Abstract

Raman spectroscopy has been explored as a promising label-free technique in discriminating apoptosis and necrosis induced cell death in leukemia cells. In addition to Principal component analysis (PCA) as commonly employed in Raman data analysis, another less commonly used but powerful method is Biochemical Component Analysis (BCA). In BCA, a Raman spectrum is decomposed into the contributions from several known basic biochemical components, such as proteins, lipid, nucleic acids and glycogen groups etc. The differences in terms of classification accuracy and interpretability of resulting data between these two methods in Raman spectroscopy have not been systematically investigated to our knowledge. In this study, we utilized both methods to analyze the Raman spectra measured from live cells, apoptotic and necrotic leukemia cells. The comparison indicates that two methods yield comparable accuracy in sample classification when the numbers of basic components are equal. The changes in the contributions of biochemical components in BCA can be interpreted by cell biology principles in apoptosis and necrosis. In contrast, the contributions of most principle components in PCA are difficult to interpret except the first one. The capability of BCA to unveil fine biochemical changes in cell spectra and excellent accuracy in classification can impel the broad application of Raman spectroscopy in biological research.

© 2012 OSA

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Corrections

Yi Hong Ong, Mayasari Lim, and Quan Liu, "Comparison of principal component analysis and biochemical component analysis in Raman spectroscopy for the discrimination of apoptosis and necrosis in K562 leukemia cells: errata," Opt. Express 20, 25041-25043 (2012)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-22-25041

References

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2012 (1)

D. Van de Sompel, E. Garai, C. Zavaleta, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Hybrid Least Squares and Principal Component Analysis Algorithm for Raman Spectroscopy,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38850 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

P. Chen, A. G. Shen, X. D. Zhou, and J. M. Hu, “Bio-Raman spectroscopy: a potential clinical analytical method assisting in disease diagnosis,” Anal. Methods 3(6), 1257–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoladek, F. C. Pascut, P. Patel, and I. Notingher, “Non-invasive time-course imaging of apoptotic cells by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 251–258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. D. Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

G. Pyrgiotakis, O. E. Kundakcioglu, K. Finton, P. M. Pardalos, K. Powers, and B. M. Moudgil, “Cell death discrimination with Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(7), 1464–1473 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y.- Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shinzawa, K. Awa, W. Kanematsu, and Y. Ozaki, “Multivariate data analysis for Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1720–1725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

N. Kunapareddy, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of necrotic cell death,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. W. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral Analysis of Multiplex Raman Probe Signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, “Nondestructive identification of individual leukemia cells by laser trapping Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2180–2187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. L. Pichardo-Molina, C. Frausto-Reyes, O. Barbosa-García, R. Huerta-Franco, J. L. González-Trujillo, C. A. Ramírez-Alvarado, G. Gutiérrez-Juárez, and C. Medina-Gutiérrez, “Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(4), 229–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Elmore, “Apoptosis: a review of programmed cell death,” Toxicol. Pathol. 35(4), 495–516 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. R. Mourant, J. Dominguez, S. Carpenter, K. W. Short, T. M. Powers, R. Michalczyk, N. Kunapareddy, A. Guerra, and J. P. Freyer, “Comparison of vibrational spectroscopy to biochemical and flow cytometry methods for analysis of the basic biochemical composition of mammalian cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. R. Mourant, K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, N. Kunapareddy, L. Coburn, T. M. Powers, and J. P. Freyer, “Biochemical differences in tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells measured by Raman and infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Verrier, I. Notingher, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ monitoring of cell death using Raman microspectroscopy,” Biopolymers 74(1-2), 157–162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

I. A. Boere, T. C. B. Schut, J. van den Boogert, R. W. F. de Bruin, and G. J. Puppels, “Use of fibre optic probes for detection of Barrett's epithelium in the rat oesophagus by Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 32(1), 47–55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Ryder, “Classification of narcotics in solid mixtures using Principal Component Analysis and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Forensic Sci. 47(2), 275–284 (2002).
[PubMed]

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, H. Romanska, A. E. Bishop, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ characterisation of living cells by Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Int. J. 16(2), 43–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. S. Saini and N. I. Walker, “Biochemical and molecular mechanisms regulating apoptosis,” Mol. Cell. Biochem. 178(1/2), 9–25 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ai, M.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y.- Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Allen, A. N.

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. W. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral Analysis of Multiplex Raman Probe Signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arisawa, E. A. L.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. D. Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Awa, K.

H. Shinzawa, K. Awa, W. Kanematsu, and Y. Ozaki, “Multivariate data analysis for Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1720–1725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa-García, O.

