Abstract

The spectral shape of the phosphorescence emission of organometallic porphyrin molecules is shown to be altered when these chromophores are incorporated into hybrid nanostructures with gold nanorods. This result shows that triplet-singlet transitions, which are (at least partially) dipolar forbidden, can be modified by the dipolar resonances of gold nanoparticles. By choosing nanorods of increasing aspect ratios, it is possible to match the long axis plasmon resonance of the nanorods to a specific phosphorescence transition. Consequently, the emission colour of the hybrids can be tuned.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (3)

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ming, H. Chen, R. Jiang, Q. Li, and J. Wang, “Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: beyond the intensity enhancement,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(2), 191–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Nishitani, H. Liu, and H. Iwasaki, “Comparison of scanning tunneling microscope-light emission and photoluminescence from porphyrin films using ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 051102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

A. Berrier, R. Cools, C. Arnold, P. Offermans, M. Crego-Calama, S. H. Brongersma, and J. Gómez-Rivas, “Active control of the strong coupling regime between porphyrin excitons and surface plasmon polaritons,” ACS Nano5(8), 6226–6232 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhao, T. Ming, H. Chen, Y. Liang, and J. Wang, “Plasmon-induced modulation of the emission spectra of the fluorescent molecules near gold nanorods,” Nanoscale3(9), 3849–3859 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tiwari, K. Vig, V. Dennis, and S. Singh, “Functionalized gold nanoparticles and their biomedical applications,” Nanomaterials1(1), 31–63 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, E. Plum, J. Y. Ou, T. Uchino, and N. I. Zheludev, “Multifold enhancement of quantum dot luminescence in plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(22), 227403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hrdlovic, J. Donovalova, H. Stankovicova, and A. Gaplovsky, “Influence of polarity of solvents on the spectral properties of bichromophoric coumarins,” Molecules15(12), 8915–8932 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Dong, X. L. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, Y. Luo, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, R. Zhang, X. Tao, Y. Zhang, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Generation of molecular hot electroluminescence by resonant nanocavity plasmons,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 50–54 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

J. Zhao, L. J. Sherry, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Molecular plasmonics: Chromophore-plasmon coupling and single-particle nanosensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(6), 1418–1429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Ni, Z. Yang, H. Chen, L. Li, and J. Wang, “Coupling between molecular and plasmonic resonances in freestanding dye-gold nanorod hybrid nanostructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(21), 6692–6693 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches,” Nano Lett.8(2), 485–490 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kürzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Shaping emission spectra of fluorescent molecules with single plasmonic nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 203002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Bakker, H. K. Yuan, Z. T. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Djiango, T. Kobayashi, and W. J. Blau, “Cavity-enhanced stimulated emission cross-section in polymer microlasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(14), 143306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

J. S. Biteen, L. A. Sweatlock, H. Mertens, N. S. Lewis, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots: Simulation and experiment,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(36), 13372–13377 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Le Ru, P. G. Etchegoin, J. Grand, N. Felidj, J. Aubard, and G. Levi, “Mechanisms of spectral profile modification in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(44), 16076–16079 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett.7(2), 496–501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Y. Fu, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Metal-enhanced single-molecule fluorescence on silver particle monomer and dimer: Coupling effect between metal particles,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2101–2107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Soller, M. Ringler, M. Wunderlich, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, H. P. Josel, Y. Markert, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, “Radiative and nonradiative rates of phosphors attached to gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.7(7), 1941–1946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Borek, K. Hanson, P. I. Djurovich, M. E. Thompson, K. Aznavour, R. Bau, Y. R. Sun, S. R. Forrest, J. Brooks, L. Michalski, and J. Brown, “Highly efficient, near-infrared electrophosphorescence from a Pt-metalloporphyrin complex,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.46(7), 1109–1112 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (9)

H. Liu, Y. Le, T. Yoshinobu, Y. Aso, H. Iwasaki, and R. Nishitani, “Plasmon-enhanced molecular fluorescence from an organic film in a tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. R. Previte, K. Aslan, Y. Zhang, and C. D. Geddes, “Surface plasmon coupled phosphorescence (SPCP),” Chem. Phys. Lett.432(4-6), 610–615 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Haes, S. L. Zou, J. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy near molecular resonances,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(33), 10905–10914 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 131109 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ikai, F. Ishikawa, N. Aratani, A. Osuka, S. Kawabata, T. Kajioka, H. Takeuchi, H. Fujikawa, and Y. Taga, “Enhancement of external quantum efficiency of red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices ices with facially encumbered and bulky Pt-II porphyrin complexes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(4), 515–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, A. Rizzo, M. Salerno, M. Mazzeo, C. Huo, Y. Wang, K. C. Li, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Multifunctional platinum porphyrin dendrimers as emitters in undoped phosphorescent based light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 061125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Klar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative-index metamaterials: Going optical,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1106–1115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Adawi, A. Cadby, L. G. Connolly, W. C. Hung, R. Dean, A. Tahraoui, A. M. Fox, A. G. Cullis, D. Sanvitto, M. S. Skolnick, and D. G. Lidzey, “Spontaneous emission control in micropillar cavities containing a fluorescent molecular dye,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(6), 742–747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/silica-shell Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(1), 91–95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

