Abstract

We present a fiber-format picosecond light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. Pulses from a Yb-doped fiber amplifier are frequency converted by four-wave mixing (FWM) in normal-dispersion photonic crystal fiber to produce a synchronized two-color picosecond pulse train. We show that seeding the FWM process overcomes the deleterious effects of group-velocity mismatch and allows efficient conversion into narrow frequency bands. The source generates more than 160 mW of nearly transform-limited pulses tunable from 775 to 815 nm. High-quality coherent Raman images of animal tissues and cells acquired with this source are presented.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

2008 (2)

C. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balu, M.

Bateman, S. A.

Baumgartl, M.

Bégin, S.

Biancalana, F.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burgoyne, B.

Carrasco, S.

Chemnitz, M.

Chen, Z.

Côté, D.

Dietzek, B.

Dong, L.

Efimov, A.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C.

C. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

Freudiger, C. W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

Ganikhanov, F.

Hanke, T.

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Lett. 34, 2051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hult, J.

Jauregui, C.

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M.

Kieu, K.

Knight, J. C.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

Krauss, G.

Lavoute, L.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Limpert, J.

Liu, G.

Lu, S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mercier, V.

Meyer, T.

Min, W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moffatt, D. J.

Mosley, P. J.

Nodop, D.

Omenetto, F. G.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ouzounov, D. G.

Pegoraro, A. F.

Pezacki, J. P.

Popp, J.

Potma, E. O.

Reeves, W. H.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ridsdale, A.

Russell, P. St. J.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saar, B. G.

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Lett. 34, 2051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schimpf, D.

Seitz, W.

Sell, A.

Selm, R.

Skryabin, D. V.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stolow, A.

Taylor, A. J.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, B. K.

Tromberg, B. J.

Trütlein, D.

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Vallée, R.

Villeneuve, A.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Winterhalder, M.

Wise, F. W.

Xie, X. S.

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Lett. 34, 2051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, X. S. Xie, M. Katz, W. Seitz, and D. Kopf, Opt. Lett. 31, 1292 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S.

Zumbusch, A.

Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

C. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (1)

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (1)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Phase-matched FWM gain for an endlessly single-mode PCF. The ZDW is 1051 nm, the nonlinear parameter γ=9.6(W·km)1, and the cw power is P0=3.6kW.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated FWM. (a) Full spectrum without idler seeding after propagation through 56 cm (light solid curve) and 2 m (light dotted curve), and with idler seeded after 30 cm (black solid curve). GVM length is 50cm. (b) Seeded FWM: signal (solid curve), pump (dotted curve), and idler (dashed curve) pulses. (c) Signal spectrum. The input pulse is centered at 1036 nm with 7.5 ps duration and 3.6 kW peak power. Idler seed power is 5 mW at 1470 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup: HWP, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; LP, long-pass dichroic mirror; SF, filters (Thorlabs DMSP1000, Chroma HQ735LP); SP, short-pass dichroic mirror.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental FWM results after 30 cm of PCF: signal (a) spectrum and (b) autocorrelation, (c) idler and seed. (d) Picked-off pump spectrum.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Forward-CARS images at 2850cm1: (a) stratum corneum and (b) sebaceous gland in mouse ear, (c) mouse brain section, (d) rat fibroblasts. 512×512pixels at 4s/frame, no averaging.

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