherence tomography for non-invasive monitoring of glucose concentration," in Optical Diagnostics and Sensing of Biological Fluids and Glucose and Cholesterol Monitoring, A. V. Priezzhev and G. L. Cote, eds., Proc. SPIE 4263, 83-90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giusto, A.

Goetz, M. J.

M. J. Goetz, G. L. Coté, R. Erckens, W. March, and M. Motamedi, "Application of a multivariate technique to Raman spectra for quantification of body chemicals," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 728-731 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossage, K. W.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriquez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gries, F. A.

Grieve, K.

Hall, J.

J. Kao, J. Hall, and J. M. Holland, "Quantitation of cutaneous toxicity: an in vitro approach using skin organ culture," Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 68, 206-217 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, C.-Y.

Hannigan, J.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, "Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing," Clin. Chem. 45, 1587-1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hast, J.

M. Kirillin, A. V. Priezzhev, M. Kinnunen, E. Alarousu, Z. Zhao, J. Hast, and R. Myllylä, "Glucose sensing in aqueous Intralipid suspension with an optical coherence tomography system: experiment and Monte Carlo simulation," in Optical Diagnostics and Sensing IV, G. L. Cote and A. V. Priezzhev, eds., Proc. SPIE 5325, 164-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Alarousu, J. Hast, M. Kinnunen, M. Kirillin, R. Myllylä, J. Plucinski, A. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, T. Prykäri, J. Saarela, and Z. Zhao, "Noninvasive glucose sensing in scattering media using OCT, PAS and TOF techniques," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2003: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine V, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 5474, 33-41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M.

M. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heise, H. M.

Herman, W. H.

H. King, R. E. Aubert, and W. H. Herman, "Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025. Prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections," Diabetes Care 21, 1414-1431 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hodgson, P.

K. M. Quan, G. B. Christison, H. A. MacKénzie, and P. Hodgson, "Glucose determination by a pulsed photoacoustic technique: an experimental study using a gelatin-based tissue phatom," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1911-1922 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holland, J. M.

J. Kao, J. Hall, and J. M. Holland, "Quantitation of cutaneous toxicity: an in vitro approach using skin organ culture," Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 68, 206-217 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horowitz, G.

Huang, D.

M. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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E. Alarousu, J. Hast, M. Kinnunen, M. Kirillin, R. Myllylä, J. Plucinski, A. Popov, A. V. Priezzhev, T. Prykäri, J. Saarela, and Z. Zhao, "Noninvasive glucose sensing in scattering media using OCT, PAS and TOF techniques," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2003: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine V, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 5474, 33-41 (2004).
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M. Kinnunen, A. P. Popov, J. Plucinski, R. Myllylä, and A. V. Priezzhev, "Measurements of glucose content in scattering media with time of flight technique; comparison with Monte Carlo simulations," in Saratov Fall Meeting 2003: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine V, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE 5474, 181-191 (2004).
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Priezzhev, A. V.

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Protsenko, D.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the measurement setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) OCT signal profiles from Intralipid suspensions. (b) Effect of increasing Intralipid concentration on the OCT signal slope value. (c) Effect of glucose on the OCT signal slope value in 2 % Intralipid. (d) Effect of glucose on the OCT signal slope value in 5 % Intralipid.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Example of the OCT image from mouse skin sample. (b) One-dimensional depth profile of the OCT signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results show the effect of glucose on the OCT signal slope in two different mouse skin tissue samples measured on a heating plate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of glucose on the OCT signal slope value in mouse skin samples.

Equations (3)

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I d ( τ ) = I s + I r + 2 ( I s I r ) 1 / 2 | V t c ( τ ) | cos ( 2 π υ τ ) ,
I = I 0 exp ( μ t z ) .
SNR = [ 10 log ( η P ) ] / ( E P NEB ) ,

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