Abstract

A vital element in integrated optofluidics is dynamic tuning and precise control of photonic devices, especially when employing electronic techniques which are challenging to utilize in an aqueous environment. We overcome this challenge by introducing a new platform in which the photonic device is controlled using electro-optical phase tuning. The phase tuning is generated by the thermo-optic effect using an on-chip electric microheater located outside the fluidic channel, and is transmitted to the optofluidic device through optical waveguides. The microheater is compact, high-speed (> 18 kHz), and consumes low power (~mW). We demonstrate dynamic optical trapping control of nanoparticles by an optofluidic resonator. This novel electro-optofluidic platform allows the realization of high throughput optofluidic devices with switching, tuning, and reconfiguration capability, and promises new directions in optofluidics.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

X. Serey, S. Mandal, Y. F. Chen, and D. Erickson, “DNA transport and delivery in thermal gradients near optofluidic resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 048102 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Forget and S. C. Kowalczykowski, “Single-molecule imaging of DNA pairing by RecA reveals a three-dimensional homology search,” Nature 482(7385), 423–427 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

B. Sun, D. S. Johnson, G. Patel, B. Y. Smith, M. Pandey, S. S. Patel, and M. D. Wang, “ATP-induced helicase slippage reveals highly coordinated subunits,” Nature 478(7367), 132–135 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Fan and I. M. White, “Optofluidic microsystems for chemical and biological analysis,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 591–597 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, “Photonics integration of non-solid media using optofluidics,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 598–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Chung and D. Erickson, “Optofluidic waveguides for reconfigurable photonic systems,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8602–8609 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Shamai and U. Levy, “On chip tunable micro ring resonator actuated by electrowetting,” Opt. Express 17(2), 1116–1125 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (5)

2006 (5)

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 59–61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, P. Behroozi, M. Loncar, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, T. Aellen, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Microfluidic tuning of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11660–11667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Y. Tang, B. T. Mayers, D. V. Vezenov, and G. M. Whitesides, “Optical waveguiding using thermal gradients across homogenous liquids in microfluidic channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Brau, P. B. Tarsa, J. M. Ferrer, P. Lee, and M. J. Lang, “Interlaced optical force-fluorescence measurements for single molecule biophysics,” Biophys. J. 91(3), 1069–1077 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. L. Robinson, “New ways to make microcircuits smaller,” Science 208(4447), 1019–1022 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adibi, A.

Aellen, T.

Almeida, V. R.

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asghari, M.

Atabaki, A. H.

Beck, M.

Behroozi, P.

Belkin, M. A.

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Brau, R. R.

R. R. Brau, P. B. Tarsa, J. M. Ferrer, P. Lee, and M. J. Lang, “Interlaced optical force-fluorescence measurements for single molecule biophysics,” Biophys. J. 91(3), 1069–1077 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, K.

Capasso, F.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y. F.

X. Serey, S. Mandal, Y. F. Chen, and D. Erickson, “DNA transport and delivery in thermal gradients near optofluidic resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 048102 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

A. Pertsinidis, Y. Zhang, and S. Chu, “Subnanometre single-molecule localization, registration and distance measurements,” Nature 466(7306), 647–651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, A. J.

Crozier, K.

S. Y. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

Diehl, L.

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: a new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Eftekhar, A. A.

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: a new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emery, T.

Erickson, D.

Fainman, Y.

Faist, J.

Fan, S. H.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. D.

X. D. Fan and I. M. White, “Optofluidic microsystems for chemical and biological analysis,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 591–597 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, D.

Ferrer, J. M.

R. R. Brau, P. B. Tarsa, J. M. Ferrer, P. Lee, and M. J. Lang, “Interlaced optical force-fluorescence measurements for single molecule biophysics,” Biophys. J. 91(3), 1069–1077 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forget, A. L.

A. L. Forget and S. C. Kowalczykowski, “Single-molecule imaging of DNA pairing by RecA reveals a three-dimensional homology search,” Nature 482(7385), 423–427 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groisman, A.

Haus, H. A.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, A. R.

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, “Photonics integration of non-solid media using optofluidics,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 598–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. S.

B. Sun, D. S. Johnson, G. Patel, B. Y. Smith, M. Pandey, S. S. Patel, and M. D. Wang, “ATP-induced helicase slippage reveals highly coordinated subunits,” Nature 478(7367), 132–135 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, M. J.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klug, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczykowski, S. C.

A. L. Forget and S. C. Kowalczykowski, “Single-molecule imaging of DNA pairing by RecA reveals a three-dimensional homology search,” Nature 482(7385), 423–427 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, M. J.

R. R. Brau, P. B. Tarsa, J. M. Ferrer, P. Lee, and M. J. Lang, “Interlaced optical force-fluorescence measurements for single molecule biophysics,” Biophys. J. 91(3), 1069–1077 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. G.

Lee, P.

R. R. Brau, P. B. Tarsa, J. M. Ferrer, P. Lee, and M. J. Lang, “Interlaced optical force-fluorescence measurements for single molecule biophysics,” Biophys. J. 91(3), 1069–1077 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

Li, G.

Li, Q.

Liang, H.

Lin, S. Y.

S. Y. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Loncar, M.

Mandal, S.

X. Serey, S. Mandal, Y. F. Chen, and D. Erickson, “DNA transport and delivery in thermal gradients near optofluidic resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 048102 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manolatou, C.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mayers, B. T.

S. K. Y. Tang, B. T. Mayers, D. V. Vezenov, and G. M. Whitesides, “Optical waveguiding using thermal gradients across homogenous liquids in microfluidic channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: a new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moore, S. D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandey, M.