E. Dulkeith, M. Ringler, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Muñoz Javier, and W. J. Parak, “Gold nanoparticles quench fluorescence by phase induced radiative rate suppression,” Nano Lett.5(4), 585–589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Hou, Y. Zhang, F. Y. Li, J. B. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Red electrophosphorescence of conjugated organoplatinum(II) polymers prepared via direct metalation of poly(fluorene-co-tetraphenylporphyrin) copolymers,” Organometallics24(19), 4509–4518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Papkovsky and T. C. O’Riordan, “Emerging applications of phosphorescent metalloporphyrins,” J. Fluoresc.15(4), 569–584 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Glomm, S. J. Moses, M. K. Brennaman, J. M. Papanikolas, and S. Franzen, “Detection of adsorption of Ru(II) and Os(II) Polypyridyl Complexes on gold and silver nanoparticles by single-photon counting emission measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(2), 804–810 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. Aslan and V. H. Pérez-Luna, “Quenched emission of fluorescence by ligand functionalized gold nanoparticles,” J. Fluoresc.14(4), 401–405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Holder, N. DiCesare, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Effects of metallic silver particles on the emission properties of [Ru(bpy)3]+,” Chem. Phys. Lett.372(3-4), 409–414 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

T. Huang and R. W. Murray, “Quenching of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ fluorescence by binding to Au nanoparticles,” Langmuir18(18), 7077–7081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: Radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Enderlein, “Spectral properties of a fluorescing molecule within a spherical metallic nanocavity,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.4(12), 2780–2786 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Happ, I. I. Tartakovskii, V. D. Kulakovskii, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Enhanced light emission of InxGa1-x as quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal defect microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B66(4), 041303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. S. Solomon, M. Pelton, and Y. Yamamoto, “Modification of spontaneous emission of a single quantum dot,” Phys. Status Solidi A178(1), 341–344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Sokolov, G. Chumanov, and T. M. Cotton, “Enhancement of molecular fluorescence near the surface of colloidal metal films,” Anal. Chem.70(18), 3898–3905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Kümmerlen, A. Leitner, H. Brunner, F. R. Aussenegg, and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced dye fluorescence over silver island films: analysis of the distance dependence,” Mol. Phys.80(5), 1031–1046 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, C. D. Hanson, T. J. Gramila, and J. I. Gersten, “Fluorescent lifetimes and yields of molecules adsorbed on silver-island films,” J. Lumin.24–25(Part 1), 83–86 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev.69, 681 (1946).

Adawi, A. M.

A. M. Adawi, A. Cadby, L. G. Connolly, W. C. Hung, R. Dean, A. Tahraoui, A. M. Fox, A. G. Cullis, D. Sanvitto, M. S. Skolnick, and D. G. Lidzey, “Spontaneous emission control in micropillar cavities containing a fluorescent molecular dye,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(6), 742–747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aratani, N.