J. L. Pichardo-Molina, C. Frausto-Reyes, O. Barbosa-García, R. Huerta-Franco, J. L. González-Trujillo, C. A. Ramírez-Alvarado, G. Gutiérrez-Juárez, and C. Medina-Gutiérrez, “Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(4), 229–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bishop, A. E.

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, H. Romanska, A. E. Bishop, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ characterisation of living cells by Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Int. J. 16(2), 43–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bitar, R. A.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. D. Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boere, I. A.

I. A. Boere, T. C. B. Schut, J. van den Boogert, R. W. F. de Bruin, and G. J. Puppels, “Use of fibre optic probes for detection of Barrett's epithelium in the rat oesophagus by Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 32(1), 47–55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, S.

J. R. Mourant, J. Dominguez, S. Carpenter, K. W. Short, T. M. Powers, R. Michalczyk, N. Kunapareddy, A. Guerra, and J. P. Freyer, “Comparison of vibrational spectroscopy to biochemical and flow cytometry methods for analysis of the basic biochemical composition of mammalian cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, N. Kunapareddy, L. Coburn, T. M. Powers, and J. P. Freyer, “Biochemical differences in tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells measured by Raman and infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, “Nondestructive identification of individual leukemia cells by laser trapping Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2180–2187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, S.

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. W. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral Analysis of Multiplex Raman Probe Signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, A. G. Shen, X. D. Zhou, and J. M. Hu, “Bio-Raman spectroscopy: a potential clinical analytical method assisting in disease diagnosis,” Anal. Methods 3(6), 1257–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coburn, L.

J. R. Mourant, K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, N. Kunapareddy, L. Coburn, T. M. Powers, and J. P. Freyer, “Biochemical differences in tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells measured by Raman and infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crow, P.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, J.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davis, G.

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Bruin, R. W. F.

I. A. Boere, T. C. B. Schut, J. van den Boogert, R. W. F. de Bruin, and G. J. Puppels, “Use of fibre optic probes for detection of Barrett's epithelium in the rat oesophagus by Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 32(1), 47–55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dentinger, C. E.

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. W. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral Analysis of Multiplex Raman Probe Signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doering, W.

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dominguez, J.

J. R. Mourant, J. Dominguez, S. Carpenter, K. W. Short, T. M. Powers, R. Michalczyk, N. Kunapareddy, A. Guerra, and J. P. Freyer, “Comparison of vibrational spectroscopy to biochemical and flow cytometry methods for analysis of the basic biochemical composition of mammalian cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

dos Santos, E. A. P.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. D. Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Elmore, S.

S. Elmore, “Apoptosis: a review of programmed cell death,” Toxicol. Pathol. 35(4), 495–516 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Finton, K.

G. Pyrgiotakis, O. E. Kundakcioglu, K. Finton, P. M. Pardalos, K. Powers, and B. M. Moudgil, “Cell death discrimination with Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(7), 1464–1473 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frausto-Reyes, C.

J. L. Pichardo-Molina, C. Frausto-Reyes, O. Barbosa-García, R. Huerta-Franco, J. L. González-Trujillo, C. A. Ramírez-Alvarado, G. Gutiérrez-Juárez, and C. Medina-Gutiérrez, “Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(4), 229–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

N. Kunapareddy, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of necrotic cell death,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. Dominguez, S. Carpenter, K. W. Short, T. M. Powers, R. Michalczyk, N. Kunapareddy, A. Guerra, and J. P. Freyer, “Comparison of vibrational spectroscopy to biochemical and flow cytometry methods for analysis of the basic biochemical composition of mammalian cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, N. Kunapareddy, L. Coburn, T. M. Powers, and J. P. Freyer, “Biochemical differences in tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells measured by Raman and infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

D. Van de Sompel, E. Garai, C. Zavaleta, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Hybrid Least Squares and Principal Component Analysis Algorithm for Raman Spectroscopy,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38850 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garai, E.

D. Van de Sompel, E. Garai, C. Zavaleta, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Hybrid Least Squares and Principal Component Analysis Algorithm for Raman Spectroscopy,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38850 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González-Trujillo, J. L.

J. L. Pichardo-Molina, C. Frausto-Reyes, O. Barbosa-García, R. Huerta-Franco, J. L. González-Trujillo, C. A. Ramírez-Alvarado, G. Gutiérrez-Juárez, and C. Medina-Gutiérrez, “Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(4), 229–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerra, A.

