Abstract

An automated choroidal vessel segmentation and quantification method for high-penetration optical coherence tomography (OCT) was developed for advanced visualization and evaluation of the choroidal vasculature. This method uses scattering OCT volumes for the segmentation of choroidal vessels by using a multi-scale adaptive threshold. The segmented choroidal vessels are then processed by multi-scale morphological analysis to quantify the vessel diameters. The three-dimensional structure and the diameter distribution of the choroidal vasculature were then obtained. The usefulness of the method was then evaluated by analyzing the OCT volumes of normal subjects.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (3)

S. Kuroda, Y. Ikuno, Y. Yasuno, K. Nakai, S. Usui, M. Sawa, M. Tsujikawa, F. Gomi, and K. Nishida, “Choroidal thickness in central serous chorioretinopathy.” Retina33, 302–308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Kajić, M. Esmaeelpour, C. Glittenberg, M. F. Kraus, J. Honegger, R. Othara, S. Binder, J. G. Fujimoto, and W. Drexler, “Automated three-dimensional choroidal vessel segmentation of 3d 1060 nm oct retinal data,” Biomed. Opt. Express4, 134–150 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Nagase, M. Yamanari, R. Tanaka, T. Yasui, M. Miura, T. Iwasaki, H. Goto, and Y. Yasuno, “Anisotropic alteration of scleral birefringence to uniaxial mechanical strain,” PLoS ONE8, e58716 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (14)

Y. Lim, Y.-J. Hong, L. Duan, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Passive component based multifunctional jones matrix swept source optical coherence tomography for doppler and polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett.37, 1958–1960 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, K. Ishii, S. Fukuda, Y. Lim, L. Duan, S. Makita, M. Miura, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical rheology of porcine sclera by birefringence imaging.” PLoS One7, e44026 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sohrab, K. Wu, and A. A. Fawzi, “A pilot study of morphometric analysis of choroidal vasculature in vivousing en face optical coherence tomography,” PLoS ONE7, e48631 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Usui, Y. Ikuno, A. Miki, K. Matsushita, Y. Yasuno, and K. Nishida, “Evaluation of the choroidal thickness using high-penetration optical coherence tomography with long wavelength in highly myopic normal-tension glaucoma.” Am. J. Ophthalmol.153, 10–6.e1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, R. F. Mullins, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automated segmentation of the choroid from clinical sd-oct,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53, 7510–7519 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Duan, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated phase retardation oriented segmentation of chorio-scleral interface by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express20, 3353–3366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Torzicky, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, M. Bonesi, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Automated measurement of choroidal thickness in the human eye by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express20, 7564–7574 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Motaghiannezam, D. M. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “In vivo human choroidal vascular pattern visualization using high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53, 2337–2348 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20, 2740–2760 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jaillon, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Variable velocity range imaging of the choroid with dual-beam optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express20, 385–396 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Angiography of the retina and the choroid with phase-resolved oct using interval-optimized backstitched b-scans,” Opt. Express20, 20516–20534 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nakai, F. Gomi, Y. Ikuno, Y. Yasuno, T. Nouchi, N. Ohguro, and K. Nishida, “Choroidal observations in vogt-koyanagi-harada disease using high-penetration optical coherence tomography.” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.250, 1089–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Jirarattanasopa, S. Ooto, I. Nakata, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, A. Oishi, and N. Yoshimura, “Choroidal thickness, vascular hyperpermeability, and complement factor h in age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53, 3663–3672 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Mwanza, F. E. Sayyad, and D. L. Budenz, “Choroidal thickness in unilateral advanced glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53, 6695–6701 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

V. Manjunath, J. Goren, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Analysis of choroidal thickness in age-related macular degeneration using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.152, 663–668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. G. Singh, T. Schmoll, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Segmentation of doppler optical coherence tomography signatures using a support-vector machine.” Biomed. Opt. Express2, 1328–1339 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Mwanza, J. T. Hochberg, M. R. Banitt, W. J. Feuer, and D. L. Budenz, “Lack of association between glaucoma and macular choroidal thickness measured with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52, 3430–3435 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Agawa, M. Miura, Y. Ikuno, S. Makita, T. Fabritius, T. Iwasaki, H. Goto, K. Nishida, and Y. Yasuno, “Choroidal thickness measurement in healthy japanese subjects by three-dimensional high-penetration optical coherence tomography.” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.249, 1485–1492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. D. P. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-μm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid.” Opt. Express19, 20886–20903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. L. Nickla and J. Wallman, “The multifunctional choroid,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.29, 144–168 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. Margolis and R. F. Spaide, “A pilot study of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the choroid in normal eyes,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.147, 811–815 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27, 45–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozonni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146, 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

