Abstract

A novel spectrophone sensor prototype consisting of a T-shaped acoustic microresonator (T-mR) in off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (T-mR QEPAS) is introduced for the first time. Its performance was evaluated and optimized through an acoustic model and experimental investigation via detection of water vapor in the atmosphere. The present work shows that the use of T-mR in QEPAS based sensor can improve the detection sensitivity by a factor of up to ~30, compared with that using only a bare QTF. This value is as high as that obtained in a conventional “on-beam” QEPAS, while keeping the advantages of “off-beam” QEPAS configuration: it is no longer necessary to couple excitation light beam through the narrow gap between the QTF prongs. In addition, the T-mR is really suitable for mass production with high precision.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. K. Tittel, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and Y. Bakhirkin, “Semiconductor laser based trace gas sensor technology: recent advances and applications,” in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, Ebrahim-Zadeh, M., Sorokina, I.T., Eds. (Springer, 2007), 467–493.
  3. H. Yi, K. Liu, W. Chen, T. Tan, L. Wang, and X. Gao, “Application of a broadband blue laser diode to trace NO2 detection using off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 481–483 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Böttger, M. Angelmahr, and W. Schade, “Photoacoustic Gas Detection with LED QEPAS,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CH_P14.
  5. L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103103 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Yi, W. Chen, X. Guo, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “An acoustic model for microresonator in on beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B (2012). DOI .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Baumann, B. Kost, H. Groninga, and M. Wolff, “Eigenmode analysis of photoacoustic sensors via finite element method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 044901 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Elia, V. Spagnolo, C. D. Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Trace gas sensing using quantum cascade lasers and a fiber-coupled optoacoustic sensor: application to formaldehyde,” 15th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP15),” J. Phys.: Conference Series 214, 012037 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. L. Firebaugh, F. Roignant, and E. A. Terray, “Enhancing sensitivity in tuning fork photoacoustic spectroscopy systems,” in Sensor Application Symposium (SAS), 23–25 Feb. (IEEE Press, New York 2010), 30–35.
  12. P. Merkli, “Acoustic resonance frequencies for a T-tube,” Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 29(3), 486–498 (1978) (ZAMP).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Li and J. S. Vipperman, “On the design of long T-shaped acoustic resonators,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116(5), 2785–2792 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(4), 1937–1955 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. G. Richardson, Technical Aspects of Sound: Sonic Range and Airborne Sound (Elsevier Pub. Co., 1957), pp. 12–13 and 487–496.
  16. L. E. Kinsler and A. R. Frey, Fundamentals of Acoustics (John Wiley& Sons, Inc., 1962), pp. 116–118 and 186–213.

2012

H. Yi, W. Chen, X. Guo, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “An acoustic model for microresonator in on beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B (2012). DOI .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Elia, V. Spagnolo, C. D. Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Trace gas sensing using quantum cascade lasers and a fiber-coupled optoacoustic sensor: application to formaldehyde,” 15th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP15),” J. Phys.: Conference Series 214, 012037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2006

B. Baumann, B. Kost, H. Groninga, and M. Wolff, “Eigenmode analysis of photoacoustic sensors via finite element method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 044901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Li and J. S. Vipperman, “On the design of long T-shaped acoustic resonators,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116(5), 2785–2792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(4), 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1978

P. Merkli, “Acoustic resonance frequencies for a T-tube,” Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 29(3), 486–498 (1978) (ZAMP).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Baumann, B.

B. Baumann, B. Kost, H. Groninga, and M. Wolff, “Eigenmode analysis of photoacoustic sensors via finite element method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 044901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bozóki, Z.

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(4), 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

H. Yi, W. Chen, X. Guo, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “An acoustic model for microresonator in on beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B (2012). DOI .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yi, K. Liu, W. Chen, T. Tan, L. Wang, and X. Gao, “Application of a broadband blue laser diode to trace NO2 detection using off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 481–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curl, R. F.

Dong, L.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Elia, A.

A. Elia, V. Spagnolo, C. D. Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Trace gas sensing using quantum cascade lasers and a fiber-coupled optoacoustic sensor: application to formaldehyde,” 15th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP15),” J. Phys.: Conference Series 214, 012037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Franco, C. D.

A. Elia, V. Spagnolo, C. D. Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Trace gas sensing using quantum cascade lasers and a fiber-coupled optoacoustic sensor: application to formaldehyde,” 15th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP15),” J. Phys.: Conference Series 214, 012037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

H. Yi, W. Chen, X. Guo, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “An acoustic model for microresonator in on beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B (2012). DOI .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yi, K. Liu, W. Chen, T. Tan, L. Wang, and X. Gao, “Application of a broadband blue laser diode to trace NO2 detection using off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 481–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groninga, H.