J. R. Mourant, J. Dominguez, S. Carpenter, K. W. Short, T. M. Powers, R. Michalczyk, N. Kunapareddy, A. Guerra, and J. P. Freyer, “Comparison of vibrational spectroscopy to biochemical and flow cytometry methods for analysis of the basic biochemical composition of mammalian cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.

J. L. Pichardo-Molina, C. Frausto-Reyes, O. Barbosa-García, R. Huerta-Franco, J. L. González-Trujillo, C. A. Ramírez-Alvarado, G. Gutiérrez-Juárez, and C. Medina-Gutiérrez, “Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(4), 229–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haka, A. S.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, B.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y.- Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hench, L. L.

S. Verrier, I. Notingher, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ monitoring of cell death using Raman microspectroscopy,” Biopolymers 74(1-2), 157–162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, H. Romanska, A. E. Bishop, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ characterisation of living cells by Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Int. J. 16(2), 43–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J. M.

P. Chen, A. G. Shen, X. D. Zhou, and J. M. Hu, “Bio-Raman spectroscopy: a potential clinical analytical method assisting in disease diagnosis,” Anal. Methods 3(6), 1257–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huerta-Franco, R.

J. L. Pichardo-Molina, C. Frausto-Reyes, O. Barbosa-García, R. Huerta-Franco, J. L. González-Trujillo, C. A. Ramírez-Alvarado, G. Gutiérrez-Juárez, and C. Medina-Gutiérrez, “Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(4), 229–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huser, T.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, “Nondestructive identification of individual leukemia cells by laser trapping Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2180–2187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanematsu, W.

H. Shinzawa, K. Awa, W. Kanematsu, and Y. Ozaki, “Multivariate data analysis for Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1720–1725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, C.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knudsen, B. S.

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. W. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral Analysis of Multiplex Raman Probe Signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunapareddy, N.

N. Kunapareddy, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of necrotic cell death,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. Dominguez, S. Carpenter, K. W. Short, T. M. Powers, R. Michalczyk, N. Kunapareddy, A. Guerra, and J. P. Freyer, “Comparison of vibrational spectroscopy to biochemical and flow cytometry methods for analysis of the basic biochemical composition of mammalian cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, N. Kunapareddy, L. Coburn, T. M. Powers, and J. P. Freyer, “Biochemical differences in tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells measured by Raman and infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kundakcioglu, O. E.

G. Pyrgiotakis, O. E. Kundakcioglu, K. Finton, P. M. Pardalos, K. Powers, and B. M. Moudgil, “Cell death discrimination with Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(7), 1464–1473 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lane, S. M.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, “Nondestructive identification of individual leukemia cells by laser trapping Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2180–2187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.-

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y.- Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, B. R.

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. W. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral Analysis of Multiplex Raman Probe Signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcon, N. E.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, A. A.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. D. Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Medina-Gutiérrez, C.

J. L. Pichardo-Molina, C. Frausto-Reyes, O. Barbosa-García, R. Huerta-Franco, J. L. González-Trujillo, C. A. Ramírez-Alvarado, G. Gutiérrez-Juárez, and C. Medina-Gutiérrez, “Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(4), 229–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michalczyk, R.

J. R. Mourant, J. Dominguez, S. Carpenter, K. W. Short, T. M. Powers, R. Michalczyk, N. Kunapareddy, A. Guerra, and J. P. Freyer, “Comparison of vibrational spectroscopy to biochemical and flow cytometry methods for analysis of the basic biochemical composition of mammalian cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molckovsky, A.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, M.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. D. Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moudgil, B. M.

G. Pyrgiotakis, O. E. Kundakcioglu, K. Finton, P. M. Pardalos, K. Powers, and B. M. Moudgil, “Cell death discrimination with Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(7), 1464–1473 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

N. Kunapareddy, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of necrotic cell death,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. Dominguez, S. Carpenter, K. W. Short, T. M. Powers, R. Michalczyk, N. Kunapareddy, A. Guerra, and J. P. Freyer, “Comparison of vibrational spectroscopy to biochemical and flow cytometry methods for analysis of the basic biochemical composition of mammalian cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, N. Kunapareddy, L. Coburn, T. M. Powers, and J. P. Freyer, “Biochemical differences in tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells measured by Raman and infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myles, J.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Natan, M. J.

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, L. N.

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. W. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral Analysis of Multiplex Raman Probe Signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notingher, I.

A. Zoladek, F. C. Pascut, P. Patel, and I. Notingher, “Non-invasive time-course imaging of apoptotic cells by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 251–258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Verrier, I. Notingher, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ monitoring of cell death using Raman microspectroscopy,” Biopolymers 74(1-2), 157–162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, H. Romanska, A. E. Bishop, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ characterisation of living cells by Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Int. J. 16(2), 43–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, Y.