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J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 131109 (2006).
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A. Berrier, R. Cools, C. Arnold, P. Offermans, M. Crego-Calama, S. H. Brongersma, and J. Gómez-Rivas, “Active control of the strong coupling regime between porphyrin excitons and surface plasmon polaritons,” ACS Nano5(8), 6226–6232 (2011).
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A. M. Adawi, A. Cadby, L. G. Connolly, W. C. Hung, R. Dean, A. Tahraoui, A. M. Fox, A. G. Cullis, D. Sanvitto, M. S. Skolnick, and D. G. Lidzey, “Spontaneous emission control in micropillar cavities containing a fluorescent molecular dye,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(6), 742–747 (2006).
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A. M. Adawi, A. Cadby, L. G. Connolly, W. C. Hung, R. Dean, A. Tahraoui, A. M. Fox, A. G. Cullis, D. Sanvitto, M. S. Skolnick, and D. G. Lidzey, “Spontaneous emission control in micropillar cavities containing a fluorescent molecular dye,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(6), 742–747 (2006).
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M. Djiango, T. Kobayashi, and W. J. Blau, “Cavity-enhanced stimulated emission cross-section in polymer microlasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(14), 143306 (2008).
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C. Borek, K. Hanson, P. I. Djurovich, M. E. Thompson, K. Aznavour, R. Bau, Y. R. Sun, S. R. Forrest, J. Brooks, L. Michalski, and J. Brown, “Highly efficient, near-infrared electrophosphorescence from a Pt-metalloporphyrin complex,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.46(7), 1109–1112 (2007).
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Z. C. Dong, X. L. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, Y. Luo, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, R. Zhang, X. Tao, Y. Zhang, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Generation of molecular hot electroluminescence by resonant nanocavity plasmons,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 50–54 (2010).
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P. Hrdlovic, J. Donovalova, H. Stankovicova, and A. Gaplovsky, “Influence of polarity of solvents on the spectral properties of bichromophoric coumarins,” Molecules15(12), 8915–8932 (2010).
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R. M. Bakker, H. K. Yuan, Z. T. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043101 (2008).
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A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches,” Nano Lett.8(2), 485–490 (2008).
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M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kürzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Shaping emission spectra of fluorescent molecules with single plasmonic nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 203002 (2008).
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E. Dulkeith, M. Ringler, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Muñoz Javier, and W. J. Parak, “Gold nanoparticles quench fluorescence by phase induced radiative rate suppression,” Nano Lett.5(4), 585–589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: Radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. C. Le Ru, P. G. Etchegoin, J. Grand, N. Felidj, J. Aubard, and G. Levi, “Mechanisms of spectral profile modification in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(44), 16076–16079 (2007).
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T. D. Happ, I. I. Tartakovskii, V. D. Kulakovskii, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Enhanced light emission of InxGa1-x as quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal defect microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B66(4), 041303 (2002).
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C. Borek, K. Hanson, P. I. Djurovich, M. E. Thompson, K. Aznavour, R. Bau, Y. R. Sun, S. R. Forrest, J. Brooks, L. Michalski, and J. Brown, “Highly efficient, near-infrared electrophosphorescence from a Pt-metalloporphyrin complex,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.46(7), 1109–1112 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fox, A. M.

A. M. Adawi, A. Cadby, L. G. Connolly, W. C. Hung, R. Dean, A. Tahraoui, A. M. Fox, A. G. Cullis, D. Sanvitto, M. S. Skolnick, and D. G. Lidzey, “Spontaneous emission control in micropillar cavities containing a fluorescent molecular dye,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(6), 742–747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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W. R. Glomm, S. J. Moses, M. K. Brennaman, J. M. Papanikolas, and S. Franzen, “Detection of adsorption of Ru(II) and Os(II) Polypyridyl Complexes on gold and silver nanoparticles by single-photon counting emission measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(2), 804–810 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Fu, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Metal-enhanced single-molecule fluorescence on silver particle monomer and dimer: Coupling effect between metal particles,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2101–2107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Ikai, F. Ishikawa, N. Aratani, A. Osuka, S. Kawabata, T. Kajioka, H. Takeuchi, H. Fujikawa, and Y. Taga, “Enhancement of external quantum efficiency of red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices ices with facially encumbered and bulky Pt-II porphyrin complexes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(4), 515–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H. Y.

Z. C. Dong, X. L. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, Y. Luo, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, R. Zhang, X. Tao, Y. Zhang, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Generation of molecular hot electroluminescence by resonant nanocavity plasmons,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 50–54 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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P. Hrdlovic, J. Donovalova, H. Stankovicova, and A. Gaplovsky, “Influence of polarity of solvents on the spectral properties of bichromophoric coumarins,” Molecules15(12), 8915–8932 (2010).
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D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, C. D. Hanson, T. J. Gramila, and J. I. Gersten, “Fluorescent lifetimes and yields of molecules adsorbed on silver-island films,” J. Lumin.24–25(Part 1), 83–86 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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M. J. R. Previte, K. Aslan, Y. Zhang, and C. D. Geddes, “Surface plasmon coupled phosphorescence (SPCP),” Chem. Phys. Lett.432(4-6), 610–615 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/silica-shell Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(1), 91–95 (2006).
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D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, C. D. Hanson, T. J. Gramila, and J. I. Gersten, “Fluorescent lifetimes and yields of molecules adsorbed on silver-island films,” J. Lumin.24–25(Part 1), 83–86 (1981).
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Y. Q. Li, A. Rizzo, M. Salerno, M. Mazzeo, C. Huo, Y. Wang, K. C. Li, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Multifunctional platinum porphyrin dendrimers as emitters in undoped phosphorescent based light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 061125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: Radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glass, A. M.

Glomm, W. R.

W. R. Glomm, S. J. Moses, M. K. Brennaman, J. M. Papanikolas, and S. Franzen, “Detection of adsorption of Ru(II) and Os(II) Polypyridyl Complexes on gold and silver nanoparticles by single-photon counting emission measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(2), 804–810 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez-Rivas, J.

