Abstract

Graded-index (GRIN) lenses serve as a key component for miniature endoscopes because of their small diameters and ease of assembly. However, the nonaplanatic nature of GRIN lenses causes inherent spatial aberrations that lower image resolution and sharpness. Here we present the diagnosis of the aberrations in GRIN probes and the use of adaptive optics to compensate for the wavefront errors in the endoscope. Two different operation schemes based on preset and in situ measurements are demonstrated, both resulting in a substantial reduction of the wavefront error from 0.42 to <0.1μm.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Med. 17, 223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Thompson, C. Paterson, M. A. A. Neil, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, Opt. Lett. 36, 1707 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Z. G. Fan, J. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. Yun, T. Strom, C. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, Nat. Med. 16, 718 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2007 (1)

2002 (3)

1986 (1)

1980 (1)

Attardo, A.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Med. 17, 223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barretto, R. P. J.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Med. 17, 223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. J. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 6, 511 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaurepaire, E.

Bonoli, C.

F. Bortoletto, C. Bonoli, P. Panizzolo, C. D. Ciubotaru, and F. Mammano, PLoS ONE 6, e22321.

Booth, M. J.

D. Debarre, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Express 15, 8176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 5788 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bortoletto, F.

F. Bortoletto, C. Bonoli, P. Panizzolo, C. D. Ciubotaru, and F. Mammano, PLoS ONE 6, e22321.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Capps, G.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Med. 17, 223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. S.

Chung, E.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciubotaru, C. D.

F. Bortoletto, C. Bonoli, P. Panizzolo, C. D. Ciubotaru, and F. Mammano, PLoS ONE 6, e22321.

Debarre, D.

Débarre, D.

Descour, M. R.

Donnelly, W. J.

Dunsby, C.

Evans, J. W.

Fan, Z. G.

Z. G. Fan, J. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. Yun, T. Strom, C. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, Nat. Med. 16, 718 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, P. M. W.

Fukumura, D.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuller, A. R.

Hamann, B.

Hebert, T. J.

Hung, K. E.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juškaitis, R.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 5788 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, J. C.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Med. 17, 223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. G. Fan, J. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. Yun, T. Strom, C. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, Nat. Med. 16, 718 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T. H.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Med. 17, 223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koulmanda, M.

Z. G. Fan, J. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. Yun, T. Strom, C. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, Nat. Med. 16, 718 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kucherlapati, R.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, C.

Lin, C.

Z. G. Fan, J. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. Yun, T. Strom, C. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, Nat. Med. 16, 718 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Z. G. Fan, J. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. Yun, T. Strom, C. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, Nat. Med. 16, 718 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mammano, F.

F. Bortoletto, C. Bonoli, P. Panizzolo, C. D. Ciubotaru, and F. Mammano, PLoS ONE 6, e22321.

Messerschmidt, B.

R. P. J. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 6, 511 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizoguchi, A.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, D. T.

Neil, M. A. A.

A. J. Thompson, C. Paterson, M. A. A. Neil, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, Opt. Lett. 36, 1707 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 5788 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, N.

Panizzolo, P.

F. Bortoletto, C. Bonoli, P. Panizzolo, C. D. Ciubotaru, and F. Mammano, PLoS ONE 6, e22321.

Paterson, C.

Pitsillides, C.

Z. G. Fan, J. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. Yun, T. Strom, C. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, Nat. Med. 16, 718 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queener, H.

Recht, L.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Med. 17, 223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Sakamoto, T.

Schnitzer, M. J.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Med. 17, 223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. J. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 6, 511 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, G.

Z. G. Fan, J. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. Yun, T. Strom, C. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, Nat. Med. 16, 718 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spencer, J.

Z. G. Fan, J. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. Yun, T. Strom, C. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, Nat. Med. 16, 718 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strom, T.

Z. G. Fan, J. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. Yun, T. Strom, C. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, Nat. Med. 16, 718 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, K. B.

Thompson, A. J.

Wang, T. J.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Med. 17, 223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waters, A. C.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Med. 17, 223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

Wilson, T.

D. Debarre, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Express 15, 8176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 5788 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, H.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S.

Z. G. Fan, J. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. Yun, T. Strom, C. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, Nat. Med. 16, 718 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

Ziv, Y.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Med. 17, 223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Nat. Med. (2)

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Med. 17, 223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. G. Fan, J. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. Yun, T. Strom, C. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, Nat. Med. 16, 718 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (2)

R. P. J. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 6, 511 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 5788 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

F. Bortoletto, C. Bonoli, P. Panizzolo, C. D. Ciubotaru, and F. Mammano, PLoS ONE 6, e22321.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup. DM, deformable mirror; M, dichroic mirror. (b) Beam profiles at the input and output of a triplet GRIN microendoscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured wavefront distortion of GRIN endoscope (a) before correction, (b) with preset correction, and (c) with in situ correction. (d) The coefficients of the lowest 15 Zernike modes. Z 1 and Z 2 , tip and tilt; Z 3 , defocus; Z 4 and Z 5 , astigmatism; Z 6 and Z 7 , coma; Z 8 , spherical aberration; Z 9 and Z 10 , trefoil aberration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence images of a pine stem specimen (a) before correction, (b) with preset correction, and (c) in situ correction. (d) Pixel values along the dotted lines in (a)–(c). Scale bar, 25 μm .

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