H. Shinzawa, K. Awa, W. Kanematsu, and Y. Ozaki, “Multivariate data analysis for Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1720–1725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pardalos, P. M.

G. Pyrgiotakis, O. E. Kundakcioglu, K. Finton, P. M. Pardalos, K. Powers, and B. M. Moudgil, “Cell death discrimination with Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(7), 1464–1473 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pascut, F. C.

A. Zoladek, F. C. Pascut, P. Patel, and I. Notingher, “Non-invasive time-course imaging of apoptotic cells by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 251–258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Patel, P.

A. Zoladek, F. C. Pascut, P. Patel, and I. Notingher, “Non-invasive time-course imaging of apoptotic cells by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 251–258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y.- Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pichardo-Molina, J. L.

J. L. Pichardo-Molina, C. Frausto-Reyes, O. Barbosa-García, R. Huerta-Franco, J. L. González-Trujillo, C. A. Ramírez-Alvarado, G. Gutiérrez-Juárez, and C. Medina-Gutiérrez, “Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(4), 229–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polak, J. M.

S. Verrier, I. Notingher, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ monitoring of cell death using Raman microspectroscopy,” Biopolymers 74(1-2), 157–162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, H. Romanska, A. E. Bishop, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ characterisation of living cells by Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Int. J. 16(2), 43–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Powers, K.

G. Pyrgiotakis, O. E. Kundakcioglu, K. Finton, P. M. Pardalos, K. Powers, and B. M. Moudgil, “Cell death discrimination with Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(7), 1464–1473 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powers, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, J. Dominguez, S. Carpenter, K. W. Short, T. M. Powers, R. Michalczyk, N. Kunapareddy, A. Guerra, and J. P. Freyer, “Comparison of vibrational spectroscopy to biochemical and flow cytometry methods for analysis of the basic biochemical composition of mammalian cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, N. Kunapareddy, L. Coburn, T. M. Powers, and J. P. Freyer, “Biochemical differences in tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells measured by Raman and infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puppels, G. J.

I. A. Boere, T. C. B. Schut, J. van den Boogert, R. W. F. de Bruin, and G. J. Puppels, “Use of fibre optic probes for detection of Barrett's epithelium in the rat oesophagus by Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 32(1), 47–55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pyrgiotakis, G.

G. Pyrgiotakis, O. E. Kundakcioglu, K. Finton, P. M. Pardalos, K. Powers, and B. M. Moudgil, “Cell death discrimination with Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(7), 1464–1473 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramírez-Alvarado, C. A.

J. L. Pichardo-Molina, C. Frausto-Reyes, O. Barbosa-García, R. Huerta-Franco, J. L. González-Trujillo, C. A. Ramírez-Alvarado, G. Gutiérrez-Juárez, and C. Medina-Gutiérrez, “Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(4), 229–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raniero, L.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. D. Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romanska, H.

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, H. Romanska, A. E. Bishop, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ characterisation of living cells by Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Int. J. 16(2), 43–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ryder, A. G.

A. G. Ryder, “Classification of narcotics in solid mixtures using Principal Component Analysis and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Forensic Sci. 47(2), 275–284 (2002).
[PubMed]

Saini, K. S.

K. S. Saini and N. I. Walker, “Biochemical and molecular mechanisms regulating apoptosis,” Mol. Cell. Biochem. 178(1/2), 9–25 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santo, A. M. D.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. D. Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schut, T. C. B.

I. A. Boere, T. C. B. Schut, J. van den Boogert, R. W. F. de Bruin, and G. J. Puppels, “Use of fibre optic probes for detection of Barrett's epithelium in the rat oesophagus by Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 32(1), 47–55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shafer-Peltier, K. E.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, A. S. Haka, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, J. Myles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopic model of human breast tissue: implications for breast cancer diagnosis in vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 552–563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shen, A. G.

P. Chen, A. G. Shen, X. D. Zhou, and J. M. Hu, “Bio-Raman spectroscopy: a potential clinical analytical method assisting in disease diagnosis,” Anal. Methods 3(6), 1257–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shim, M. G.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinzawa, H.

H. Shinzawa, K. Awa, W. Kanematsu, and Y. Ozaki, “Multivariate data analysis for Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1720–1725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shojaei, B.

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Short, K. W.

