Abstract

We present what is to our knowledge a first hardware realization of a simulated annealing algorithm in an adaptive optics system designed to image the retina of the human eye. The algorithm is applied to the retinal image itself without the need for wavefront sensors in the system. We find that this optimization algorithm can be an alternative to the traditional Hartmann–Shack sensing. We also compare the simulated annealing algorithm to the stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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1992

R. G. Paxman, T. J. Schulz, and J. R. Fienup, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

E. N. Ribak, J. Adler, and S. G. Lipson, J. Phys. A 23, L809 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

Adler, J.

E. N. Ribak, J. Adler, and S. G. Lipson, J. Phys. A 23, L809 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aragon, J. L.

Artal, P.

Buffington, A.

Carhart, G. W.

Cauwenberghs, G.

Cohen, M.

Fernandez, E. J.

Fienup, J. R.

J. R. Fienup and J. J. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 609 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Paxman, T. J. Schulz, and J. R. Fienup, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gelatt, C. D.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, H.

Kirkpatrick, S.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, S. G.

E. N. Ribak, J. Adler, and S. G. Lipson, J. Phys. A 23, L809 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. J.

Muller, R. M.

Paxman, R. G.

R. G. Paxman, T. J. Schulz, and J. R. Fienup, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pruidze, D. V.

Ribak, E. N.

E. N. Ribak, J. Adler, and S. G. Lipson, J. Phys. A 23, L809 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ricklin, J. C.

Schulz, T. J.

R. G. Paxman, T. J. Schulz, and J. R. Fienup, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Singer, B.

Vecchi, M. P.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voelz, D. G.

Vorontsov, M. A.

Williams, D. R.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical result of the SA algorithm. Initial and final frames (a and b). (c) Corresponding sections used to calculate energy. (d) Energy graph.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of algorithms on a glass eye. SAM and SPGDM are the modal searches of simulated annealing and stochastic parallel gradient search, respectively. a, Initial images with all algorithms operating on the same retinal scene of 10 μ m glass spheres. b, Final images. c, Final mirror configurations. d, Comparison of the rise in energy (sharpness).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy graph of a human aberrated eye (notice the blink recovery), and a, initial and b, final PSFs. The LED irradiance on the cornea was 10 μ W . The total time was 40 s , and can easily be reduced.

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