Abstract

Multispeckle diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS) is used to measure blood flow transients in the human visual cortex following stimulation by 7.5Hz full-field and checkerboard flickering. The average decay time τd characterizing the decay of the DWS autocorrelation function shows a biphasic behavior; within about 2s after stimulation onset, τd increases rapidly to about 6% above the baseline value. At later times, τd slowly decreases and reaches a steady-state value about 5% below the baseline value after about 15s. The initial increase of the DWS signal suggests a transient reduction of the cortical blood flow velocity shortly after stimulation onset. Measurements of this transient response at different positions over the primary visual cortex show a spatial pattern different from the one measured by electroencephalography.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 16, 704 (2002).
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G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 65, 409 (1987).
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P. E. Roland, B. Larsen, N. A. Lassen, and E. Skinhøj, J. Neurophysiol. 43, 118 (1980).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
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Dietsche, G.

Du, J.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
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Durduran, T.

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F. Jaillon, J. Li, G. Dietsche, T. Elbert, and T. Gisler, Opt. Express 15, 6643 (2007).
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J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
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Floyd, T. F.

Gisler, T.

Gratton, E.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 16, 704 (2002).
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Greenberg, J. H.

Herbolzheimer, E.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftime, D.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaillon, F.

Johnston, D.

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, Neuroimage 13, 1002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, Neuroimage 13, 1002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilger, A.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, B.

P. E. Roland, B. Larsen, N. A. Lassen, and E. Skinhøj, J. Neurophysiol. 43, 118 (1980).
[PubMed]

Lassen, N. A.

P. E. Roland, B. Larsen, N. A. Lassen, and E. Skinhøj, J. Neurophysiol. 43, 118 (1980).
[PubMed]

Li, J.

Loevner, L.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lustig, R.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maret, G.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 65, 409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mayhew, J.

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, Neuroimage 13, 1002 (2001).
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Michalos, A.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 16, 704 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ninck, M.

Nioka, S.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ortolf, C.

Paunescu, L. A.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 16, 704 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pine, D. J.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quon, H.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rockstroh, B.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roland, P. E.

R. J. Seitz and P. E. Roland, Eur. J. Neurosci. 4, 154 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Roland, B. Larsen, N. A. Lassen, and E. Skinhøj, J. Neurophysiol. 43, 118 (1980).
[PubMed]

Seitz, R. J.

R. J. Seitz and P. E. Roland, Eur. J. Neurosci. 4, 154 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skinhøj, E.

P. E. Roland, B. Larsen, N. A. Lassen, and E. Skinhøj, J. Neurophysiol. 43, 118 (1980).
[PubMed]

Skipetrov, S. E.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sunar, U.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toronov, V.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 16, 704 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Weitz, D. A.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, M.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 16, 704 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, P. E.

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 65, 409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, U.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 16, 704 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

Yu, G.

Zhang, J.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

Appl. Opt.

Eur. J. Neurosci.

R. J. Seitz and P. E. Roland, Eur. J. Neurosci. 4, 154 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol.

P. E. Roland, B. Larsen, N. A. Lassen, and E. Skinhøj, J. Neurophysiol. 43, 118 (1980).
[PubMed]

Neuroimage

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 16, 704 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, Neuroimage 13, 1002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 65, 409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Top and (b) back view showing the positions of the source fiber S and of the receiver fiber bundles R 1 and R 2 for the short- and the long-distance probes, respectively, over the primary visual cortex. Cz, vertex; N, nasion; I, inion. (c) Stimulus-synchronized average of the relative decay time τ s b (red) and of the relative average photon count rate R s b (blue) measured over the visual cortex with the long-distance sensor as a function of time after onset of visual stimulation ( t = 0 s ) , averaged over five subjects. Raw data were smoothed by a sliding average over 1 s . (d) Group averages of the relative decay time τ s b and photon count rate R s b averaged over the 8.2 s stimulation period. Optical probes were placed as shown in panel (a). Error bars represent the standard deviation for ten subjects. Student’s t test shows a significant functional increase of the DWS signal, while the count rate change is not significant. (e) Positioning of the DWS probes in the mapping experiment. The green circles mark the cortical areas probed with the different sensor positions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Maps of the relative decay time τ s b (left) and of the corresponding p-value (right) during 8.2 s checkerboard stimulation over the visual cortex. The position (0, 0) corresponds to the inion. In the p-value map, regions of significant changes of τ s b (i.e., with p 0.05 ) are marked in blue. Maps are generated by piecewise bilinear interpolation based on the measured values at the eight sensor positions.

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