Abstract

Biomimetic compound eyes with a high numerical aperture on a curved surface were successfully fabricated by intelligent integration of traditional top-down and bottom-up micro- and nanofabrication methods together. In addition, the new hybrid micro- and nanofabrication method allows us to fabricate the antireflective nanostructures on each ommatidium to increase its vision sensitivity by improving the light transmission. The fabricated compound eye was optically characterized and was shown to have a numerical aperture of 0.77 for each ommatidium. Furthermore, it is shown that the transmission of the compound eye can be improved by 2.3% for the wavelength of 632.8 nm and a clearer image can be formed by the fabricated compound eye with antireflective nanostructures compared with that without antireflective nanostructures. In addition, the developed hybrid manufacturing method can be adapted to the fabrication of other complex micro- and nanodevices for photonics or other research areas.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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X. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, Adv. Mater. 19, 2213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. H. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, and L. P. Lee, Science 312, 557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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2004

M. Franz, J. Chahl, and H. Krapp, J. Neural Computation. 16, 2245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Duparré, P. Dannberg, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Opt. 43, 4302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

M. V. Srinivasan, S. Zhang, M. Altwein, and J. Tautz, Science 287, 851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1980

M. F. Land, Nature 287, 681 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

G. A. Horridge, Scientific American 237, 108 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Altwein, M.

M. V. Srinivasan, S. Zhang, M. Altwein, and J. Tautz, Science 287, 851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boeddeker, N.

W. Sturzl, N. Boeddeker, L. Dittmar, and M. Egelhaaf, Bioinspir. Biomim. 5, 036002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, A.

J. W. Duparré, P. Dannberg, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Opt. 43, 4302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chahl, J.

M. Franz, J. Chahl, and H. Krapp, J. Neural Computation. 16, 2245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dannberg, P.

J. W. Duparré, P. Dannberg, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Opt. 43, 4302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dittmar, L.

W. Sturzl, N. Boeddeker, L. Dittmar, and M. Egelhaaf, Bioinspir. Biomim. 5, 036002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, J. W.

J. W. Duparré, P. Dannberg, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Opt. 43, 4302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Egelhaaf, M.

W. Sturzl, N. Boeddeker, L. Dittmar, and M. Egelhaaf, Bioinspir. Biomim. 5, 036002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Franz, M.

M. Franz, J. Chahl, and H. Krapp, J. Neural Computation. 16, 2245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

X. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, Adv. Mater. 19, 2213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horridge, G. A.

G. A. Horridge, Scientific American 237, 108 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ichioka, Y.

Ishida, K.

Jeong, K. H.

Jiang, L.

X. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, Adv. Mater. 19, 2213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H.

Kim, J. Y.

K. H. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, and L. P. Lee, Science 312, 557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, Opt. Lett. 30, 5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kondou, N.

Krapp, H.

M. Franz, J. Chahl, and H. Krapp, J. Neural Computation. 16, 2245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, T.

Land, M. F.

M. F. Land, Nature 287, 681 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

K. H. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, and L. P. Lee, Science 312, 557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, Opt. Lett. 30, 5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Lee and R. Szema, Science 310, 1148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miyatake, S.

Miyazaki, D.

Morimoto, T.

Schreiber, P.

J. W. Duparré, P. Dannberg, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Opt. 43, 4302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, M. V.

M. V. Srinivasan, S. Zhang, M. Altwein, and J. Tautz, Science 287, 851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sturzl, W.

W. Sturzl, N. Boeddeker, L. Dittmar, and M. Egelhaaf, Bioinspir. Biomim. 5, 036002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Szema, R.

L. P. Lee and R. Szema, Science 310, 1148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanida, J.

Tautz, J.

M. V. Srinivasan, S. Zhang, M. Altwein, and J. Tautz, Science 287, 851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tisse, C. L.

Tünnermann, A.

J. W. Duparré, P. Dannberg, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Opt. 43, 4302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

X. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, Adv. Mater. 19, 2213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Yan, X.

X. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, Adv. Mater. 19, 2213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

X. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, Adv. Mater. 19, 2213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X.

X. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, Adv. Mater. 19, 2213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

X. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, Adv. Mater. 19, 2213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

X. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, Adv. Mater. 19, 2213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

M. V. Srinivasan, S. Zhang, M. Altwein, and J. Tautz, Science 287, 851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

X. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, Adv. Mater. 19, 2213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bioinspir. Biomim.

W. Sturzl, N. Boeddeker, L. Dittmar, and M. Egelhaaf, Bioinspir. Biomim. 5, 036002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Neural Computation.

M. Franz, J. Chahl, and H. Krapp, J. Neural Computation. 16, 2245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. F. Land, Nature 287, 681 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

M. V. Srinivasan, S. Zhang, M. Altwein, and J. Tautz, Science 287, 851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Lee and R. Szema, Science 310, 1148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, and L. P. Lee, Science 312, 557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scientific American

G. A. Horridge, Scientific American 237, 108 (1977).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Hybrid top-down and bottom-up micro- and nanofabrication methods for the fabrication of biomimetic compound eye with antireflective nanostructure surface. (a) Microlens curved substrate fabricated by photolithographic process and photoresist reflow process; (b) and (c) fabrication of compound eyes through self-assembled method; (d)–(g) soft-lithograph process for the replication of compound eye in UV-curable epoxy resin; (h) and (i) fabrication of antireflective nanostructure on compound eyes surface by self-assembled method.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Images of the fabricated artificial compound eye taken by microscope.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Annealing of the self-assembled microspheres on curved surfaces for a period of variant time at an elevated temperature of 120 °C.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical setup used for the measurement of the point spread function of the compound eye.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Point spread function of the fabricated compound eye measured by optical method.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Photograph of the image of a circle array with a diameter of 100 μm for each circle formed by the fabricated compound eye (a) without and (b) with antireflective nanostructures.

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