A. Berrier, R. Cools, C. Arnold, P. Offermans, M. Crego-Calama, S. H. Brongersma, and J. Gómez-Rivas, “Active control of the strong coupling regime between porphyrin excitons and surface plasmon polaritons,” ACS Nano5(8), 6226–6232 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett.7(2), 496–501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/silica-shell Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(1), 91–95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, C. D. Hanson, T. J. Gramila, and J. I. Gersten, “Fluorescent lifetimes and yields of molecules adsorbed on silver-island films,” J. Lumin.24–25(Part 1), 83–86 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Grand, J.

E. C. Le Ru, P. G. Etchegoin, J. Grand, N. Felidj, J. Aubard, and G. Levi, “Mechanisms of spectral profile modification in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(44), 16076–16079 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gresillon, S.

R. M. Bakker, H. K. Yuan, Z. T. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, I.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Holder, N. DiCesare, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Effects of metallic silver particles on the emission properties of [Ru(bpy)3]+,” Chem. Phys. Lett.372(3-4), 409–414 (2003).
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A. J. Haes, S. L. Zou, J. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy near molecular resonances,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(33), 10905–10914 (2006).
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F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett.7(2), 496–501 (2007).
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A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches,” Nano Lett.8(2), 485–490 (2008).
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E. Dulkeith, M. Ringler, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Muñoz Javier, and W. J. Parak, “Gold nanoparticles quench fluorescence by phase induced radiative rate suppression,” Nano Lett.5(4), 585–589 (2005).
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T. Huang and R. W. Murray, “Quenching of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ fluorescence by binding to Au nanoparticles,” Langmuir18(18), 7077–7081 (2002).
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M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kürzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Shaping emission spectra of fluorescent molecules with single plasmonic nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 203002 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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J. Zhao, L. J. Sherry, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Molecular plasmonics: Chromophore-plasmon coupling and single-particle nanosensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(6), 1418–1429 (2008).
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K. Tanaka, E. Plum, J. Y. Ou, T. Uchino, and N. I. Zheludev, “Multifold enhancement of quantum dot luminescence in plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(22), 227403 (2010).
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ACS Nano (1)

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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

M. Ikai, F. Ishikawa, N. Aratani, A. Osuka, S. Kawabata, T. Kajioka, H. Takeuchi, H. Fujikawa, and Y. Taga, “Enhancement of external quantum efficiency of red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices ices with facially encumbered and bulky Pt-II porphyrin complexes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(4), 515–519 (2006).
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Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

A. M. Adawi, A. Cadby, L. G. Connolly, W. C. Hung, R. Dean, A. Tahraoui, A. M. Fox, A. G. Cullis, D. Sanvitto, M. S. Skolnick, and D. G. Lidzey, “Spontaneous emission control in micropillar cavities containing a fluorescent molecular dye,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(6), 742–747 (2006).
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Anal. Chem. (1)

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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Y. Q. Li, A. Rizzo, M. Salerno, M. Mazzeo, C. Huo, Y. Wang, K. C. Li, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Multifunctional platinum porphyrin dendrimers as emitters in undoped phosphorescent based light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 061125 (2006).
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H. Liu, Y. Le, T. Yoshinobu, Y. Aso, H. Iwasaki, and R. Nishitani, “Plasmon-enhanced molecular fluorescence from an organic film in a tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061901 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Transmission electron micrograph of a gold nanorod with a short axis of 35 nm and a long axis of 65 nm. (b) Chemical structure of Pt-TSPP (c) Extinction spectrum (black solid line) of an aqueous solution of Pt-TSPP. The Soret and Q bands are labelled. Corresponding emission spectrum (red solid line) with a weak emission at 600 nm (L-Peak) and two phosphorescence bands (P1 and P2 peaks).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the extinction spectra of un-functionalised AuNRs (orange solid line) and AuNRs functionalised with Pt-TSPP molecules (green dashed line). The short and long axis NPPRs are labelled in Fig. 2(b). There is a permanent wavelength-dependent shift of the long-axis NPPR to longer wavelengths upon functionalization. The long axis NPPR of the AuNRs without porphyrin peaking at 529, 614, 654, 705 and 734 nm, are shifted to 542, 626, 678, 717 and 758, respectively, in the case of the hybrids. Inset: Sketch of the AuNRs with increasing aspect ratios from top to bottom.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Influence of the NPPRs (green dashed line) of Pt-TSPP-AuNRs on the emission (red solid line) from these hybrid nanostructures. The extinction spectra are normalised at the long axis NPPR and the emission spectra are normalised at the P1 emission peak.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The PP ratio ( = P1/P2, see Fig. 3) as a function of the long axis NPPR of the hybrid nanostructures. It reaches its maximum for colloids with the NPPR at 678 nm and has its lowest value for colloids with the NPPR at 758 nm.

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