Abstract

A frameless multi-view display module that consists of an array of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based projectors, a sparse lenticular lens, and a vertical diffuser is proposed to provide a large-screen autostereoscopic display. The projectors are positioned in a horizontal vector form or in a matrix form in front of the transfer screen in order to produce the same number of three-dimensional (3D) pixels in each cylindrical lens constituting the lenticular lens to increase the horizontal resolution of the module. The projectors generate a slanted two-dimensional array of dots on the vertical diffuser to provide a large number of viewpoints. The experimental display system was constructed using four projectors. The system had a 3D resolution of 160 × 120, and it provided 64 views. The screen size was 14.4 in.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic Press, New York, 1976).
  2. T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE68(5), 548–564 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer38(8), 31–36 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 125–140 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 540–555 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Okoshi, A. Yano, and Y. Fukumori, “Curved triple-mirror screen for projection-type three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt.10(3), 482–489 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Takaki, “A novel 3D display using an array of LCD panels,” Proc. SPIE5003, 1–8 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3D TV: A scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” AMC Trans. Graph.23, 814–824 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE6055, 60550U (2006).
  11. S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE7863, 78630T (2011).
  12. W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 647–653 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 662–667 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Urey and M. Sayinta, “An apparatus for displaying 3D images,” PCT WO2009/136218 A1.
  15. M. Freeman, M. Champion, and S. Madhaven, “Scanned laser pico-projectors: seeing the big picture (with a small device),” Opt. Photon. News20(5), 28–34 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723709 (2009).
  17. M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(7), 494–500 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Said and E.-V. Talvala, “Spatial-angular analysis of displays for reproduction of light fields,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723707 (2009).

2011

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE7863, 78630T (2011).

2010

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Said and E.-V. Talvala, “Spatial-angular analysis of displays for reproduction of light fields,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723707 (2009).

M. Freeman, M. Champion, and S. Madhaven, “Scanned laser pico-projectors: seeing the big picture (with a small device),” Opt. Photon. News20(5), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723709 (2009).

2006

T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE6055, 60550U (2006).

2005

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3D TV: A scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” AMC Trans. Graph.23, 814–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Takaki, “A novel 3D display using an array of LCD panels,” Proc. SPIE5003, 1–8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1980

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE68(5), 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1971

Ando, H.

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE7863, 78630T (2011).

Balogh, T.

T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE6055, 60550U (2006).

Champion, M.

M. Freeman, M. Champion, and S. Madhaven, “Scanned laser pico-projectors: seeing the big picture (with a small device),” Opt. Photon. News20(5), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chellappan, K.

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-L.

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S.-C.

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dodgson, N. A.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Erden, E.

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Favalora, G. E.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M.

M. Freeman, M. Champion, and S. Madhaven, “Scanned laser pico-projectors: seeing the big picture (with a small device),” Opt. Photon. News20(5), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fukumori, Y.

Holliman, N. S.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, T. H.

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.-H.

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iwasawa, S.

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE7863, 78630T (2011).

Javidi, B.

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawakita, M.

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE7863, 78630T (2011).

Koike, T.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723709 (2009).

Kuo, M.-H.

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Madhaven, S.

M. Freeman, M. Champion, and S. Madhaven, “Scanned laser pico-projectors: seeing the big picture (with a small device),” Opt. Photon. News20(5), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matusik, W.

W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3D TV: A scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” AMC Trans. Graph.23, 814–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, M.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

Pfister, H.

W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3D TV: A scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” AMC Trans. Graph.23, 814–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pockett, L.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Said, A.

A. Said and E.-V. Talvala, “Spatial-angular analysis of displays for reproduction of light fields,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723707 (2009).

Sakai, H.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723709 (2009).

Son, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Surman, P.

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki, “A novel 3D display using an array of LCD panels,” Proc. SPIE5003, 1–8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Talvala, E.-V.

A. Said and E.-V. Talvala, “Spatial-angular analysis of displays for reproduction of light fields,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723707 (2009).

Tsai, C.-H.

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Urey, H.

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Utsugi, K.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723709 (2009).

Wu, C.-S.

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, M.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723709 (2009).

Yano, A.

Yano, S.

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE7863, 78630T (2011).

AMC Trans. Graph.

W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3D TV: A scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” AMC Trans. Graph.23, 814–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Computer

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol.

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News

M. Freeman, M. Champion, and S. Madhaven, “Scanned laser pico-projectors: seeing the big picture (with a small device),” Opt. Photon. News20(5), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE68(5), 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

Y. Takaki, “A novel 3D display using an array of LCD panels,” Proc. SPIE5003, 1–8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723709 (2009).

A. Said and E.-V. Talvala, “Spatial-angular analysis of displays for reproduction of light fields,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723707 (2009).

T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE6055, 60550U (2006).

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE7863, 78630T (2011).

Other

H. Urey and M. Sayinta, “An apparatus for displaying 3D images,” PCT WO2009/136218 A1.

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic Press, New York, 1976).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Known large-screen autostereoscopic displays using multiple projectors: (a) superposition type and (b) tiling type.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Large-screen autostereoscopic displays consist of a two-dimensional array of multi-view display modules using MEMS projectors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of proposed multi-view display module using MEMS projectors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Horizontal sectional view of the module showing paths of rays emitted from (a) left projector, (b) center projector, and (c) right projector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Vertical sectional view of the module showing paths of rays emitted from projectors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Arrangement of MEMS projectors and the generation of 3D pixels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dot arrangement of MEMS projector to increase the number of viewpoints.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Arrangement of four MEMS projectors and common screen area: (a) horizontal sectional view, (b) vertical sectional view, and (c) 3D view.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Slanted slit array.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental multi-view display system using four MEMS projectors and a sparse lenticular lens.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Generation of 3D pixels in cylindrical lenses using (a) one, (b) two, (c) three, and (d) four projectors.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

3D image generated by experimental display system captured from (a) left, (b) center, and (c) right.

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