Abstract

The discontinuity of motion parallax offered by multi-view displays was assessed by subjective evaluation. A super multi-view head-up display, which provides dense viewing points and has short-, medium-, and long-distance display ranges, was used. The results showed that discontinuity perception depended on the ratio of an image shift between adjacent parallax images to a pixel pitch of three-dimensional (3D) images and the crosstalk between viewing points. When the ratio was less than 0.2 and the crosstalk was small, the discontinuity was not perceived. When the ratio was greater than 1 and the crosstalk was small, the discontinuity was perceived, and the resolution of the 3D images decreased twice. When the crosstalk was large, the discontinuity was not perceived even when the ratio was 1 or 2. However, the resolution decreased two or more times.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic Press, New York, 1976).
  2. N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D Displays,” Computer38(8), 31–36 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE68(5), 548–564 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J.-H. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt.48(34), H77–H94 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Display Technol.1(1), 125–140 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Takaki, Y. Urano, S. Kashiwada, H. Ando, and K. Nakamura, “Super multi-view windshield display for long-distance image information presentation,” Opt. Express19(2), 704–716 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE3012, 154–166 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE Crtical Reviews CR76, 218–249.
  10. Y. Takaki, “High-Density Directional Display for Generating Natural Three-Dimensional Images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 654–663 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Takaki, K. Tanaka, and J. Nakamura, “Super multi-view display with a lower resolution flat-panel display,” Opt. Express19(5), 4129–4139 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Pastoor and K. Schenke, “Subjective assessment of the resolution of viewing directions in a multi- viewpoint 3D TV system,” Proc. SID 30, 217–223 (1989).
  14. D. Runde, “How to Realize a Natural Image Reproduction using Stereoscopic Displays with Motion Parallax,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech.10(3), 376–386 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, T. Martin, and L. Stelmach, “Perceived smoothness of viewpoint transition in multi-viewpoint stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE5664, 72–82 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Hoshino, F. Okano, and I. Yuyama, “A study on resolution and aliasing for multi-viewpoint image acquisition,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech.10(3), 366–375 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE3012, 179–186 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

Y. Takaki, “High-Density Directional Display for Generating Natural Three-Dimensional Images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 654–663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Display Technol.1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D Displays,” Computer38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, T. Martin, and L. Stelmach, “Perceived smoothness of viewpoint transition in multi-viewpoint stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE5664, 72–82 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, and I. Yuyama, “A study on resolution and aliasing for multi-viewpoint image acquisition,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech.10(3), 366–375 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Runde, “How to Realize a Natural Image Reproduction using Stereoscopic Displays with Motion Parallax,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech.10(3), 376–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE68(5), 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ando, H.

Clarke, J. A.

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dodgson, N. A.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D Displays,” Computer38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Favalora, G. E.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holliman, N. S.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Honda, T.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hong, K.

Hoshino, H.

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, and I. Yuyama, “A study on resolution and aliasing for multi-viewpoint image acquisition,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech.10(3), 366–375 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Kajiki, Y.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwada, S.

Lee, B.

Martin, T.

F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, T. Martin, and L. Stelmach, “Perceived smoothness of viewpoint transition in multi-viewpoint stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE5664, 72–82 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nago, N.

Nakamura, J.

Nakamura, K.

Okano, F.

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, and I. Yuyama, “A study on resolution and aliasing for multi-viewpoint image acquisition,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech.10(3), 366–375 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE68(5), 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-H.

Pockett, L.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Runde, D.

D. Runde, “How to Realize a Natural Image Reproduction using Stereoscopic Displays with Motion Parallax,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech.10(3), 376–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.-Y.

Speranza, F.

F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, T. Martin, and L. Stelmach, “Perceived smoothness of viewpoint transition in multi-viewpoint stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE5664, 72–82 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stelmach, L.

F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, T. Martin, and L. Stelmach, “Perceived smoothness of viewpoint transition in multi-viewpoint stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE5664, 72–82 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takaki, Y.

Tam, W. J.

F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, T. Martin, and L. Stelmach, “Perceived smoothness of viewpoint transition in multi-viewpoint stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE5664, 72–82 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

Urano, Y.

van Berkel, C.

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, H.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yuyama, I.

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, and I. Yuyama, “A study on resolution and aliasing for multi-viewpoint image acquisition,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech.10(3), 366–375 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Computer (1)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D Displays,” Computer38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast (1)

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. (2)

D. Runde, “How to Realize a Natural Image Reproduction using Stereoscopic Displays with Motion Parallax,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech.10(3), 376–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, and I. Yuyama, “A study on resolution and aliasing for multi-viewpoint image acquisition,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech.10(3), 366–375 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. IEEE (2)

Y. Takaki, “High-Density Directional Display for Generating Natural Three-Dimensional Images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 654–663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE68(5), 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, T. Martin, and L. Stelmach, “Perceived smoothness of viewpoint transition in multi-viewpoint stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE5664, 72–82 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE Crtical Reviews CR76, 218–249.