B. Baumann, B. Kost, H. Groninga, and M. Wolff, “Eigenmode analysis of photoacoustic sensors via finite element method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 044901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

H. Yi, W. Chen, X. Guo, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “An acoustic model for microresonator in on beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B (2012). DOI .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, P.

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(4), 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kost, B.

B. Baumann, B. Kost, H. Groninga, and M. Wolff, “Eigenmode analysis of photoacoustic sensors via finite element method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 044901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, D.

D. Li and J. S. Vipperman, “On the design of long T-shaped acoustic resonators,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116(5), 2785–2792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

H. Yi, W. Chen, X. Guo, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “An acoustic model for microresonator in on beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B (2012). DOI .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yi, K. Liu, W. Chen, T. Tan, L. Wang, and X. Gao, “Application of a broadband blue laser diode to trace NO2 detection using off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 481–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lugarà, P. M.

A. Elia, V. Spagnolo, C. D. Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Trace gas sensing using quantum cascade lasers and a fiber-coupled optoacoustic sensor: application to formaldehyde,” 15th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP15),” J. Phys.: Conference Series 214, 012037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Merkli, P.

P. Merkli, “Acoustic resonance frequencies for a T-tube,” Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 29(3), 486–498 (1978) (ZAMP).
[CrossRef]

Miklós, A.

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(4), 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

A. Elia, V. Spagnolo, C. D. Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Trace gas sensing using quantum cascade lasers and a fiber-coupled optoacoustic sensor: application to formaldehyde,” 15th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP15),” J. Phys.: Conference Series 214, 012037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

A. Elia, V. Spagnolo, C. D. Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Trace gas sensing using quantum cascade lasers and a fiber-coupled optoacoustic sensor: application to formaldehyde,” 15th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP15),” J. Phys.: Conference Series 214, 012037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S.

H. Yi, W. Chen, X. Guo, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “An acoustic model for microresonator in on beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B (2012). DOI .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, T.

H. Yi, W. Chen, X. Guo, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “An acoustic model for microresonator in on beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B (2012). DOI .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yi, K. Liu, W. Chen, T. Tan, L. Wang, and X. Gao, “Application of a broadband blue laser diode to trace NO2 detection using off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 481–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomazy, D.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vipperman, J. S.

D. Li and J. S. Vipperman, “On the design of long T-shaped acoustic resonators,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116(5), 2785–2792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

H. Yi, K. Liu, W. Chen, T. Tan, L. Wang, and X. Gao, “Application of a broadband blue laser diode to trace NO2 detection using off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 481–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, M.

B. Baumann, B. Kost, H. Groninga, and M. Wolff, “Eigenmode analysis of photoacoustic sensors via finite element method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 044901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yi, H.

H. Yi, W. Chen, X. Guo, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “An acoustic model for microresonator in on beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B (2012). DOI .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yi, K. Liu, W. Chen, T. Tan, L. Wang, and X. Gao, “Application of a broadband blue laser diode to trace NO2 detection using off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 481–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

H. Yi, W. Chen, X. Guo, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “An acoustic model for microresonator in on beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B (2012). DOI .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

H. Yi, W. Chen, X. Guo, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “An acoustic model for microresonator in on beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B (2012). DOI .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

D. Li and J. S. Vipperman, “On the design of long T-shaped acoustic resonators,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116(5), 2785–2792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Conference Series

A. Elia, V. Spagnolo, C. D. Franco, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, “Trace gas sensing using quantum cascade lasers and a fiber-coupled optoacoustic sensor: application to formaldehyde,” 15th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP15),” J. Phys.: Conference Series 214, 012037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Kost, H. Groninga, and M. Wolff, “Eigenmode analysis of photoacoustic sensors via finite element method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 044901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(4), 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Angew. Math. Phys.

P. Merkli, “Acoustic resonance frequencies for a T-tube,” Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 29(3), 486–498 (1978) (ZAMP).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. G. Richardson, Technical Aspects of Sound: Sonic Range and Airborne Sound (Elsevier Pub. Co., 1957), pp. 12–13 and 487–496.

L. E. Kinsler and A. R. Frey, Fundamentals of Acoustics (John Wiley& Sons, Inc., 1962), pp. 116–118 and 186–213.

F. K. Tittel, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and Y. Bakhirkin, “Semiconductor laser based trace gas sensor technology: recent advances and applications,” in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, Ebrahim-Zadeh, M., Sorokina, I.T., Eds. (Springer, 2007), 467–493.

S. Böttger, M. Angelmahr, and W. Schade, “Photoacoustic Gas Detection with LED QEPAS,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CH_P14.

S. L. Firebaugh, F. Roignant, and E. A. Terray, “Enhancing sensitivity in tuning fork photoacoustic spectroscopy systems,” in Sensor Application Symposium (SAS), 23–25 Feb. (IEEE Press, New York 2010), 30–35.

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