E. Ricci and R. Perfetti, “Retinal blood vessel segmentation using line operators and support vector classification.” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag.26, 1357–1365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yasuno, Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-um swept source optical coherence tomography andscattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express15, 6121–6139 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sang, H. Li, W. Peng, and T. Zhang, “Knowledge-based adaptive thresholding segmentation of digital subtraction angiography images,” Imag. Vision Comput.25, 1263–1270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

E. C. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid,” Opt. Express14, 4403–4411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai and A. C. S. Chung, “Multi-resolution vessel segmentation using normalized cuts in retinal images,” Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci.4191, 928–936 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology113, 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

R. J. Klein, C. Zeiss, E. Y. Chew, J.-Y. Tsai, R. S. Sackler, C. Haynes, A. K. Henning, J. P. SanGiovanni, S. M. Mane, S. T. Mayne, M. B. Bracken, F. L. Ferris, J. Ott, C. Barnstable, and J. Hoh, “Complement factor h polymorphism in age-related macular degeneration,” Science308, 385–389 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, “In vivo retinal optical coherence tomography at 1040 nm - enhanced penetration into the choroid,” Opt. Express13, 3252–3258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Staal, M. Abramoff, M. Niemeijer, M. Viergever, and B. van Ginneken, “Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag.23, 501–509 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography — principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys.66, 239–303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. A. Linsenmeier and L. Padnick-Silver, “Metabolic dependence of photoreceptors on the choroid in the normal and detached retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.41, 3117–3123 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. E. Martínez-Pérez, A. D. Hughes, A. V. Stanton, S. A. Thom, and A. A. B. K. H. Parker, “Retinal blood vessel segmentation by means of scale-space analysis and region growing,” Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci.1679, 90–97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, K. L. Vincken, and M. A. Viergever, “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science1496, 130–137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Z. Q. Yin, Vaegan, T. J. Millar, P. Beaumont, and S. Sarks, “Widespread choroidal insufficiency in primary open-angle glaucoma.” J. Glaucoma6, 23–32 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green.” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

D. R. Guyer, L. A. Yannuzzi, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, A. Ho, and D. Orlock, “Digital indocyanine green videoangiography of central serous chorioretinopathy.” Arch. Ophthalmol.112, 1057–1062 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell629–639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey.” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
[PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. Kittler, J. Illingworth, and J. Föglein, “Threshold selection based on a simple image statistic,” Comput. Vis. Graph.30, 125–147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. C. Crow, “Summed-area tables for texture mapping,” ACM SIGGRAPH Comput. Graphics18, 207–212 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., Syst.9, 62–66 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Abramoff, M.

J. Staal, M. Abramoff, M. Niemeijer, M. Viergever, and B. van Ginneken, “Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag.23, 501–509 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Abràmoff, M. D.

L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, R. F. Mullins, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automated segmentation of the choroid from clinical sd-oct,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53, 7510–7519 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agam, G.

C.-H. Wu, G. Agam, and P. Stanchev, “A general framework for vessel segmentation in retinal images,” in “International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, 2007. CIRA 2007.”, (2007), pp. 37–42.
[CrossRef]

Agawa, T.

T. Agawa, M. Miura, Y. Ikuno, S. Makita, T. Fabritius, T. Iwasaki, H. Goto, K. Nishida, and Y. Yasuno, “Choroidal thickness measurement in healthy japanese subjects by three-dimensional high-penetration optical coherence tomography.” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.249, 1485–1492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Alam, S.

