Abstract

A dual-imaging modality is demonstrated for high-resolution quantitative imaging of local cerebral blood flow in the rat cortex by combining simultaneous spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) and full-field laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). Preliminary studies in tissue flow phantom and cocaine-induced cerebral blood flow changes indicated that by correlating coregistered cortical arterial blood flow, the relative measurement of flow changes by LSCI could be accurately calibrated by the absolute flow imaging provided by SDOCT (least square fit, r20.96). Quantitative LSCI of cerebral blood flow is crucial to the quantitative analyses of the spatiotemporal hemodynamics of functional brain activations and thus improved understanding of neural process.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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M. Atlan, B. C. Forget, A. C. Boccara, T. Vitalis, A. Rancillac, A. K. Dunn, and M. Gross, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wang, S. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. Hanson, and A. Gruber, Opt. Express 15, 4083 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

B. Choi, J. Ramirez-San-Juan, J. Lotfi, and J. Nelson, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. J. Stewart, R. Frank, K. R. Forrester, J. Tulip, R. Lindsay, and R. C. Bray, Burns 31, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. Durduran, M. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. Yodh, J. Detre, and J. Greenberg, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2001

E. Barbier, A. Silva, S. Kim, and A. Koretsky, Magn. Reson. Med. 45, 144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Kleinfeld, P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andermann, M.

Atlan, M.

M. Atlan, B. C. Forget, A. C. Boccara, T. Vitalis, A. Rancillac, A. K. Dunn, and M. Gross, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbier, E.

E. Barbier, A. Silva, S. Kim, and A. Koretsky, Magn. Reson. Med. 45, 144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D.

Boccara, A. C.

M. Atlan, B. C. Forget, A. C. Boccara, T. Vitalis, A. Rancillac, A. K. Dunn, and M. Gross, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolay, H.

Bray, R. C.

C. J. Stewart, R. Frank, K. R. Forrester, J. Tulip, R. Lindsay, and R. C. Bray, Burns 31, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, M.

T. Durduran, M. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. Yodh, J. Detre, and J. Greenberg, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, B.

B. Choi, J. Ramirez-San-Juan, J. Lotfi, and J. Nelson, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dale, A.

Denk, W.

D. Kleinfeld, P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Detre, J.

T. Durduran, M. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. Yodh, J. Detre, and J. Greenberg, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devor, A.

Drexler, W.

Dunn, A.

Dunn, A. K.

M. Atlan, B. C. Forget, A. C. Boccara, T. Vitalis, A. Rancillac, A. K. Dunn, and M. Gross, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

T. Durduran, M. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. Yodh, J. Detre, and J. Greenberg, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Forget, B. C.

M. Atlan, B. C. Forget, A. C. Boccara, T. Vitalis, A. Rancillac, A. K. Dunn, and M. Gross, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forrester, K. R.

C. J. Stewart, R. Frank, K. R. Forrester, J. Tulip, R. Lindsay, and R. C. Bray, Burns 31, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, R.

C. J. Stewart, R. Frank, K. R. Forrester, J. Tulip, R. Lindsay, and R. C. Bray, Burns 31, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furuya, D.

T. Durduran, M. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. Yodh, J. Detre, and J. Greenberg, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J.

T. Durduran, M. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. Yodh, J. Detre, and J. Greenberg, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, M.

M. Atlan, B. C. Forget, A. C. Boccara, T. Vitalis, A. Rancillac, A. K. Dunn, and M. Gross, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Hanson, S.

Helmchen, F.

D. Kleinfeld, P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

Jacques, S.

Kim, S.

E. Barbier, A. Silva, S. Kim, and A. Koretsky, Magn. Reson. Med. 45, 144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kleinfeld, D.

D. Kleinfeld, P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koretsky, A.

E. Barbier, A. Silva, S. Kim, and A. Koretsky, Magn. Reson. Med. 45, 144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Lindsay, R.

