Abstract

We show that the polarization state of coherent light propagating through an optically thick multiple scattering medium can be controlled by wavefront shaping, that is, by controlling only the spatial phase of the incoming field with a spatial light modulator. Any polarization state of light at any spatial position behind the scattering medium can be attained with this technique. Thus, transforming the random medium to an arbitrary optical polarization component becomes possible.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Li, G. Yao, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 307(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Webster, T. D. Gerke, A. M. Weiner, and K. J. Webb, Opt. Lett. 29, 1491 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Fink, Phys. Today 50(3), 34 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, Opt. Lett. 32, 2309 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 103901 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, Nat. Commun. 2, 447 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Small, O. Katz, Y. Guan, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 37, 3429 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Freund, Phys. A 168, 49 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Lemoult, G. Lerosey, J. Rosny, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 173902 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. W. Kohlgraf-Owens and A. Dogariu, Opt. Lett. 35, 2236 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Small, O. Katz, Y. Guan, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 37, 3429 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 103901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, Nat. Commun. 2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

T. W. Kohlgraf-Owens and A. Dogariu, Opt. Lett. 35, 2236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

F. Lemoult, G. Lerosey, J. Rosny, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 173902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2004

2002

J. Li, G. Yao, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 307(2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Fink, Phys. Today 50(3), 34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990

I. Freund, Phys. A 168, 49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aulbach, J.

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 103901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Austin, D. R.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, Nat. Commun. 2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bondareff, P.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, Nat. Commun. 2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bromberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chatel, B.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, Nat. Commun. 2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

Feld, M. S.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fink, M.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Lemoult, G. Lerosey, J. Rosny, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 173902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fink, Phys. Today 50(3), 34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Freund, I.

I. Freund, Phys. A 168, 49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gerke, T. D.

Gigan, S.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, Nat. Commun. 2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gjonaj, B.

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 103901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guan, Y.

Johnson, P. M.

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 103901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Katz, O.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Small, O. Katz, Y. Guan, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 37, 3429 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kohlgraf-Owens, T. W.

Lagendijk, A.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 103901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lemoult, F.

F. Lemoult, G. Lerosey, J. Rosny, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 173902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lerosey, G.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Lemoult, G. Lerosey, J. Rosny, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 173902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, G. Yao, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 307(2002).
[CrossRef]

McCabe, D. J.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, Nat. Commun. 2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mosk, A. P.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 103901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, Opt. Lett. 32, 2309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Popoff, S. M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rosny, J.

F. Lemoult, G. Lerosey, J. Rosny, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 173902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Small, O. Katz, Y. Guan, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 37, 3429 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Small, E.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Small, O. Katz, Y. Guan, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 37, 3429 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tajalli, A.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, Nat. Commun. 2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vellekoop, I. M.

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, Opt. Lett. 32, 2309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, Nat. Commun. 2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

J. Li, G. Yao, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 307(2002).
[CrossRef]

Webb, K. J.

Webster, M. A.

Weiner, A. M.

Yang, C.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, G.

J. Li, G. Yao, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 307(2002).
[CrossRef]

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Li, G. Yao, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 307(2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, Nat. Commun. 2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. A

I. Freund, Phys. A 168, 49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Lemoult, G. Lerosey, J. Rosny, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 173902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 103901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today

M. Fink, Phys. Today 50(3), 34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for controlling the polarization states of scattered light. A wavefront-shaped beam is focused on a multiple scattering medium (SM, a 15 μm thick ZrO2 layer). The polarization of scattered light is analyzed using a polarizer (P) and a CCD camera. A QWP is used to optimize to a circularly-polarized state. Inset: scanning electron microscope image of ZrO2 layer. Scale bar: 500 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured intensity patterns of the scattered light at horizontal and vertical polarization components before and after optimization for three different experiments, optimizing toward vertical, horizontal, and circular polarization, and the measured polarization ellipse for a few chosen speckles. At each column (experiment) the images are displayed after normalization with the same factor. (a), (b) Intensity patterns of the scattered light before optimization [flat-phase SLM; the normalization factor is 500 times smaller than that of (d) and (e), (g) and (h), and (j) and (k)]. (c) Polarization states of the speckles A, B, and C indicated in (a). (d) and (e), (g) and (h), and (j) and (k) Intensity patterns of the scattered light optimized to vertical, horizontal and circular polarization, respectively. (f), (i), and (l) Polarization states of the optimized beam. Scale bar: 200 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Intensity measurements of the speckles A, B, and C of Fig. 1(a) at different polarizations by rotating the polarizer. The result demonstrates that these speckles are in the different polarization states. (b) Intensity measurement of the light beam optimized to vertical, horizontal, and circular polarization in Figs. 1(d) through 1(l); the QWP’s best performance is also shown. All intensities are normalized to arbitrary units, indicated by the black solid line.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Simultaneous optimization of four linearly polarized speckles to the same linear polarization state at 45° to the input polarization. Inset: Phase pattern put on the SLM to form (a). (b) Measured polarization ellipse of the speckle marked as A in (a). Scale bar: 200 μm.

Metrics