Abstract

In this Letter we show how resolution enhancement and autofocusing in digital holographic microscopy is obtained by using structured illumination generated by a spatial light modulator, which enables it to project fringes of different orientations and phase shift without mechanical movement. The image plane is numerically determined by searching for the minimal deviation between the reconstructed images carried by different diffraction orders of the structured illuminations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13081 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Liebling and M. Unser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 2424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrov, S. A.

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge University, 1999).

Brueck, S. R. J.

Callens, N.

Dan, D.

Davis, C. S.

Dirksen, D.

Dubois, F.

Eigenthaler, U.

Faridian, A.

Gao, P.

García, J.

Guo, R.

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13081 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gutzler, T.

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harder, I.

Hillman, T. R.

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirscher, M.

Hopp, D.

Hu, Q.

Hussain, A.

Kemper, B.

Kuznetsova, Y.

Langehanenberg, P.

Lei, M.

Li, W.

Liebling, M.

M. Liebling and M. Unser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 2424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loomis, N. C.

Ma, B.

Ma, J.

Mantel, K.

Mico, V.

Min, J.

Mudassar, A.-A.

Nercissian, V.

Osten, W.

Pedrini, G.

Reingand, N.

W. Osten and N. Reingand, Optical Imaging and Metrology (Wiley-VCH, 2010).

Sampson, D. D.

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schockaert, C.

Schwarz, C. J.

Situ, G.

Unser, M.

M. Liebling and M. Unser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 2424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

von Bally, G.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge University, 1999).

Yan, S.

Yao, B.

Ye, T.

Yourassowsky, C.

Yuan, C.

Zalevsky, Z.

Zheng, J.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Microsc. (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

M. Liebling and M. Unser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 2424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13081 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge University, 1999).

W. Osten and N. Reingand, Optical Imaging and Metrology (Wiley-VCH, 2010).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematics of the DHM setup. L1L2 telescope system for expanding the beam. L3MO1: telescope system for projecting the pattern on the object. MO2L4 and L5L6, telescope systems for magnifying the object and reference waves, and relaying them to the CCD; (b) Four groups of fringe patterns loaded in the SLM; and (c) Frequency spectrum of the generated hologram where the primary image is composed of three copies of the object waves, generated by the 0th, 1st, and 1st orders of the illumination, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematics of the synthetic aperture; the white arrows denote the illumination direction.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results for resolution enhancement: (a) off-axis hologram; (b), (c) reconstructed phase images by using plane wave illumination and structured illumination; and (d) the phase distributions along the two lines drawn in (b) and (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental results for autofocusing: (a) focus criterions by amplitude variation (VAR) [10] and the proposed method and (b) reconstructed phase (radiants/2π) with Δz=3.2cm.

Equations (6)

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Ψmn(x,y,Δz)=IFT{FT{Imn·RD}·Wf·H},
Ψmn=γ1exp(inα)Am,1+γ0Am,0+γ1exp(inα)Am,1,
[Am,1Am,0Am,1]=[γ1exp(iα)γ0γ1exp(iα)γ1exp(i2α)γ0γ1exp(i2α)γ1exp(i3α)γ0γ1exp(i3α)]1·[Ψm1Ψm2Ψm3].
{Om,1=Am,1/exp{iK[cos(mπ/4)x+sin(mπ/4)y]},Om,0=Am,0,Om,1=Am,1/exp{iK[cos(mπ/4)x+sin(mπ/4)y]},
δ=κ1λsinΘ+sinθillum,
Cri(Δz)=m=14RMS{|Om,+1|+|Om,1|2|Om,0|}MO+m=14RMS{φm,+1+φm,12φm,0}Mφ,

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