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L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, R. F. Mullins, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automated segmentation of the choroid from clinical sd-oct,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53, 7510–7519 (2012).
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S. Kuroda, Y. Ikuno, Y. Yasuno, K. Nakai, S. Usui, M. Sawa, M. Tsujikawa, F. Gomi, and K. Nishida, “Choroidal thickness in central serous chorioretinopathy.” Retina33, 302–308 (2013).
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M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green.” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
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L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey.” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
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M. Sohrab, K. Wu, and A. A. Fawzi, “A pilot study of morphometric analysis of choroidal vasculature in vivousing en face optical coherence tomography,” PLoS ONE7, e48631 (2012).
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L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, R. F. Mullins, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Automated segmentation of the choroid from clinical sd-oct,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53, 7510–7519 (2012).
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M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green.” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
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J. Staal, M. Abramoff, M. Niemeijer, M. Viergever, and B. van Ginneken, “Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag.23, 501–509 (2004).
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M. E. Martínez-Pérez, A. D. Hughes, A. V. Stanton, S. A. Thom, and A. A. B. K. H. Parker, “Retinal blood vessel segmentation by means of scale-space analysis and region growing,” Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci.1679, 90–97 (1999).
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S. Nagase, M. Yamanari, R. Tanaka, T. Yasui, M. Miura, T. Iwasaki, H. Goto, and Y. Yasuno, “Anisotropic alteration of scleral birefringence to uniaxial mechanical strain,” PLoS ONE8, e58716 (2013).
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M. E. Martínez-Pérez, A. D. Hughes, A. V. Stanton, S. A. Thom, and A. A. B. K. H. Parker, “Retinal blood vessel segmentation by means of scale-space analysis and region growing,” Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci.1679, 90–97 (1999).
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L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey.” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
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Tsai, J.-Y.

R. J. Klein, C. Zeiss, E. Y. Chew, J.-Y. Tsai, R. S. Sackler, C. Haynes, A. K. Henning, J. P. SanGiovanni, S. M. Mane, S. T. Mayne, M. B. Bracken, F. L. Ferris, J. Ott, C. Barnstable, and J. Hoh, “Complement factor h polymorphism in age-related macular degeneration,” Science308, 385–389 (2005).
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P. Jirarattanasopa, S. Ooto, I. Nakata, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, A. Oishi, and N. Yoshimura, “Choroidal thickness, vascular hyperpermeability, and complement factor h in age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53, 3663–3672 (2012).
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S. Kuroda, Y. Ikuno, Y. Yasuno, K. Nakai, S. Usui, M. Sawa, M. Tsujikawa, F. Gomi, and K. Nishida, “Choroidal thickness in central serous chorioretinopathy.” Retina33, 302–308 (2013).
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Usui, S.

S. Kuroda, Y. Ikuno, Y. Yasuno, K. Nakai, S. Usui, M. Sawa, M. Tsujikawa, F. Gomi, and K. Nishida, “Choroidal thickness in central serous chorioretinopathy.” Retina33, 302–308 (2013).
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S. Usui, Y. Ikuno, A. Miki, K. Matsushita, Y. Yasuno, and K. Nishida, “Evaluation of the choroidal thickness using high-penetration optical coherence tomography with long wavelength in highly myopic normal-tension glaucoma.” Am. J. Ophthalmol.153, 10–6.e1 (2012).
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Z. Q. Yin, Vaegan, T. J. Millar, P. Beaumont, and S. Sarks, “Widespread choroidal insufficiency in primary open-angle glaucoma.” J. Glaucoma6, 23–32 (1997).
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J. Staal, M. Abramoff, M. Niemeijer, M. Viergever, and B. van Ginneken, “Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag.23, 501–509 (2004).
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J. Staal, M. Abramoff, M. Niemeijer, M. Viergever, and B. van Ginneken, “Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag.23, 501–509 (2004).
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A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, K. L. Vincken, and M. A. Viergever, “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science1496, 130–137 (1998).
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A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, K. L. Vincken, and M. A. Viergever, “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science1496, 130–137 (1998).
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D. L. Nickla and J. Wallman, “The multifunctional choroid,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.29, 144–168 (2010).
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S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology113, 1425–1431 (2006).
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C.-H. Wu, G. Agam, and P. Stanchev, “A general framework for vessel segmentation in retinal images,” in “International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, 2007. CIRA 2007.”, (2007), pp. 37–42.
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M. Sohrab, K. Wu, and A. A. Fawzi, “A pilot study of morphometric analysis of choroidal vasculature in vivousing en face optical coherence tomography,” PLoS ONE7, e48631 (2012).
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Yamashiro, K.