C. J. Stewart, R. Frank, K. R. Forrester, J. Tulip, R. Lindsay, and R. C. Bray, Burns 31, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotfi, J.

B. Choi, J. Ramirez-San-Juan, J. Lotfi, and J. Nelson, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

Mitra, P.

D. Kleinfeld, P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskowitz, M.

Nelson, J.

B. Choi, J. Ramirez-San-Juan, J. Lotfi, and J. Nelson, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez-San-Juan, J.

B. Choi, J. Ramirez-San-Juan, J. Lotfi, and J. Nelson, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rancillac, A.

M. Atlan, B. C. Forget, A. C. Boccara, T. Vitalis, A. Rancillac, A. K. Dunn, and M. Gross, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

Silva, A.

E. Barbier, A. Silva, S. Kim, and A. Koretsky, Magn. Reson. Med. 45, 144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, C. J.

C. J. Stewart, R. Frank, K. R. Forrester, J. Tulip, R. Lindsay, and R. C. Bray, Burns 31, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tulip, J.

C. J. Stewart, R. Frank, K. R. Forrester, J. Tulip, R. Lindsay, and R. C. Bray, Burns 31, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitalis, T.

M. Atlan, B. C. Forget, A. C. Boccara, T. Vitalis, A. Rancillac, A. K. Dunn, and M. Gross, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

Yodh, A.

T. Durduran, M. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. Yodh, J. Detre, and J. Greenberg, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

T. Durduran, M. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. Yodh, J. Detre, and J. Greenberg, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

T. Durduran, M. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. Yodh, J. Detre, and J. Greenberg, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns

C. J. Stewart, R. Frank, K. R. Forrester, J. Tulip, R. Lindsay, and R. C. Bray, Burns 31, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. Choi, J. Ramirez-San-Juan, J. Lotfi, and J. Nelson, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Atlan, B. C. Forget, A. C. Boccara, T. Vitalis, A. Rancillac, A. K. Dunn, and M. Gross, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.

T. Durduran, M. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. Yodh, J. Detre, and J. Greenberg, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magn. Reson. Med.

E. Barbier, A. Silva, S. Kim, and A. Koretsky, Magn. Reson. Med. 45, 144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

D. Kleinfeld, P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a), (b) sketch picture of a dual-modality flow imaging setup, (c) a LSCI of a rat cortex (image size: 5 mm × 4 mm ), and (d) SDOCT of a ϕ 300 μ m artery across x 1 x 2 (image size: 380 μ m × 440 μ m ). BBS, broadband source; LD, diode laser; CM, fiberoptic collimator; G, servo mirror; L1, L2, lenses; PL, polarizer; θ 68 ° : incline angle with flood flow. Arterial flow angle was extracted by performing adjacent SDOCT scans and locating the corresponding flow positions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Result of phantom flow in a ϕ 570 μ m Teflon tubing with 1% Intralipid. (a) SDOCT and LSCI data versus flow pump, (b) least-square-fit calibration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Result of in vivo rat study under cocaine challenge. (a) SDOCT ( V SDOCT ) and LSCI data ( K LSCI ) versus time (cocaine induction at t = 0 s ). (b) Least-square-fit calibration. Peristaltic pulsate variations in the measured flow data were smoothed by digital data processing to enhance least-square fit. ( V SDOCT = 0.000426 * F LSCI 0.141 , r 2 = 0.96 ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Quantified LSCI results of the arterial flow in Fig. 3 and an arteriolar flow ( ϕ 30 μ m ) at spot A. Cocaine-induced flow increases in the small arteriole and in the artery are ∼49% and ∼53%, respectively.

Equations (2)

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ν x ( z ) = λ 0 Δ ϕ x ( z , τ ) 4 π n cos ( θ ) ,
K ( x , y ) = 1 exp ( 2 T k a v 2 ( x , y ) 1 2 ) 2 T k a v 2 ( x , y ) 1 2 ) ,

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