Abstract

We propose the use of polarization mapping as a tool to better separate the effects of plasmonic coupling from the local refractive index for molecular imaging and biosensing using gold nanoparticles. Polarization mapping allows identification of the orthogonal excitation mode when the particle dimer orientation is unknown, as may be the case when using plasmonic nanoparticles for cell labeling. This information can be used to sense relative changes in the dielectric environment, or for absolute dielectric sensing with additional a priori interparticle distance information. First, the theoretical scattering by nanoparticle pairs is modeled under parallel and orthogonal polarization orientations and increasing interparticle separation. Second, polarization mapping of substrate bound nanoparticles using dark-field microspectroscopy is investigated as a method to isolate the individual plasmonic coupling modes associated with a pair of nanoparticles without reorientation of the sample. The results of this study provide useful insight toward potential avenues for monitoring distances using plasmonic nanoparticles and sensing the local refractive index using nanoparticle pairs when the pair orientation is not known, as may be the case when using nanoparticles for cell receptor labeling.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010 (1)

N. G. Khlebtsov and L. A. Dykman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. J. Crow, G. Grant, J. M. Provenzale, and A. Wax, Am J. Roentgen. 192, 1021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang and B. M. Reinhard, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Curry, M. J. Crow, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014022 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, Nano Lett. 7, 2080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

A. Curry, G. Nusz, A. Chilkoti, and A. Wax, Opt. Express 13, 2668 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sonnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137(2003).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1972 (1)

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

C. Sonnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137(2003).
[CrossRef]

Chilkoti, A.

Christy, R.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Crow, M. J.

M. J. Crow, G. Grant, J. M. Provenzale, and A. Wax, Am J. Roentgen. 192, 1021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Curry, M. J. Crow, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014022 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curry, A.

Draine, B.

Dykman, L. A.

N. G. Khlebtsov and L. A. Dykman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, Nano Lett. 7, 2080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flatau, P.

Grant, G.

M. J. Crow, G. Grant, J. M. Provenzale, and A. Wax, Am J. Roentgen. 192, 1021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137(2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, Nano Lett. 7, 2080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W. L.

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, Nano Lett. 7, 2080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Khlebtsov, N. G.

N. G. Khlebtsov and L. A. Dykman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

U. Kreibig and M. Volmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, 1995).

Krenn, J.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137(2003).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137(2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137(2003).
[CrossRef]

Liphardt, J.

C. Sonnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nusz, G.

Provenzale, J. M.

M. J. Crow, G. Grant, J. M. Provenzale, and A. Wax, Am J. Roentgen. 192, 1021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rechberger, W.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137(2003).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, B. M.

H. Wang and B. M. Reinhard, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sonnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sonnichsen, C.

C. Sonnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, K. H.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Volmer, M.

U. Kreibig and M. Volmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, 1995).

Wang, H.

H. Wang and B. M. Reinhard, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wax, A.

M. J. Crow, G. Grant, J. M. Provenzale, and A. Wax, Am J. Roentgen. 192, 1021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Curry, M. J. Crow, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014022 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Curry, W. L. Hwang, and A. Wax, Opt. Express 14, 6535 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Curry, G. Nusz, A. Chilkoti, and A. Wax, Opt. Express 13, 2668 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, Q. H.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Am J. Roentgen. (1)

M. J. Crow, G. Grant, J. M. Provenzale, and A. Wax, Am J. Roentgen. 192, 1021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Curry, M. J. Crow, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014022 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

H. Wang and B. M. Reinhard, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

N. G. Khlebtsov and L. A. Dykman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, Nano Lett. 7, 2080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

C. Sonnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137(2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

U. Kreibig and M. Volmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) DDA simulations of NP scattering: comparison of single nanosphere scattering with an NP dimer under two ( 0 ° and 90 ° ) incident polarizations, (b) DDA model of scattering of a 60 nm diameter NP pair with 4 nm interparticle separation under both polarizations, (c) experimental scattering spectra of an NP pair with 3 nm measured separation under both polarizations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image of two NPs with 4 nm separation ( scale bar = 100 nm ), (b) and (c) images of NP pair under orthogonal polarizations. Red arrows indicate colorimetric changes in this NP dimer under the two orthogonal polarization orientations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental peak scattering of 60 nm diameter gold NPs at 0 ° (red dashed) and 90 ° (blue solid) polarizations with increasing interparticle separation. (b) Peak shift between 0 ° and 90 ° polarizations, normalized by peak wavelength for a single sphere. Fit is compared to the trend extracted from DDA models of 60 nm gold nanosphere dimers.

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