Abstract

We demonstrate that surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is applicable to the optical detection of neural signals. A low-noise SPR sensor was developed as a label- and artifact-free method for the extracellular recording of neural activity. The optical responses obtained from a rat sciatic nerve were highly correlated with simultaneously recorded electrical responses. Additional studies with stimulation intensity and lidocaine further confirmed that the optically measured signals originated from neural activities.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. O. Morin, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, J. Biosci. Bioeng. 100, 131 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. J. Foust and D. M. Rector, Neuroscience 145, 887 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. Potocnik, M. Tomsic, and F. Bajrovic, Pflügers Arch. 442, r193 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2005

F. O. Morin, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, J. Biosci. Bioeng. 100, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

K. M. Carter, J. S. George, and D. M. Rector, J. Neurosci. Methods 135, 9 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

I. Potocnik, M. Tomsic, and F. Bajrovic, Pflügers Arch. 442, r193 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

T. J. Ebner and C. Gang, Prog. Neurobiol. 46, 463 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, Nature 218, 438 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baac, H.

H. Baac, S. B. Jun, J. N. Turner, W. Shain, K. L. Smith, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, in Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (IEEE, 2005), pp. 332-335.

Bajrovic, F.

I. Potocnik, M. Tomsic, and F. Bajrovic, Pflügers Arch. 442, r193 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blonder, G. E.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byun, K. M.

Carter, K. M.

K. M. Carter, J. S. George, and D. M. Rector, J. Neurosci. Methods 135, 9 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, L. B.

L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, Nature 218, 438 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebner, T. J.

T. J. Ebner and C. Gang, Prog. Neurobiol. 46, 463 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foust, A. J.

A. J. Foust and D. M. Rector, Neuroscience 145, 887 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gang, C.

T. J. Ebner and C. Gang, Prog. Neurobiol. 46, 463 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

George, J. S.

K. M. Carter, J. S. George, and D. M. Rector, J. Neurosci. Methods 135, 9 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hille, B.

L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, Nature 218, 438 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jun, S. B.

H. Baac, S. B. Jun, J. N. Turner, W. Shain, K. L. Smith, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, in Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (IEEE, 2005), pp. 332-335.

Keynes, R. D.

L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, Nature 218, 438 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

Kim, S. J.

K. M. Byun, S. J. Yoon, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, Opt. Lett. 32, 1902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Baac, S. B. Jun, J. N. Turner, W. Shain, K. L. Smith, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, in Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (IEEE, 2005), pp. 332-335.

Kleinfeld, D.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaPorta, A.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, S. G.

Morin, F. O.

F. O. Morin, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, J. Biosci. Bioeng. 100, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potocnik, I.

I. Potocnik, M. Tomsic, and F. Bajrovic, Pflügers Arch. 442, r193 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raccuia-Behling, F.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ran, B.

Rector, D. M.

A. J. Foust and D. M. Rector, Neuroscience 145, 887 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Carter, J. S. George, and D. M. Rector, J. Neurosci. Methods 135, 9 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shain, W.

H. Baac, S. B. Jun, J. N. Turner, W. Shain, K. L. Smith, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, in Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (IEEE, 2005), pp. 332-335.

Shuler, M. L.

H. Baac, S. B. Jun, J. N. Turner, W. Shain, K. L. Smith, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, in Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (IEEE, 2005), pp. 332-335.

Slusher, R. E.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, K. L.

H. Baac, S. B. Jun, J. N. Turner, W. Shain, K. L. Smith, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, in Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (IEEE, 2005), pp. 332-335.

Stepnoski, R. A.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takamura, Y.

F. O. Morin, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, J. Biosci. Bioeng. 100, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamiya, E.

F. O. Morin, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, J. Biosci. Bioeng. 100, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomsic, M.

I. Potocnik, M. Tomsic, and F. Bajrovic, Pflügers Arch. 442, r193 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, J. N.

H. Baac, S. B. Jun, J. N. Turner, W. Shain, K. L. Smith, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, in Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (IEEE, 2005), pp. 332-335.

Yoon, S. J.

J. Biosci. Bioeng.

F. O. Morin, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, J. Biosci. Bioeng. 100, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods

K. M. Carter, J. S. George, and D. M. Rector, J. Neurosci. Methods 135, 9 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, Nature 218, 438 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroscience

A. J. Foust and D. M. Rector, Neuroscience 145, 887 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Pflügers Arch.

I. Potocnik, M. Tomsic, and F. Bajrovic, Pflügers Arch. 442, r193 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Neurobiol.

T. J. Ebner and C. Gang, Prog. Neurobiol. 46, 463 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. Baac, S. B. Jun, J. N. Turner, W. Shain, K. L. Smith, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, in Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (IEEE, 2005), pp. 332-335.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the presented SPR system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Correspondence between electrical (gray trace) and optical responses (black trace) of a rat sciatic nerve with increasing stimulus intensity on the same time scale. A biphasic stimulation current ( I s ) was either (a) fixed at 1 mA or (b) varied from 0.1 mA to 1 mA while the pulse duration ( t pd ) and stimulation rate ( f s ) were fixed at t pd = 1.5 ms and f s = 1 Hz , respectively. The vertical bar for the optical signal represents 10 5 changes of the refractive index unit (RIU). The arrows indicate peaks of neural responses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effects of a nerve-blocker application on the electrical (gray trace) and optical (black trace) responses. The post-toxin signals were recorded 20 min after nerve-blocker application. A monophasic current stimulation was used with I s = 0.5 mA , t pd = 1.5 ms , and f s = 5 Hz . The vertical bar for the optical signal represents 10 5 changes of the RIU.

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