S. Pastoor and K. Schenke, “Subjective assessment of the resolution of viewing directions in a multi- viewpoint 3D TV system,” Proc. SID 30, 217–223 (1989).

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic Press, New York, 1976).

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (3532 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (3349 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (3200 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Discontinuity in motion parallax that occurred in multi-view displays.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Super multi-view head-up display (SMV–HUD): (a) system configuration, and (b) imaging system; in the SMV-HUD developed in this study, a Fresnel lens is used as the projection lens, and the multi-view display consists of a flat-panel display and a slanted lenticular lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of the developed SMV–HUD: the display system is configured for (a) short-, (b) medium-, and (c) long-distance ranges for 3D image presentation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured light-intensity distributions of viewing points for medium-distance configuration: intervals between the viewing points are (a) 2.6 mm, (b) 5.3 mm, (c) 7.9 mm, (d) 10.6 mm, and (e) 15.8 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Test image used for measurements.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured results of unnatural motion-parallax and proper depth perceptions for short-distance configuration (observation distance l = 0.6 m; screen size = 20.9 in.): the intervals of viewing points are (a) 2.2 mm, (b) 4.4 mm, (c) 6.6 mm, (d) 8.8 mm, and (e) 13.1 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured results of unnatural motion-parallax and proper depth perceptions for medium-distance configuration (observation distance l = 1.5 m; screen size = 42.8 in.): intervals between viewing points are (a) 2.6 mm, (b) 5.3 mm, (c) 7.9 mm, (d) 10.6 mm, and (e) 15.8 mm: Movies are provided in case of (b) when the distance to 3D image was 0.5 m (Media 1), 0.7 m (Media 2), and 1.5 m (Media 3).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured results of unnatural motion-parallax and proper depth perceptions for long-distance configuration (observation distance l = 5.0 m; screen size = 170 inches): intervals between viewing points are (a) 2.2 mm, (b) 4.4 mm, (c) 6.7 mm, (d) 8.9 mm, and (e) 13.3 mm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of unnatural motion-parallax perception on q/p: (a) and (b) correspond to short-distance configuration, (c) and (d) correspond to medium-distance configuration, and (e) and (f) correspond to long-distance configuration; (a), (c), and (e) show small-crosstalk cases, and (b), (d), and (f) show large-crosstalk cases.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Retinal image formation at several positions in the viewing region: (a) small crosstalk and |q/p| = 1, (b) moderate crosstalk and |q/p| = 1, and (c) large crosstalk and |q/p| = 2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Images captured by the cooled CCD camera at several horizontal positions near the viewing point when |q/p| was approximately equal to 0.2 for small-crosstalk cases: (a) for short-distance range, d = 8.8 mm, z = 0.59 m, and q/p = −0.16; (b) medium-distance range, d = 10.6 mm, z = 1.45 m, and q/p = −0.14; and (c) long-distance range, d = 8.9 mm, z = 4.1 m, and q/p = −0.17.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Images captured by the cooled CCD camera at several horizontal positions near the viewing point when |q/p| was approximately equal to 1 for small-crosstalk cases: (a) for short-distance range, d = 8.8 mm, z = 0.54 m, and q/p = −0.70; (b) for medium-distance range, d = 10.6 mm, z = 1.2 m, and q/p = −1.0; and (c) for long-distance range, d = 8.9 mm, z = 2.1 m, and q/p = −1.1.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Images captured by the cooled CCD camera at several horizontal positions near the viewing point when | q/p | was approximately equal to 1 for large-crosstalk cases: (a) for short-distance configuration, d = 2.2 mm, z = 0.35 m, and q/p = −1.1; (b) for medium-distance configuration, d = 2.6 mm, z = 0.75 m, and q/p = −1.0; (c) for long-distance configuration, d = 2.2 mm, z = 1.0 m, and q/p = −0.77; and (d) for long-distance configuration, d = 4.4 mm, z = 1.5 m, and q/p = −0.89.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Images captured by the cooled CCD camera at several horizontal positions near the viewing point when | q/p | was approximately equal to 2 for large-crosstalk cases: (a) for short-distance configuration, d = 4.4 mm, z = 0.35 m, and q/p = −2.2; (b) for medium-distance configuration, d = 5.3 mm, z = 0.75 m, and q/p = −2.0; and (c) for medium-distance configuration, d = 2.6 mm, z = 0.5 m, and q/p = −2.0.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Relationships between unnatural motion-parallax perception, resolution, crosstalk, and parallax shift ratio |q/p|.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Display Parameters for SMV–HUD

Tables Icon

Table 2 Experimental Conditions

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1/s1/( lh )=1/f,
( lh )/s=D/ D 0 .
1/h1/( l 0 s )=1/f,
h/( l 0 s )=W/ W 0 .
z>l/( 1+mp/d ) ( dmp ),
l/( 1+mp/d )<z<l/( 1mp/d ) ( d>mp ).

Metrics