We report the transfection of human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells by femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at . It was found that HepG2 cells could be perforated transiently to admit propidium iodide by that laser. This photoporation was safe, as the membrane resealed itself within a short time and no mitochondrial depolarization was detected. The cells were next photoporated in the presence of DNA plasmids for the expression of green fluorescence protein, and about 80% of the exposed cells showed green fluorescence later. Thus it could be concluded that it is safe and efficient to use fs laser at to transfect foreign molecules into cells under a standard microscope.
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