Abstract

We designed a rapid functional imager for the parallel recording of localized intrinsic optical signals (IOSs). This imager used a microlens array (MLA)-based illuminator to deliver visible stimulus light and near-infrared (NIR) recording light simultaneously. The parfocal configuration of the stimulus and recording light illumination enabled confocal recording of the stimulus-evoked IOSs. Because the MLA stimulation/recording spots were widely separated on the retina, and only the photoreceptors within the MLA stimulation/recording spots were stimulated, the potential IOS cross talk effect among neighboring retinal areas was minimized. Our experiments revealed robust IOS activities tightly correlated with localized retinal responses.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

J. Rha, B. Schroeder, P. Godara, and J. Carroll, Opt. Lett. 34, 3782 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, Opt. Express 15, 16141 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, Opt. Lett. 31, 2308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

V. Y. Arshavsky, T. D. Lamb, and E. N. Pugh, Jr., Ann. Rev. Physiol. 64, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

H. Kuhn, N. Bennett, M. Michel-Villaz, and M. Chabre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6873 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

K. P. Hofmann, R. Uhl, W. Hoffmann, and W. Kreutz, Biophys. Struct. Mech. 2, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramoff, M.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amthor, F.

Amthor, F. R.

Anger, E.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arshavsky, V. Y.

V. Y. Arshavsky, T. D. Lamb, and E. N. Pugh, Jr., Ann. Rev. Physiol. 64, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, N.

H. Kuhn, N. Bennett, M. Michel-Villaz, and M. Chabre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6873 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, J.

Cense, B.

Chabre, M.

H. Kuhn, N. Bennett, M. Michel-Villaz, and M. Chabre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6873 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, W. H.

George, J. S.

Godara, P.

Grieve, K.

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanazono, G.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, W.

K. P. Hofmann, R. Uhl, W. Hoffmann, and W. Kreutz, Biophys. Struct. Mech. 2, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, K. P.

K. P. Hofmann, R. Uhl, W. Hoffmann, and W. Kreutz, Biophys. Struct. Mech. 2, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonnal, R. S.

Kardon, R.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keyser, K.

Kolbitsch, C.

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 15041513 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreutz, W.

K. P. Hofmann, R. Uhl, W. Hoffmann, and W. Kreutz, Biophys. Struct. Mech. 2, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhn, H.

H. Kuhn, N. Bennett, M. Michel-Villaz, and M. Chabre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6873 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, Y.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamb, T. D.

V. Y. Arshavsky, T. D. Lamb, and E. N. Pugh, Jr., Ann. Rev. Physiol. 64, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R. A.

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 15041513 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. C.

Li, Y. G.

Liu, L.

Michel-Villaz, M.

H. Kuhn, N. Bennett, M. Michel-Villaz, and M. Chabre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6873 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Miyake, Y.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, B.

Pflug, R.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, S.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Povazay, B.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pugh, E. N.

V. Y. Arshavsky, T. D. Lamb, and E. N. Pugh, Jr., Ann. Rev. Physiol. 64, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, P.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitsamer, H.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rha, J.

Roorda, A.

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schallek, J.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 15041513 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, B.

Shinoda, K.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soliz, P.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Strang, C.

Tanifuji, M.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, J. R.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ts’o, D.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsubota, K.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsunoda, K.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uhl, R.

K. P. Hofmann, R. Uhl, W. Hoffmann, and W. Kreutz, Biophys. Struct. Mech. 2, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Yamauchi, A.

Yao, X. C.

Zhang, Q. X.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, Y. B.

Ann. Rev. Physiol. (1)

V. Y. Arshavsky, T. D. Lamb, and E. N. Pugh, Jr., Ann. Rev. Physiol. 64, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biophys. Struct. Mech. (1)

K. P. Hofmann, R. Uhl, W. Hoffmann, and W. Kreutz, Biophys. Struct. Mech. 2, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 15041513 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kuhn, N. Bennett, M. Michel-Villaz, and M. Chabre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6873 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the MLA recording system: CO, collimator; QW, quarter-wave plate. The focal lengths of lenses L1 and L2 are 80 and 150 mm , respectively. An NIR SLD was used for IOS imaging. A red laser diode (LD) was used for retinal stimulation. An NIR LED was used for the transmission imaging of the retina. At the DM, collimated NIR recording light and visible stimulus light were combined together to illuminate the MLA simultaneously. (b) Representative MLA pattern by placing a mirror at the specimen plane. (c) Representative MLA imaging pattern of an isolated frog retina. (d) Simultaneous MLA recording and transmission imaging of the retina.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) MLA recording of retinal activation. Each illustrated IOS image is an average over 600 ms interval (i.e., 200 frames, 3 ms / frame ). (b) Enlargement of the fourth frame in (a). (c) Black traces 1–8 show IOSs of a randomly selected eight pixels pointed by the arrowheads in (b). (d) Black traces 1 and 4 show the average of all the positive and negative IOSs within the MLA spot areas. Gray traces 2 and 3 show the positive and negative IOSs without stimulus. (e) IOS magnitude map of the single-trial MLA recording shown in (b). (f) Averaged IOS magnitude map of six MLA recordings. (g) Temporal dynamics of overall IOS magnitude shown in (f).

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