Abstract

We examine trial-to-trial variability of color coordinates in automotive coatings containing effect pigments, which are considered a reference paradigm for engineering angle-dependent color effects. We report the existence of correlations that show 1/f - Fourier spectra at low frequencies in all color coordinates. The scaling exponent was lower at near-specular conditions for lightness variations, suggesting a contribution from the deposition of metal flakes in metallic colors. However, the exponent was lower near the specular for blue-yellow variations, suggesting a contribution from chemical pigments in solid colors. These results were independent of the illuminant spectra. The methods employed are useful in the evaluation of industrial color matching among assembly parts.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. P. A. Lewis, Pigment Handbook, Properties and Economics (John Willey & Sons, 1988).
  2. H. J. Streitberger and K. F. Dössel, Automotive Paints and Coatings (Wiley-VCH, 2008).
  3. G. A. Klein, Industrial Color Physics (Springer Science + Business Media LLC, 2010).
  4. C. S. McCamy, “Observation and measurement of the appearance of metallic materials. Part I. Macro appearance,” Color Res. Appl.21(4), 292–304 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., “Tolerances for automotive paint—Part 2: Goniochromatic paints,” DIN 6175–2 (2001).
  6. American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard practice for specifying the geometry of multiangle spectrophotometers,” ASTM E 2175–01 (2001).
  7. American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard practice for multiangle color measurement of metal flake pigmented materials,” ASTM E 2194–12 (2012).
  8. W. H. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge University Press, 1992).
  9. W. H. Press, “Flicker noises in astronomy and elsewhere,” Comments Mod. Phys., Part C7, 103–119 (1978).
  10. B. J. West and M. Shlesinger, “The noise in natural phenomena,” Am. Sci.78, 40–45 (1990).
  11. J. M. Medina and J. A. Díaz, “1/f noise in human color vision: the role of S-cone signals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A29(2), A82–A95 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (John Wiley & Sons, 1982).
  13. B. Pilgram and D. T. Kaplan, “A comparison of estimators for 1/f noise,” Physica D114(1-2), 108–122 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

1998 (1)

B. Pilgram and D. T. Kaplan, “A comparison of estimators for 1/f noise,” Physica D114(1-2), 108–122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. S. McCamy, “Observation and measurement of the appearance of metallic materials. Part I. Macro appearance,” Color Res. Appl.21(4), 292–304 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

B. J. West and M. Shlesinger, “The noise in natural phenomena,” Am. Sci.78, 40–45 (1990).

1978 (1)

W. H. Press, “Flicker noises in astronomy and elsewhere,” Comments Mod. Phys., Part C7, 103–119 (1978).

Díaz, J. A.

Kaplan, D. T.

B. Pilgram and D. T. Kaplan, “A comparison of estimators for 1/f noise,” Physica D114(1-2), 108–122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCamy, C. S.

C. S. McCamy, “Observation and measurement of the appearance of metallic materials. Part I. Macro appearance,” Color Res. Appl.21(4), 292–304 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Medina, J. M.

Pilgram, B.

B. Pilgram and D. T. Kaplan, “A comparison of estimators for 1/f noise,” Physica D114(1-2), 108–122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, “Flicker noises in astronomy and elsewhere,” Comments Mod. Phys., Part C7, 103–119 (1978).

Shlesinger, M.

B. J. West and M. Shlesinger, “The noise in natural phenomena,” Am. Sci.78, 40–45 (1990).

West, B. J.

B. J. West and M. Shlesinger, “The noise in natural phenomena,” Am. Sci.78, 40–45 (1990).

Am. Sci. (1)

B. J. West and M. Shlesinger, “The noise in natural phenomena,” Am. Sci.78, 40–45 (1990).

Color Res. Appl. (1)

C. S. McCamy, “Observation and measurement of the appearance of metallic materials. Part I. Macro appearance,” Color Res. Appl.21(4), 292–304 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Comments Mod. Phys., Part C (1)

W. H. Press, “Flicker noises in astronomy and elsewhere,” Comments Mod. Phys., Part C7, 103–119 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Physica D (1)

B. Pilgram and D. T. Kaplan, “A comparison of estimators for 1/f noise,” Physica D114(1-2), 108–122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., “Tolerances for automotive paint—Part 2: Goniochromatic paints,” DIN 6175–2 (2001).

American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard practice for specifying the geometry of multiangle spectrophotometers,” ASTM E 2175–01 (2001).

American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard practice for multiangle color measurement of metal flake pigmented materials,” ASTM E 2194–12 (2012).

W. H. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (John Wiley & Sons, 1982).

P. A. Lewis, Pigment Handbook, Properties and Economics (John Willey & Sons, 1988).

H. J. Streitberger and K. F. Dössel, Automotive Paints and Coatings (Wiley-VCH, 2008).

G. A. Klein, Industrial Color Physics (Springer Science + Business Media LLC, 2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical microscopy image of a metallic-green paint (50x, dark field illumination). Yellow squares labeled as “1” and “2” indicate an example of an aluminum flake and a mica-based interference pigment, respectively. (b) Schematic representation of the illumination and detection positions for metallic colors at the aspecular angle γ of 15°, 25°, 45°, 75° and 110°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linear plot of CIELAB color coordinate variations as a function of the trial number. The illuminant D65 was used (a) Lightness ΔL*, chroma, ΔC*ab and hue difference, ΔH*ab of the metallic-green color. (b) Lightness ΔL*, red-green, Δa* and blue-yellow difference, Δb* of the white-red solid color. Data are presented at the aspecular angle γ of 15° (solid lines), 45° (dashed lines), and 110° (dash-dotted lines), separately.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Double logarithmic plot of the power spectrum generated from color series. The illuminant D65 was used. (a) Lightness ΔL*, chroma, ΔC*ab and hue difference, ΔH*ab of the metallic-green color. (b) Lightness ΔL*, red-green, Δa* and blue-yellow difference, Δb* of the white-red solid color. Data are presented at the aspecular angle γ of 15° (circles), 45° (triangles), and 110° (squares), separately. Straight lines indicate power law fits. Numbers indicate the resulting exponent α at different aspecular angles.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The exponent α of the Fourier power law spectra at different illuminants and aspecular angles

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