J. R. Mourant, J. Dominguez, S. Carpenter, K. W. Short, T. M. Powers, R. Michalczyk, N. Kunapareddy, A. Guerra, and J. P. Freyer, “Comparison of vibrational spectroscopy to biochemical and flow cytometry methods for analysis of the basic biochemical composition of mammalian cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, N. Kunapareddy, L. Coburn, T. M. Powers, and J. P. Freyer, “Biochemical differences in tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells measured by Raman and infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, B. R.

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, J.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, L. M.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, L.

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. W. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral Analysis of Multiplex Raman Probe Signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Z.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y.- Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. S.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, “Nondestructive identification of individual leukemia cells by laser trapping Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2180–2187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuscano, J.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, “Nondestructive identification of individual leukemia cells by laser trapping Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2180–2187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van de Sompel, D.

D. Van de Sompel, E. Garai, C. Zavaleta, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Hybrid Least Squares and Principal Component Analysis Algorithm for Raman Spectroscopy,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38850 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Boogert, J.

I. A. Boere, T. C. B. Schut, J. van den Boogert, R. W. F. de Bruin, and G. J. Puppels, “Use of fibre optic probes for detection of Barrett's epithelium in the rat oesophagus by Raman spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 32(1), 47–55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Verrier, S.

S. Verrier, I. Notingher, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ monitoring of cell death using Raman microspectroscopy,” Biopolymers 74(1-2), 157–162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, H. Romanska, A. E. Bishop, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ characterisation of living cells by Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Int. J. 16(2), 43–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walker, N. I.

K. S. Saini and N. I. Walker, “Biochemical and molecular mechanisms regulating apoptosis,” Mol. Cell. Biochem. 178(1/2), 9–25 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walton, I.

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y.- Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, H.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y.- Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zavaleta, C.

D. Van de Sompel, E. Garai, C. Zavaleta, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Hybrid Least Squares and Principal Component Analysis Algorithm for Raman Spectroscopy,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38850 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavaleta, C. L.

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. W.

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. W. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral Analysis of Multiplex Raman Probe Signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X. D.

P. Chen, A. G. Shen, X. D. Zhou, and J. M. Hu, “Bio-Raman spectroscopy: a potential clinical analytical method assisting in disease diagnosis,” Anal. Methods 3(6), 1257–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zoladek, A.

A. Zoladek, F. C. Pascut, P. Patel, and I. Notingher, “Non-invasive time-course imaging of apoptotic cells by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 251–258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zwerdling, T.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, “Nondestructive identification of individual leukemia cells by laser trapping Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2180–2187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. W. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral Analysis of Multiplex Raman Probe Signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, “Nondestructive identification of individual leukemia cells by laser trapping Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2180–2187 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Methods (1)

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Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

G. Pyrgiotakis, O. E. Kundakcioglu, K. Finton, P. M. Pardalos, K. Powers, and B. M. Moudgil, “Cell death discrimination with Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(7), 1464–1473 (2009).
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Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

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N. Kunapareddy, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of necrotic cell death,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054002 (2008).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross sectional view of the sample prepared in a small well created on an aluminum substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Basic biochemical components’ spectra used in the fitting of Raman spectra measured from K562 cells. (a) Actin; (b) Albumin; (c) Triolein; (d) Phosphatidylcholine; (e) DNA; (f) RNA; (g) Glycogen

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Averaged Raman spectra of twenty (a) live K562 cells, (b) apoptotic cells and (c) necrotic cells. The standard deviations of the spectra were superimposed on the averaged spectra as shown by the grey dotted lines, which are too small to observe at most wavenumbers. Curve (d) was the difference between spectra (a) and (b) while curve (e) was the difference between spectra (a) and (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean Raman spectra of (a) live, (b) apoptotic and (c) necrotic cells and the corresponding fittings. The thick solid lines represent the measured spectra of cells while the thin dotted lines represent the fitting. The percentages to the right of each plot represent the fitting coefficients of the basic components that have been divided by the sum of all coefficients to represent the relative contributions of basic biochemical component spectra to the bulk cell spectra.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fitting coefficients of each basic biochemical component in live, apoptotic and necrotic cells. (*) indicates a significance level of p<0.05 obtained by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. “Phos” represents “Phosphatidylcholine”.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) 2-D and (b) 3-D PCA plots show the separation of data based on different modes of cell death. The percent variance captured by each PC is shown in parenthesis along each axis in (b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The spectra of first three principal components in PCA, where (a) is PC 1, (b) PC 2 and (c) PC 3.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Classification accuracies using two principal component scores obtained from PCA

Tables Icon

Table 2 Classification accuracies using two fitting coefficients obtained from BCA

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