P. Jirarattanasopa, S. Ooto, I. Nakata, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, A. Oishi, and N. Yoshimura, “Choroidal thickness, vascular hyperpermeability, and complement factor h in age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53, 3663–3672 (2012).
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M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green.” Ophthalmology101, 529–533 (1994).
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L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey.” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
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S. Nagase, M. Yamanari, R. Tanaka, T. Yasui, M. Miura, T. Iwasaki, H. Goto, and Y. Yasuno, “Anisotropic alteration of scleral birefringence to uniaxial mechanical strain,” PLoS ONE8, e58716 (2013).
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S. Nagase, M. Yamanari, R. Tanaka, T. Yasui, M. Miura, T. Iwasaki, H. Goto, and Y. Yasuno, “Anisotropic alteration of scleral birefringence to uniaxial mechanical strain,” PLoS ONE8, e58716 (2013).
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S. Kuroda, Y. Ikuno, Y. Yasuno, K. Nakai, S. Usui, M. Sawa, M. Tsujikawa, F. Gomi, and K. Nishida, “Choroidal thickness in central serous chorioretinopathy.” Retina33, 302–308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Usui, Y. Ikuno, A. Miki, K. Matsushita, Y. Yasuno, and K. Nishida, “Evaluation of the choroidal thickness using high-penetration optical coherence tomography with long wavelength in highly myopic normal-tension glaucoma.” Am. J. Ophthalmol.153, 10–6.e1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakai, F. Gomi, Y. Ikuno, Y. Yasuno, T. Nouchi, N. Ohguro, and K. Nishida, “Choroidal observations in vogt-koyanagi-harada disease using high-penetration optical coherence tomography.” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.250, 1089–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, K. Ishii, S. Fukuda, Y. Lim, L. Duan, S. Makita, M. Miura, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical rheology of porcine sclera by birefringence imaging.” PLoS One7, e44026 (2012).
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F. Jaillon, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Variable velocity range imaging of the choroid with dual-beam optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express20, 385–396 (2012).
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Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. J. Ju, E. J. Min, B. H. Lee, M. Itoh, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “High-penetration swept source doppler optical coherence angiography by fully numerical phase stabilization,” Opt. Express20, 2740–2760 (2012).
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L. Duan, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated phase retardation oriented segmentation of chorio-scleral interface by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express20, 3353–3366 (2012).
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T. Agawa, M. Miura, Y. Ikuno, S. Makita, T. Fabritius, T. Iwasaki, H. Goto, K. Nishida, and Y. Yasuno, “Choroidal thickness measurement in healthy japanese subjects by three-dimensional high-penetration optical coherence tomography.” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.249, 1485–1492 (2011).
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Y. Yasuno, Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-um swept source optical coherence tomography andscattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express15, 6121–6139 (2007).
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Yatagai, T.

Yin, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Yin, Vaegan, T. J. Millar, P. Beaumont, and S. Sarks, “Widespread choroidal insufficiency in primary open-angle glaucoma.” J. Glaucoma6, 23–32 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimura, N.

P. Jirarattanasopa, S. Ooto, I. Nakata, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, A. Oishi, and N. Yoshimura, “Choroidal thickness, vascular hyperpermeability, and complement factor h in age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53, 3663–3672 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zang, E.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey.” Ophthalmology93, 611–617 (1986).
[PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology113, 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeiss, C.

R. J. Klein, C. Zeiss, E. Y. Chew, J.-Y. Tsai, R. S. Sackler, C. Haynes, A. K. Henning, J. P. SanGiovanni, S. M. Mane, S. T. Mayne, M. B. Bracken, F. L. Ferris, J. Ott, C. Barnstable, and J. Hoh, “Complement factor h polymorphism in age-related macular degeneration,” Science308, 385–389 (2005).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of the framework for the choroidal vessel segmentation and quantification method. The dashed lines represent the same operation with a 375-μm window, i.e., adaptive thresholding, busyness filtering and rejection of false vessel pixels, but with different window size except 47-μm. For the 47-μm window, the Busyness filter is not applied because this window does not possess enough number of pixels to apply the busyness filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

