Abstract

Jones matrix optical coherence tomography can fully characterize depth-resolved polarization properties in tissue. In this report, we described a simple single-camera based implementation of full-range spectral domain Jones matrix optical coherence tomography. The Jones matrix reconstruction algorithm was described in detail and system calibration was demonstrated with comprehensive examples. In addition to the conventional structural image, the images of retardance, optical axis and relative attenuation can be obtained from the measured Jones matrix image. Both in vitro and in vivo image examples were presented to demonstrate the polarization imaging ability of the system.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

C. Fan and G. Yao, “Correcting optical-axis calculation in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(10), 2556–2559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. O. Bagnaninchi, Y. Yang, M. Bonesi, G. Maffulli, C. Phelan, I. Meglinski, A. El Haj, and N. Maffulli, “In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles ruptured tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3777–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Generalized Jones matrix optical coherence tomography: performance and local birefringence imaging,” Opt. Express 18(2), 854–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, “High-speed optical coherence tomography: basics and applications,” Appl. Opt. 49(16), D30–D61 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fan and G. Yao, “Single camera spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography using offset B-scan modulation,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7281–7287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, Y. Lim, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography by simultaneous transversal and spectral modulation,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13964–13980 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Song, M. Ahn, and D. Gweon, “Polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using a multi-line single camera spectrometer,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23805–23817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stifter, E. Leiss-Holzinger, Z. Major, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and B. Heise, “Dynamic optical studies in materials testing with spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25712–25725 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye by polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with 1- µm probe,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12385–12396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, “A review of some recent developments in polarization-sensitive optical imaging techniques for the study of articular cartilage,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102041 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (5)

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, M. Mujat, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using a single line scan camera,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2421–2431 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fan, Y. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography achieved by single camera detection,” Opt. Express 15(13), 7950–7961 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stifter, “Beyond biomedicine: a review of alternative applications and developments for optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. B 88(3), 337–357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. Oster, and D. Stifter, “Investigation of glass-fibre reinforced polymers by polarization-sensitive, ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography: internal structures, defects and stress,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 67(15-16), 3051–3058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2002 (2)

K. A. Hansen, J. A. Weiss, and J. K. Barton, “Recruitment of tendon crimp with applied tensile strain,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124(1), 72–77 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 350–358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

G. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Two-dimensional depth-resolved Mueller matrix characterization of biological tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 537–539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

Ahn, M.

Bagnaninchi, P. O.

P. O. Bagnaninchi, Y. Yang, M. Bonesi, G. Maffulli, C. Phelan, I. Meglinski, A. El Haj, and N. Maffulli, “In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles ruptured tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3777–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

K. A. Hansen, J. A. Weiss, and J. K. Barton, “Recruitment of tendon crimp with applied tensile strain,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124(1), 72–77 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Bonesi, M.

P. O. Bagnaninchi, Y. Yang, M. Bonesi, G. Maffulli, C. Phelan, I. Meglinski, A. El Haj, and N. Maffulli, “In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles ruptured tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3777–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

El Haj, A.

P. O. Bagnaninchi, Y. Yang, M. Bonesi, G. Maffulli, C. Phelan, I. Meglinski, A. El Haj, and N. Maffulli, “In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles ruptured tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3777–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endo, T.

S. Makita, Y. Yasuno, T. Endo, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization contrast imaging of biological tissues by polarization-sensitive Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 45(6), 1142–1147 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, C.

Fercher, A.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fymat, A. L.

Goetzinger, E.

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gweon, D.

Hansen, K. A.

K. A. Hansen, J. A. Weiss, and J. K. Barton, “Recruitment of tendon crimp with applied tensile strain,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124(1), 72–77 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heise, B.

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

D. Stifter, E. Leiss-Holzinger, Z. Major, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and B. Heise, “Dynamic optical studies in materials testing with spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25712–25725 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. Oster, and D. Stifter, “Investigation of glass-fibre reinforced polymers by polarization-sensitive, ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography: internal structures, defects and stress,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 67(15-16), 3051–3058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

S. Makita, Y. Yasuno, T. Endo, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization contrast imaging of biological tissues by polarization-sensitive Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 45(6), 1142–1147 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, S.

Katada, C.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, N.

Leiss-Holzinger, E.

Leitgeb, R.

Lim, Y.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjarova, V. D.

Maffulli, G.

