Abstract

An auto-focusing method for digital holographic microscopy has been proposed by employing two off-axis illumination beams. When specimens are illuminated by two plane waves in different directions, it is found that the farther the reconstruction plane is from the image plane, the wider the two reconstructed images are separated from each other. Thus, the image plane can be determinated by finding the minimum of the variation between the two reconstructed object waves on both the amplitude and phase distributions. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by the corresponding simulation and experiment.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (5)

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

2004 (2)

L. Ma, H. Wang, Y. Li, and H. Jin, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Liebling and M. Unser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1989 (1)

J. Gillespie and R. A. King, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 9, 19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Antkowiak, M.

Badizadegan, K.

Bally, G.

Beghuin, D.

Benkouider, A.

Brueck, S. R. J.

Cai, L.

Callens, N.

Coëtmellec, S.

Colomb, T.

Cuche, E.

Dahlgren, P.

Dan, D.

Daneshpanah, M.

Dasari, R.

Davis, C. S.

Depeursinge, C.

Dirksen, D.

Dubois, F.

Feld, M.

Ferreira, C.

Gao, P.

García, J.

Geist, E.

Gillespie, J.

J. Gillespie and R. A. King, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 9, 19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

Harder, I.

Hu, Q.

Itoh, M.

Javidi, B.

Jin, H.

L. Ma, H. Wang, Y. Li, and H. Jin, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katz, J.

Kemper, B.

Kim, D. Y.

King, R. A.

J. Gillespie and R. A. King, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 9, 19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsova, Y.

Langehanenberg, P.

Lebrun, D.

Lee, J. Y.

Lee, S.

Lei, M.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

L. Ma, H. Wang, Y. Li, and H. Jin, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liebling, M.

Lindlein, N.

Loomis, N. C.

Ma, B.

Ma, L.

L. Ma, H. Wang, Y. Li, and H. Jin, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malek, M.

Malkiel, E.

Mantel, K.

Marquet, P.

Mico, V.

Min, J.

Moon, I.

Park, Y.

Popescu, G.

Rupp, R.

Schockaert, C.

Schwarz, C. J.

Sheng, J.

Tachiki, M. L.

Unser, M.

von Bally, G.

Wang, H.

L. Ma, H. Wang, Y. Li, and H. Jin, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, S.

Yang, W.

Yao, B.

Yatagail, T.

Ye, T.

Yeom, S.

Yourassowsky, C.

Yu, L.

Zalevsky, Z.

Zheng, J.

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

L. Ma, H. Wang, Y. Li, and H. Jin, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Pattern Recogn. Lett. (1)

J. Gillespie and R. A. King, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 9, 19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of off-axis illumination of digital holographic microscopy; S and S denote object plane and image plane; O1 and O2, two object waves under different illumination directions; R, reference wave.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation results for autofocusing of DHM; (a) hologram of a specimen with both amplitude and phase modulations under two illuminations and (b) focus criterion versus the reconstruction distance Δz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup; NF1 and NF2, neutral variable attenuators; BS1BS4, nonpolarizing cube beam-splitters; BE1 and BE2, beam expanders; MO, MO with magnification 40× and NA=0.65; L: achromatic lens with focal length fL=100mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental results on a rectangular phase-step; (a) hologram IH(x,y) and (b) frequency spectrum of IH(x,y).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental results for DHM autofocusing for a microscopic rectangular phase-step: (a)–(d) A1A2 in planes with the reconstruction distances Δz=0cm, 0.5cm, 10cm and 15cm, respectively; (e)–(h) φ1φ2 in planes with Δz=0cm, 0.5cm, 10cm, and 15cm respectively; (i) focus criterion versus reconstructed distance; (j) reconstructed phase distribution (unit: 2π) with Δz=15cm.

Equations (3)

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IH=|O1+Rx|2+|O2+Ry|2.
{O1=IFT{FT{IHRD}·W1·H}/exp(iksinθ1x),O2=IFT{FT{IHRD}·W2·H}/exp(iksinθ1x).
Cri=RMS{φ1φ2}M1+RMS{A1A2}M2,

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