Abstract

We report a Koehler-illumination-based full-field, actively stabilized, low-coherence phase-shifting interferometer, which is built on a white-light Michelson interferometer. By using a phase-stepping technique we can obtain full-field phase images of the sample. An actively stabilized phase-lock circuit is employed in the system to reduce phase noise. An application to human epithelial cells (HeLa cells) is achieved in our experiment. The advancement of this technique rests in its ability to take images of unstained biological samples quantitatively and on a nanometer scale.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. K. Hitzenberger and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 24, 622 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Yang, A. Wax, M. S. Hahn, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 26, 1271 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Akkin, D. P. Dave, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander III, Appl. Opt. 31, 2377 (2004).
  4. M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 30, 1162 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Sticker, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Opt. Lett. 27, 1126 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Joo, T. Akkin, B. Cense, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Lett. 30, 2131 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Dubois, L. Vabre, and A. C. Boccara, Opt. Lett. 26, 1873 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Iwai, C. Fang-Yen, G. Popescu, A. Wax, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 29, 2399 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 29, 2503 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Creath, in Progress in Optics XXVI, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1998), pp. 349-393.
  11. A. A. Freschi and J. Frejlich, Opt. Lett. 20, 635 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping Theory, Algorithm, and Software (Wiley, 1998), pp. 380-387.
  13. A. Dunn, C. Smithpeter, A. J. Welch, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 262 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. G. Shroff, D. R. Saner, and R. Lal, Am. J. Phys. 38, C286 (1995).
  15. A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 304, 1147 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005

2004

2002

2001

1999

1998

K. Creath, in Progress in Optics XXVI, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1998), pp. 349-393.

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping Theory, Algorithm, and Software (Wiley, 1998), pp. 380-387.

1997

A. Dunn, C. Smithpeter, A. J. Welch, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. G. Shroff, D. R. Saner, and R. Lal, Am. J. Phys. 38, C286 (1995).

A. A. Freschi and J. Frejlich, Opt. Lett. 20, 635 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akkin, T.

Badizadegan, K.

Boccara, A. C.

Cense, B.

Choma, M. A.

Creath, K.

K. Creath, in Progress in Optics XXVI, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1998), pp. 349-393.

Creazzo, T. L.

Dasari, R. R.

Dave, D. P.

de Boer, J. F.

Deflores, L. P.

Dubois, A.

Dunn, A.

A. Dunn, C. Smithpeter, A. J. Welch, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbee, A. K.

Fang-Yen, C.

Feld, M. S.

Fercher, A. F.

Frejlich, J.

Freschi, A. A.

Ghiglia, D. C.

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping Theory, Algorithm, and Software (Wiley, 1998), pp. 380-387.

Gimzewski, J. K.

A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 304, 1147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gotzinger, E.

Gralla, E. B.

A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 304, 1147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, M. S.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Iwai, H.

Izatt, J. A.

Joo, C.

Lal, R.

S. G. Shroff, D. R. Saner, and R. Lal, Am. J. Phys. 38, C286 (1995).

Milner, T. E.

Park, B. H.

Pelling, A. E.

A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 304, 1147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pircher, M.

Popescu, G.

Pritt, M. D.

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping Theory, Algorithm, and Software (Wiley, 1998), pp. 380-387.

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. Dunn, C. Smithpeter, A. J. Welch, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rylander, H. G.

Saner, D. R.

S. G. Shroff, D. R. Saner, and R. Lal, Am. J. Phys. 38, C286 (1995).

Sattmann, H.

Sehati, S.

A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 304, 1147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shroff, S. G.

S. G. Shroff, D. R. Saner, and R. Lal, Am. J. Phys. 38, C286 (1995).

Smithpeter, C.

A. Dunn, C. Smithpeter, A. J. Welch, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sticker, M.

Vabre, L.

Valentine, J. S.

A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 304, 1147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, J. C.

Wax, A.

Welch, A. J.

A. Dunn, C. Smithpeter, A. J. Welch, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Am. J. Phys.

S. G. Shroff, D. R. Saner, and R. Lal, Am. J. Phys. 38, C286 (1995).

Appl. Opt.

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. Dunn, C. Smithpeter, A. J. Welch, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K. Gimzewski, Science 304, 1147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Creath, in Progress in Optics XXVI, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1998), pp. 349-393.

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping Theory, Algorithm, and Software (Wiley, 1998), pp. 380-387.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup. Abbreviations are defined in text. Solid lines, beam path for imaging light; dashed lines, beam path for probing light. (b) Four frames of fringe intensity with π r 0 2 phase shifts between adjacent frames. (c) Phase image of a slightly tilted mirror, which was retrieved from four frames of (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of a negative test chart pattern with chrome deposited upon glass. (b) Full-field quantitative phase image of a portion of the test chart pattern. (c) Unwrapped phase image of a portion of (b). (d) Cross-sectional profile of (c) in units of nanometers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the sample configuration in the sample arm. Cells were compressed by the mirror. (b) Topographic image of optical-path difference between a cell and a culture medium. (c) Cross-sectional profile from point (A) to point (B) in (b) in units of nanometers.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V 1 ( t ) = V 0 sin [ ϕ ϕ PZT ( t ) + ϕ N ( t ) ] ,
V 2 ( t ) = V 0 cos [ ϕ ϕ PZT ( t ) + ϕ N ( t ) ] ,
V e ( t ) = V 1 cos θ V 2 sin θ = V 0 sin [ ϕ ϕ PZT ( t ) + ϕ N ( t ) θ ] ,
ϕ = tan 1 [ ( I 1 I 3 ) cos ( π r 0 2 ) ( I 2 I 4 ) ( I 1 I 3 ) sin ( π r 0 2 ) ] π 2 r 0 .

Metrics