P. O. Bagnaninchi, Y. Yang, M. Bonesi, G. Maffulli, C. Phelan, I. Meglinski, A. El Haj, and N. Maffulli, “In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles ruptured tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3777–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maffulli, N.

P. O. Bagnaninchi, Y. Yang, M. Bonesi, G. Maffulli, C. Phelan, I. Meglinski, A. El Haj, and N. Maffulli, “In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles ruptured tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3777–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maitland, D. J.

D. J. Maitland and J. T. Walsh., “Quantitative measurements of linear birefringence during heating of native collagen,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20(3), 310–318 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Major, Z.

Makita, S.

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, Y. Lim, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography by simultaneous transversal and spectral modulation,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13964–13980 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Generalized Jones matrix optical coherence tomography: performance and local birefringence imaging,” Opt. Express 18(2), 854–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye by polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with 1- µm probe,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12385–12396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V. D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6502–6515 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Yasuno, T. Endo, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization contrast imaging of biological tissues by polarization-sensitive Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 45(6), 1142–1147 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matcher, S. J.

S. J. Matcher, “A review of some recent developments in polarization-sensitive optical imaging techniques for the study of articular cartilage,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102041 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meglinski, I.

P. O. Bagnaninchi, Y. Yang, M. Bonesi, G. Maffulli, C. Phelan, I. Meglinski, A. El Haj, and N. Maffulli, “In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles ruptured tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3777–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T.

Milner, T. E.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(12), 934–936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Mutoh, M.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(12), 934–936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oster, R.

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. Oster, and D. Stifter, “Investigation of glass-fibre reinforced polymers by polarization-sensitive, ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography: internal structures, defects and stress,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 67(15-16), 3051–3058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Park, J.

Pham, T. H.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phelan, C.

P. O. Bagnaninchi, Y. Yang, M. Bonesi, G. Maffulli, C. Phelan, I. Meglinski, A. El Haj, and N. Maffulli, “In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles ruptured tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3777–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

D. Stifter, E. Leiss-Holzinger, Z. Major, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and B. Heise, “Dynamic optical studies in materials testing with spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25712–25725 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. Oster, and D. Stifter, “Investigation of glass-fibre reinforced polymers by polarization-sensitive, ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography: internal structures, defects and stress,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 67(15-16), 3051–3058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rylander Iii, H. G.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, C.

Srinivas, S. M.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sticker, M.

Stifter, D.

D. Stifter, E. Leiss-Holzinger, Z. Major, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and B. Heise, “Dynamic optical studies in materials testing with spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25712–25725 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. Oster, and D. Stifter, “Investigation of glass-fibre reinforced polymers by polarization-sensitive, ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography: internal structures, defects and stress,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 67(15-16), 3051–3058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Stifter, “Beyond biomedicine: a review of alternative applications and developments for optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. B 88(3), 337–357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, M.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Walsh, J. T.

D. J. Maitland and J. T. Walsh., “Quantitative measurements of linear birefringence during heating of native collagen,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20(3), 310–318 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, Y.

Weiss, J. A.

K. A. Hansen, J. A. Weiss, and J. K. Barton, “Recruitment of tendon crimp with applied tensile strain,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124(1), 72–77 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiesauer, K.

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. Oster, and D. Stifter, “Investigation of glass-fibre reinforced polymers by polarization-sensitive, ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography: internal structures, defects and stress,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 67(15-16), 3051–3058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, Y.

P. O. Bagnaninchi, Y. Yang, M. Bonesi, G. Maffulli, C. Phelan, I. Meglinski, A. El Haj, and N. Maffulli, “In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles ruptured tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3777–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, G.

Yasuno, Y.

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, Y. Lim, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography by simultaneous transversal and spectral modulation,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13964–13980 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Generalized Jones matrix optical coherence tomography: performance and local birefringence imaging,” Opt. Express 18(2), 854–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye by polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with 1- µm probe,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12385–12396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V. D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6502–6515 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Yasuno, T. Endo, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization contrast imaging of biological tissues by polarization-sensitive Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 45(6), 1142–1147 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yatagai, T.

Yu, W.

