Abstract

We demonstrate that the conventional optical signal in near-field scanning optical microscopy and the optical force induced topography contain complementary information about the complex three-dimensional field distribution. Crucially, the additional information about the field distribution can be retrieved without increasing the measurement complexity.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, and L. Kuipers, Science 326, 550 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011807 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Pearson, 1999).
  6. M. Šiler and P. Zemánek, J.Opt. 13, 044016 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2012).
  8. Numerical simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics indicate that the results do not change qualitatively for larger particles or due to plasmonic effects.
  9. D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Opt. Lett. 36, 4758 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Šiler and P. Zemánek, J.Opt. 13, 044016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Opt. Lett. 36, 4758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, and L. Kuipers, Science 326, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bak, W. S.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bao, K.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C.

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2012).

Burresi, M.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, and L. Kuipers, Science 326, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Opt. Lett. 36, 4758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eah, S. H.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fukuma, T.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, D. J.

D. J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Pearson, 1999).

Halas, N. J.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D.

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2012).

Kampfrath, T.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, and L. Kuipers, Science 326, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, H. W.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, J. E.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Q. H.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kohlgraf-Owens, D. C.

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Opt. Lett. 36, 4758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koo, S. M.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, and L. Kuipers, Science 326, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lienau, C.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matsushige, K.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, N. K.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Satoh, N.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schoenmaker, H.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, and L. Kuipers, Science 326, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Šiler, M.

M. Šiler and P. Zemánek, J.Opt. 13, 044016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, S.

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Opt. Lett. 36, 4758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Oosten, D.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, and L. Kuipers, Science 326, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zemánek, P.

M. Šiler and P. Zemánek, J.Opt. 13, 044016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.Opt. (1)

M. Šiler and P. Zemánek, J.Opt. 13, 044016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, Nat. Commun. 2, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, and L. Kuipers, Science 326, 550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Pearson, 1999).

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2012).

Numerical simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics indicate that the results do not change qualitatively for larger particles or due to plasmonic effects.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of experiment.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Topography (force gradient) when (a) TE and (b) TM polarized light is incident on the prism surface, and (c) and (d) are the same for the NSOM signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Averaged height of optically induced topography (solid red lines) and NSOM signal (dashed blue lines) for (a) TE polarization and (b) TM polarization.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated NSOM signals (dashed blue lines) and gradient of the force signals, which are nonlinearly related to the topography (solid red lines) for (a) TE and (b) TM polarization.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ex=(2i/n21)t21,TMt43,TME0,TMsin2(θ3)n212cos(γx)exp(βz)Ey=2t21,TEt43,TEE0,TEcos(γx)exp(βz)Ez=(2i/n21)t21,TMt43,TME0,TMsin(θ3)sin(γx)exp(βz),
INSOM_TE|Ey|2cos2(θ4)INSOM_TM[|Ex|2+|Ez|2sin2(θ4)].
pTE=ε0[y^(αycos2(θ4)+αzsin2(θ4))Ey+z^cos(θ4)sin(θ4)(αyαz)Ey]pTM=ε0[x^αxEx+y^cos(θ4)sin(θ4)(αyαz)Ez+z^(αzcos2(θ4)+αysin2(θ4))Ez],
(Fzz)TE=2β2ε0|Ey|2Re(αycos2(θ4)+αzsin2(θ4))(Fzz)TM=2β2ε0|Ex|2Re(αx)+|Ez|2Re(αzcos2(θ4)+αysin2(θ4)).

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