Abstract

We demonstrate laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging with two excitation laser beams delivered by a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber. The group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation effects are largely suppressed due to the large mode area of the fiber and the use of picosecond pulses. The fiber delivery preserves the signal level and image spatial resolution well. High-quality images of live spinal cord tissues are acquired using the fiber-delivered laser source. Our method provides a basic platform for developing a flexible and compact CARS imaging system.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (4)

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ramachandran, M. F. Yan, J. Jasapara, P. Wisk, S. Ghalmi, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, Opt. Lett. 30, 3225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

W. Gobel, A. Nimmerjahn, and F. Helmchen, Opt. Lett. 29, 1285 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, M. Myaing, and D. A. Reis, Opt. Lett. 29, 2602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

A. S. L. Gomes, W. Sibbett, and J. R. Taylor, Appl. Phys. B 39, 43 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. H. Stolen and C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

Cheng, J. X.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, E. L. M.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cocker, E. D.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Flusberg, B. A.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

Fried, N. M.

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, D. M.

Fu, Y.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

Genet, M.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghalmi, S.

Gobel, W.

Gomes, A. S.

A. S. L. Gomes, W. Sibbett, and J. R. Taylor, Appl. Phys. B 39, 43 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Helmchen, F.

Jasapara, J.

Jung, J. C.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. U.

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laemmel, E.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Gargasson, J. F.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Goualher, G.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

Lin, C.

R. H. Stolen and C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K. D.

Monberg, E.

Myaing, M.

Nimmerjahn, A.

Ouzounov, D. G.

Perchant, A.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piyawattanametha, W.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramachandran, S.

Reis, D. A.

Schnitzer, M. J.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, U.

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, R.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

A. S. L. Gomes, W. Sibbett, and J. R. Taylor, Appl. Phys. B 39, 43 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen and C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tank, D. W.

Taylor, J. R.

A. S. L. Gomes, W. Sibbett, and J. R. Taylor, Appl. Phys. B 39, 43 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vicaut, E.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

Wisk, P.

Xie, X. S.

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

Zickmund, P.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. S. L. Gomes, W. Sibbett, and J. R. Taylor, Appl. Phys. B 39, 43 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Vasc. Res. (1)

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. H. Stolen and C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Examination of SPM effects in different fibers. a, fiber coupling setup. The inset shows the PCF cross section. b, Pump laser spectra before and after the large mode area PCF. c, Pump laser spectra with the normal SMF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of CARS signal between PCF and free-space delivery. a, CARS image of 1–μm melamine beads with PCF delivered laser source. Pump 14170 cm–1, 39 mW; Stokes 11330 cm–1, 17 mW. Red color: F-CARS; green color: E-CARS. b, CARS image with free space lasers of same frequency and power. c,d, Line profile for a and b, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

E-CARS images of axonal myelin sheath with PCF delivered laser source. Pump 14170 cm–1, 60 mW; Stokes 11330 cm–1, 20 mW. a, Image of parallel myelinated axons. b, Node of Ranvier. c, Schmidt-Lanterman incisure.

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