Abstract

The particle loading and dispersion profiles are two significant properties directly affecting the engineering properties and performance characteristics of polymer nanocomposites. Current measurement techniques are often destructive, require special sample preparation, are limited to small, unrepresentative sample size, and/or cannot discriminate between the two aforementioned parameters. This Letter demonstrates the application of photon correlation spectroscopy on mechanically oscillated solids; experimental results show that this technique can discriminate between different grades of such materials.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. A. Utracki, Clay-Containing Polymeric Nanocomposites (Rapra Technology Limited, 2004), Vol. 1.
  2. Y.-W. Mai and Z.-Z. Yu, Clay-Acrylate Nanocomposite Photopolymers (Woodhead, 2006).
  3. C. Decker, L. Keller, K. Zahouily, and S. Benfarhi, Polymer 46, 6640 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Lu, K. Y. Kim, and W. Sachse, Compos. Sci. Technol. 57, 753 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. J. Davies, C. Edwards, G. S. Taylor, and S. B. Palmer, J. Phys. D 26, 329 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Durmus, A. Kasgoz, and C. W. Macosko, Polymer 48, 4492 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. K. Konscher, J. Phys. D 32, r57 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Sharpe and C. A. Greated, J. Phys. D 22, 1429 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Koukoulas, P. Theobald, T. Schlicke, and R. Barham, Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 791 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Du and D. Zhao, Opt. Lett. 35, 1518 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

T. Koukoulas, P. Theobald, T. Schlicke, and R. Barham, Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Durmus, A. Kasgoz, and C. W. Macosko, Polymer 48, 4492 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Decker, L. Keller, K. Zahouily, and S. Benfarhi, Polymer 46, 6640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. K. Konscher, J. Phys. D 32, r57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

X. Lu, K. Y. Kim, and W. Sachse, Compos. Sci. Technol. 57, 753 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. J. Davies, C. Edwards, G. S. Taylor, and S. B. Palmer, J. Phys. D 26, 329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. P. Sharpe and C. A. Greated, J. Phys. D 22, 1429 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Barham, R.

T. Koukoulas, P. Theobald, T. Schlicke, and R. Barham, Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benfarhi, S.

C. Decker, L. Keller, K. Zahouily, and S. Benfarhi, Polymer 46, 6640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davies, S. J.

S. J. Davies, C. Edwards, G. S. Taylor, and S. B. Palmer, J. Phys. D 26, 329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Decker, C.

C. Decker, L. Keller, K. Zahouily, and S. Benfarhi, Polymer 46, 6640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Du, X.

Durmus, A.

A. Durmus, A. Kasgoz, and C. W. Macosko, Polymer 48, 4492 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, C.

S. J. Davies, C. Edwards, G. S. Taylor, and S. B. Palmer, J. Phys. D 26, 329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Greated, C. A.

J. P. Sharpe and C. A. Greated, J. Phys. D 22, 1429 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kasgoz, A.

A. Durmus, A. Kasgoz, and C. W. Macosko, Polymer 48, 4492 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keller, L.

C. Decker, L. Keller, K. Zahouily, and S. Benfarhi, Polymer 46, 6640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

X. Lu, K. Y. Kim, and W. Sachse, Compos. Sci. Technol. 57, 753 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Konscher, A. K.

A. K. Konscher, J. Phys. D 32, r57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koukoulas, T.

T. Koukoulas, P. Theobald, T. Schlicke, and R. Barham, Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

X. Lu, K. Y. Kim, and W. Sachse, Compos. Sci. Technol. 57, 753 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Macosko, C. W.

A. Durmus, A. Kasgoz, and C. W. Macosko, Polymer 48, 4492 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mai, Y.-W.

Y.-W. Mai and Z.-Z. Yu, Clay-Acrylate Nanocomposite Photopolymers (Woodhead, 2006).

Palmer, S. B.

S. J. Davies, C. Edwards, G. S. Taylor, and S. B. Palmer, J. Phys. D 26, 329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, W.

X. Lu, K. Y. Kim, and W. Sachse, Compos. Sci. Technol. 57, 753 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schlicke, T.

T. Koukoulas, P. Theobald, T. Schlicke, and R. Barham, Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, J. P.

J. P. Sharpe and C. A. Greated, J. Phys. D 22, 1429 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, G. S.

S. J. Davies, C. Edwards, G. S. Taylor, and S. B. Palmer, J. Phys. D 26, 329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Theobald, P.

T. Koukoulas, P. Theobald, T. Schlicke, and R. Barham, Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Utracki, L. A.

L. A. Utracki, Clay-Containing Polymeric Nanocomposites (Rapra Technology Limited, 2004), Vol. 1.

Yu, Z.-Z.

Y.-W. Mai and Z.-Z. Yu, Clay-Acrylate Nanocomposite Photopolymers (Woodhead, 2006).

Zahouily, K.

C. Decker, L. Keller, K. Zahouily, and S. Benfarhi, Polymer 46, 6640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

Compos. Sci. Technol. (1)

X. Lu, K. Y. Kim, and W. Sachse, Compos. Sci. Technol. 57, 753 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (3)

S. J. Davies, C. Edwards, G. S. Taylor, and S. B. Palmer, J. Phys. D 26, 329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Konscher, J. Phys. D 32, r57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Sharpe and C. A. Greated, J. Phys. D 22, 1429 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

T. Koukoulas, P. Theobald, T. Schlicke, and R. Barham, Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Polymer (2)

A. Durmus, A. Kasgoz, and C. W. Macosko, Polymer 48, 4492 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Decker, L. Keller, K. Zahouily, and S. Benfarhi, Polymer 46, 6640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. A. Utracki, Clay-Containing Polymeric Nanocomposites (Rapra Technology Limited, 2004), Vol. 1.

Y.-W. Mai and Z.-Z. Yu, Clay-Acrylate Nanocomposite Photopolymers (Woodhead, 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TEM images [courtesy of BAE Systems (Operations) Ltd.] for samples of (a) good dispersion 2%, (b) moderate 1%, and (c) poor 4%, and OCT images for (d) good 1%, (e) poor 1%, and (f) good 4%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the Os-PCS measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental ACFs produced by the spectroscopic measurements.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 ACF Dynamic Ranges and Photon Counts Based on Spectroscopy and Tomographic Standard Deviation of Combined Sublayer Segmentation Analysis

Equations (1)

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R ( τ ) = k 2 E [ K p 2 ] g 0 π 8 β exp [ 2 ( u m τ β ) 2 ] ( 1 + J 0 D u m τ ) ,

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