Zaatari, H.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Stifter, “Beyond biomedicine: a review of alternative applications and developments for optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. B 88(3), 337–357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Compos. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. Oster, and D. Stifter, “Investigation of glass-fibre reinforced polymers by polarization-sensitive, ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography: internal structures, defects and stress,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 67(15-16), 3051–3058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

C. Fan and G. Yao, “Correcting optical-axis calculation in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(10), 2556–2559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. J. Matcher, “A review of some recent developments in polarization-sensitive optical imaging techniques for the study of articular cartilage,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102041 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomech. Eng. (1)

K. A. Hansen, J. A. Weiss, and J. K. Barton, “Recruitment of tendon crimp with applied tensile strain,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124(1), 72–77 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 350–358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

D. J. Maitland and J. T. Walsh., “Quantitative measurements of linear birefringence during heating of native collagen,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20(3), 310–318 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (17)

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Park, M. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. de Boer, “Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(7), 782–793 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fan and G. Yao, “Single camera spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography using offset B-scan modulation,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7281–7287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, Y. Lim, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography by simultaneous transversal and spectral modulation,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13964–13980 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Song, M. Ahn, and D. Gweon, “Polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using a multi-line single camera spectrometer,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23805–23817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stifter, E. Leiss-Holzinger, Z. Major, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and B. Heise, “Dynamic optical studies in materials testing with spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25712–25725 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V. D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6502–6515 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, M. Mujat, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using a single line scan camera,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2421–2431 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fan, Y. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography achieved by single camera detection,” Opt. Express 15(13), 7950–7961 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye by polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with 1- µm probe,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12385–12396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Generalized Jones matrix optical coherence tomography: performance and local birefringence imaging,” Opt. Express 18(2), 854–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kemp, H. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander Iii, and T. Milner, “Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Opt. Express 13(12), 4611–4628 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

P. O. Bagnaninchi, Y. Yang, M. Bonesi, G. Maffulli, C. Phelan, I. Meglinski, A. El Haj, and N. Maffulli, “In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles ruptured tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3777–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. Collett, Polarized light: fundamentals and applications (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1993), Ch. 4, p.36.

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (3517 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (3525 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (3563 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (3447 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the proposed Jones matrix PSOCT system. SLD: Superluminescent diode; C: collimator, P: a polarizer for generating vertically polarized light; EOM: electronic optical modulator; BS: non polarization beam splitter; ND: neutral density filter; PBS: polarization beam splitter; M1, M2: reference mirrors for the horizontal and vertical polarization components; L1: achromatic collimation lens (f = 30 mm); L2 achromatic focusing lens (f = 120 mm); OL: objective lens (f = 60 mm); VPHTG: volume phase holography transmission grating (1200lines/mm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

An illustration of the system synchronization sequence. Ch 0 is the trigger sequence for CCD A-line acquisition. Ch 1 is the drive signal for the EOM where a high voltage generates a left-circularly polarized light, and a low voltage generates a right-circularly polarized light. Ch 2 triggers the driving signals for the B- and C-scanner.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

An illustration of the error distribution as a function of the calibration parameters δc and ϕc with θc set at 2.39. (a) The LSE shown in a pseudo color image with black indicating small error. (b) The LSE profiles as a function of δc and ϕc along the lines shown in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The effect of calibration matrix on the measured retardance and optical axis of a variable waveplate whose retardance was set at π/2 (in a and b) and π/4 (in c and d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The measured amplitudes of Jones matrix elements J(1,1) and J(2,1) of the quarter wave plate. Solid lines are calculation results from of |cos(2θ)| and |sin(2θ)|. (b) The measured retardance, optical axis and relative attenuation of a quarter waveplate. The axis of the quarter waveplate was rotated from –π/2 to π/2 during the test.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Depth-resolve polarization imaging of a piece of chicken tendon sample. (a)Intensity; (b)retardance; (c)optical axis; and (d) relative attenuation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example A-line profiles of retardance, optical axis and relative attenuation extracted from the dashed lines marked in Fig. 6. The line shown in (b) was a linear regression fitting of the experimental data (R2 = 0.86).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Depth-resolve polarization imaging of a finger bed in vivo. Example cross-sectional images are shown in the first row: (a) intensity (Media 1), (b) retardance (Media 2), (c) optical axis (Media 3), and (d) relative attenuation (Media 4). Shown in the 2nd row are enface images extracted at the position of the dashed line in (a): (e) intensity, (f) retardance, (g) optical axis, and (h) relative attenuation. The labels shown indicate different structures: “e” epidermis, “d” dermis, “c” cuticle, “p” nail plate, “b” nail bed, “m” nail matrix.