En face slices extracted at (a) 25 μm, (b) 100 μm, (c) 175 μm, and (d) 250 μm beneath the RPE. The white and black represent hyper- and hypo-scattering, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) OCT en face slice at a constant depth from the RPE. (b) Binary image obtained by adaptive local thresholding with a fixed window size. The white and black pixels are non-vessel and vessel pixels, respectively. (c) Busyness distribution obtained from (b). (d) The classification result of pseudo-vessel pixels (red) based on the busyness distribution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Choroidal vessel segmentation results corresponding to OCT en face slices in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) en face projection of the hyper-reflective complex obtained by averaging the intensity values. The vessel structure in the en face projection is enhanced by the Frangi filter (b), and further thresholding and morphological closing provides segmented retinal vessels (c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Choroidal vessel diameter estimations corresponding to Fig. 4. The sub-figures (a)–(d) represent the en face slices at 25 μm, 100 μm, 175 μm, and 250 μm from the RPE, respectively. The brightness represents the vessel diameter except the region without choroidal vessels and the region of the shadow of retinal vessels are shown in black.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The absolute difference in the estimated choroidal vessel diameters between the standard and fast methods. (a) – (d) respectively correspond to the slices (a) – (d) of Fig. 4 and at 25 μm, 100 μm, 175 μm, and 250 μm from the RPE.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

An example of active deformable surface representing a vascular network envelope. (a) initial 10 × 10 control points and (b) an example of deformed surface obtained by 2-D bi-cubic interpolation of control points after deformation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Coronal (a), sagittal (b), and birds-eye (c) views of a segmented choroidal vasculature ( Media 1). Note that the rendered volume in (b) is magnified ×2 along the depth direction. The color in these volume-rendered images represents the quantified vascular thickness. (d) The thickness map of the choroidal vascular network layer.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The choroidal vascular network layer thickness maps (left) and the mean choroidal vessel diameter as a function of the depth from RPE obtained from two eyes of two subjects. C: central subfield, NI: nasal inner macula, SI: superior inner macula, TI: temporal inner macula, II: inferior inner macula, NO: nasal outer macula, SO: superior outer macula, TO: temporal outer macula, IO: inferior outer macula.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of ICGA (a), en face projection of vessel diameter volume (b), and depth-resolved en face projection of vessel diameter volume (c) of a 6-mm × 6-mm macular region obtained from the same subject with the Case-1 of Fig. 10.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Vascular network thickness maps obtained in 8 eyes of 4 healthy subjects. Each row represents each subject. The dashed line in the left image of the third row indicates the position of the B-scan shown in Fig. 13.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) A B-scan image of the right eye of Subject-3 corresponding to the dashed line in Fig. 12. (b) A phase retardation image of the same subject taken at the same position of the eye by using polarization sensitive OCT.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Depth-resolved vascular diameter maps corresponding to Fig. 12. Note that the color maps are normalized for each of the subjects.

Equations (9)

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ρ ( x 0 , y 0 ; w x , w y ) x i , y i I ( x i , y i ) g ( x i , y i ) / x i , y i g ( x i , y i ) , ( x i , y i ) W ( x 0 , y 0 ; w x , w y )
g ( x i , y i ) ( I ( x i , y i ) x i ) 2 + ( I ( x i , y i ) y i ) 2
V c ( x i , y i , z i ) = { V ( x i , y i , z i ; w = 47 ) V ( x i , y i , z i ; w = 94 ) for I ( x i , y i , z i ) k * V ( x i , y i , z i ; w = 94 ) V ( x i , y i , z i ; w = 188 ) V ( x i , y i , z i ; w = 375 ) otherwise
I ( τ + 1 ) ( x i , y i ) = I ( τ ) ( x i , y i ) + δ div ( c ( x i , y i ) I ( τ ) ( x i , y i ) )
c ( x i , y i ) = 1 1 + ( I ( x i , y i ) / κ ) 2
F j ( τ ) = α R j ( τ ) + β P j ( τ ) + G ,
R j ( τ ) = ( 2 S ( x i , y i ) x i 2 + 2 S ( x i , y i ) y i 2 ) | x i = u j , y i = v j
z j ( τ + 1 ) = { z j ( τ ) 1 for F j ( τ ) < F θ z j ( τ ) for F θ F j ( τ ) F θ z j ( τ ) + 1 for F j ( τ ) > F θ
Z d ( x i , y i ) = z i = 1 M d i ( x i , y i , z i ) M Δ z

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