B. Sun, D. S. Johnson, G. Patel, B. Y. Smith, M. Pandey, S. S. Patel, and M. D. Wang, “ATP-induced helicase slippage reveals highly coordinated subunits,” Nature 478(7367), 132–135 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panepucci, R. R.

Pang, L.

Patel, G.

B. Sun, D. S. Johnson, G. Patel, B. Y. Smith, M. Pandey, S. S. Patel, and M. D. Wang, “ATP-induced helicase slippage reveals highly coordinated subunits,” Nature 478(7367), 132–135 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, S. S.

B. Sun, D. S. Johnson, G. Patel, B. Y. Smith, M. Pandey, S. S. Patel, and M. D. Wang, “ATP-induced helicase slippage reveals highly coordinated subunits,” Nature 478(7367), 132–135 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pertsinidis, A.

A. Pertsinidis, Y. Zhang, and S. Chu, “Subnanometre single-molecule localization, registration and distance measurements,” Nature 466(7306), 647–651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poon, A. W.

Pradhan, S.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 59–61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, A. L.

A. L. Robinson, “New ways to make microcircuits smaller,” Science 208(4447), 1019–1022 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockwood, T.

Scherer, A.

Schmidt, B.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B. S.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Schmidt, A. H. J. Yang, D. Erickson, and M. Lipson, “Optofluidic trapping and transport on solid core waveguides within a microfluidic device,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14322–14334 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, “Photonics integration of non-solid media using optofluidics,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 598–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schonbrun, E.

S. Y. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serey, X.

X. Serey, S. Mandal, Y. F. Chen, and D. Erickson, “DNA transport and delivery in thermal gradients near optofluidic resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 048102 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafiiha, R.

Shah Hosseini, E.

Shamai, R.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Smith, B. Y.

B. Sun, D. S. Johnson, G. Patel, B. Y. Smith, M. Pandey, S. S. Patel, and M. D. Wang, “ATP-induced helicase slippage reveals highly coordinated subunits,” Nature 478(7367), 132–135 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soltani, M.

Sun, B.

B. Sun, D. S. Johnson, G. Patel, B. Y. Smith, M. Pandey, S. S. Patel, and M. D. Wang, “ATP-induced helicase slippage reveals highly coordinated subunits,” Nature 478(7367), 132–135 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S. K. Y.

S. K. Y. Tang, B. T. Mayers, D. V. Vezenov, and G. M. Whitesides, “Optical waveguiding using thermal gradients across homogenous liquids in microfluidic channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tarsa, P. B.

R. R. Brau, P. B. Tarsa, J. M. Ferrer, P. Lee, and M. J. Lang, “Interlaced optical force-fluorescence measurements for single molecule biophysics,” Biophys. J. 91(3), 1069–1077 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vezenov, D. V.

S. K. Y. Tang, B. T. Mayers, D. V. Vezenov, and G. M. Whitesides, “Optical waveguiding using thermal gradients across homogenous liquids in microfluidic channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Wang, M. D.

B. Sun, D. S. Johnson, G. Patel, B. Y. Smith, M. Pandey, S. S. Patel, and M. D. Wang, “ATP-induced helicase slippage reveals highly coordinated subunits,” Nature 478(7367), 132–135 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, I. M.

X. D. Fan and I. M. White, “Optofluidic microsystems for chemical and biological analysis,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 591–597 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

S. K. Y. Tang, B. T. Mayers, D. V. Vezenov, and G. M. Whitesides, “Optical waveguiding using thermal gradients across homogenous liquids in microfluidic channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. F.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, A. H. J.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. K. Y. Tang, B. T. Mayers, D. V. Vezenov, and G. M. Whitesides, “Optical waveguiding using thermal gradients across homogenous liquids in microfluidic channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061112 (2006).
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R. R. Brau, P. B. Tarsa, J. M. Ferrer, P. Lee, and M. J. Lang, “Interlaced optical force-fluorescence measurements for single molecule biophysics,” Biophys. J. 91(3), 1069–1077 (2006).
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C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(9), 1322–1331 (1999).
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U. Levy and R. Shamai, “Tunable optofluidic devices,” Microfluid Nanofluid 4(1-2), 97–105 (2008).
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S. Y. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
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C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: a new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
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D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
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A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
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Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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A. Pertsinidis, Y. Zhang, and S. Chu, “Subnanometre single-molecule localization, registration and distance measurements,” Nature 466(7306), 647–651 (2010).
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L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, P. Behroozi, M. Loncar, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, T. Aellen, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Microfluidic tuning of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11660–11667 (2006).
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L. J. Zhou and A. W. Poon, “Electrically reconfigurable silicon microring resonator-based filter with waveguide-coupled feedback,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9194–9204 (2007).
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B. S. Schmidt, A. H. J. Yang, D. Erickson, and M. Lipson, “Optofluidic trapping and transport on solid core waveguides within a microfluidic device,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14322–14334 (2007).
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M. Soltani, Q. Li, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Improvement of thermal properties of ultra-high Q silicon microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17305–17312 (2007).
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A. Groisman, S. Zamek, K. Campbell, L. Pang, U. Levy, and Y. Fainman, “Optofluidic 1x4 switch,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13499–13508 (2008).
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N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
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R. Shamai and U. Levy, “On chip tunable micro ring resonator actuated by electrowetting,” Opt. Express 17(2), 1116–1125 (2009).
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A. H. Atabaki, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Optimization of metallic microheaters for high-speed reconfigurable silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18312–18323 (2010).
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A. J. Chung and D. Erickson, “Optofluidic waveguides for reconfigurable photonic systems,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8602–8609 (2011).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

X. Serey, S. Mandal, Y. F. Chen, and D. Erickson, “DNA transport and delivery in thermal gradients near optofluidic resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 048102 (2012).
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A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
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Other (1)

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (73 KB)     

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