Equations (21)

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( H s L (z,x) V s L (z,x) )= J det J(z,x) 2 2 ( 1 +i ) ( H s R (z,x) V s R (z,x) )= J det J(z,x) 2 2 ( 1 i ) ,
J(z,x)= 2 J det 1 [ H s L (z,x) H s R (z,x) V s L (z,x) V s R (z,x) ] [ 1 1 +i i ] 1 .
I(k,x)=S(k)| + E r H δ(z z H ) e i(kz+ θ H ) dz + + E r V δ(z z V ) e i(kz+ θ V ) dz + + E s H (z,x) e i(kz+ ϕ H + f m x) dz + + E s V (z,x) e i(kz+ ϕ V + f m x) dz | 2 ,
LC incidence: θ H =α, θ V =π/2 RC incidence: θ H =α, θ V =π/2 .
I(k,x)=S(k)( I r + I s )+2S(k) + E r H E s H (z,x)cos[ k( z z H )+ ϕ H θ H + f m x ]dz, +2S(k) + E r V E s V (z,x)cos[ k( z z V )+ ϕ V θ V + f m x ]dz
I s =2 z,z' [ E s H (z,x) E s H (z',x)+ E s V (z,x) E s V (z',x) ]cos[ k( zz' ) ]dzdz' .
I(k,u)= + F ^ x [ 2S(k) E r H e i θ H H s (z,x) ][ 2π 2 e i[ k( z z H ) ] u f m δ(u f m ) ]dz + + F ^ x [ 2S(k) E r V e i θ V V s (z,x) ][ 2π 2 e i[ k( z z V ) ] u f m δ(u f m ) ]dz ,
I ˜ (k,x)= F ^ u 1 [ I(k,u) ]= + S(k) E r H e i θ H H s (z,x) e i[ k( z z H )+ f m x ] dz + + S(k) E r V e i θ V V s (z,x) e i[ k( z z V )+ f m x ] dz .
I ˜ (k,x)= 2π S(k){ F z 1 [ E r H e i θ H H s (z+ z H ,x) e i f m x ] + F z 1 [ E r V e i θ V V s (z+ z V ,x) e i f m x ] }.
I ˜ (z,x)= F ^ k [ I ˜ (k,x) ]= 2π F ^ k [ S(k) ] E r V e i f m x [ E r H E r V e i θ H H s (z+ z H ,x)+ e i θ V V s (z+ z V ,x) ].
[ H s (z,x) V s (z,x) ]=[ I ˜ (z z H ,x) e i θ H E r V E r H I ˜ (z z V ,x) e i θ V ].
[ H s L (z,x) H s R (z,x) V s L (z,x) V s R (z,x) ]=[ e iα I ˜ L (z z H ,x) E r V E r H e iα I ˜ R (z z H ,x) E r V E r H +i I ˜ L (z z V ,x) i I ˜ R (z z V ,x) ].
J(z,x)= 2 J det 1 [ e iα 0 0 i ][ E r V / E r H 0 0 1 ][ I ˜ L (z z H ,x) I ˜ R (z z H ,x) + I ˜ L (z z V ,x) I ˜ R (z z V ,x) ] [ 1 1 +i i ] 1 = J cal [ E r V / E r H 0 0 1 ][ I ˜ L (z z H ,x) I ˜ R (z z H ,x) + I ˜ L (z z V ,x) I ˜ R (z z V ,x) ] [ 1 1 +i i ] 1 .
J cal =( cos θ c sin θ c sin θ c cos θ c )( e i δ c /2 0 0 e i δ c /2 )( cos θ c sin θ c sin θ c cos θ c )( cos ϕ c sin ϕ c sin ϕ c cos ϕ c ).
I=10 log 10 [ ( | J(1,1) | 2 + | J(2,1) | 2 + | J(1,2) | 2 + | J(2,2) | 2 )/2 ].
J=VΛ V 1 =[ ν 11 ν 21 ν 12 ν 21 ][ λ 1 0 0 λ 2 ] [ ν 11 ν 21 ν 12 ν 21 ] 1 ,
{ λ 1 = e iδ+σ = e iρ λ 2 = e (iδ+σ) = e iρ ,
δ= 1 2 | tan 1 Im( λ 1 × λ 2 * ) Re( λ 1 × λ 2 * ) |.
θ= 1 2 tan 1 ( 2| v 21 v 22 |cosτ | v 21 | 2 | v 22 | 2 ),
σ=tan h 1 ( | | λ 1 | 2 | λ 2 | 2 | λ 1 | 2 + | λ 2 | 2 | ), [0, ].
J= J QWP T J QWP =[ cos(2θ) sin(2θ) sin(2θ) cos(2θ) ].

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