Abstract

We applied a visible-light spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) for in vivo retinal oximetry. To extract hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) in individual retinal vessels, we established a comprehensive analytical model to describe optical absorption, optical scattering, and blood cell packing factor in the whole blood and fit the acquired vis-OCT signals from the bottom of each imaged vessel. We found that averaged sO2 values in arterial and venous bloods were 95% and 72%, respectively.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152 (2003).
  2. H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C.-W. Lu, C.-K. Lee, M.-T. Tsai, Y.-M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, Opt. Lett. 33, 416 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1015 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. E. Robles, S. Chowdhury, and A. Wax, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 310 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, Nat. Photonics 5, 744 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Yi and X. Li, Opt. Lett. 35, 2094 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 028102 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 25, 820 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. T. Wu, J. Y. Qu, and M. Xu, Opt. Lett. 32, 2324 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Yi and V. Backman, Opt. Lett. 37, 4443 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Twersky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1084 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Schmitt and G. Kumar, Appl. Opt. 37, 2788 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, Nat. Photonics 5, 744 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Wu, J. Y. Qu, and M. Xu, Opt. Lett. 32, 2324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152 (2003).

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1970 (1)

Aalders, M. C. G.

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

Chowdhury, S.

Dinn, R. B.

A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152 (2003).

Faber, D. J.

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gabriele, M. L.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grant, G.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, Nat. Photonics 5, 744 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harris, A.

A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152 (2003).

Hitzenberger, C.

Hooper, B. A.

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kagemann, L.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152 (2003).

Kowalczyk, A.

Kumar, G.

Lee, C.-K.

Leitgeb, R.

Li, X.

Lu, C.-W.

Maslov, K.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mik, E. G.

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qu, J. Y.

Rechtman, E.

A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152 (2003).

Robles, F. E.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, Nat. Photonics 5, 744 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Robles, S. Chowdhury, and A. Wax, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schuman, J. S.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V. J.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sticker, M.

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, K. A.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-T.

Twersky, V.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-M.

Wax, A.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, Nat. Photonics 5, 744 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Robles, S. Chowdhury, and A. Wax, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, C.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, Nat. Photonics 5, 744 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 25, 820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wollstein, G.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. T.

Xu, M.

Yang, C. C.

Yi, J.

Zhang, H. F.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, Nat. Photonics 5, 744 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging (1)

A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 028102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of vis-OCT retinal oximetry. (a) A typical in vivo B-scan image of a pigmented rat eye using inversed contrast; (b), (c) by STFT, OCT spectra from the bottom of a vessel wall were extracted; and (d) illustration of reflection spectra from artery and vein (red and blue), from which LS fit can be performed to estimate sO2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental system. (a) Schematic of the free-space vis-OCT. Lens L1 and L2 relay the beam onto the pupil. BS, beam splitter; REF, reference mirror; DC, dispersion control. (b) Illumination spectrum, and (c) theoretical and experimental axial resolutions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Spectrum of μ with different values of blood cell packing factor W in whole blood. The spectra were normalized to their respective maximum values. The sO2 is set to be 90%. (b) Mean sO2 values, and (c) averaged LS spectral fitting residuals from all the arteries (A) and veins (V). Error bar=standard deviation. (d) Examples of spectral data from an artery (red) and a vein (blue).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

In vivo experimental results. (a) vis-OCT fundus image. The white circle highlights a circular scanning trajectory for the B-scan image shown in panel c. (b) Fused vasculature image and sO2 map in major vessels, (d) individual quantification of sO2 in every vessel shown in panel c, and (e) the average arterial and venous sO2 values. Error bar=standard deviation. Bar=200um.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I2=I02R0rexp[2ndμHbO2(sO2)2ndμHb(1sO2)],
ln(I(λ)I0(λ))=nd[sO2·μHbO2(λ)+(1sO2)·μHb(λ)]12αln(λ)+12ln(AR0).

Metrics