Abstract

Optically resonant devices are promising as label-free biomolecular sensors due to their ability to concentrate electromagnetic energy into small mode volumes and their capacity for multiplexed detection. A fundamental limitation of current optical biosensor technology is that the biomolecular interactions are limited to the surface of the resonant device, while the highest intensity of electromagnetic energy is trapped within the core. In this paper, we present nanoporous polymer optofluidic devices consisting of ring resonators coupled to bus waveguides. We report a 40% increase in polymer device sensitivity attributed to the addition of core energy- bioanalyte interactions.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. M. A. Cooper, “Label-free screening of bio-molecular interactions,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(5), 834–842 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 33–52 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Mandal and D. Erickson, “Nanoscale Optofluidic Sensor Arrays,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1623–1631 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. S. Daniels and N. Pourmand, “Label-free impedance biosensors: Opportunities and challenges,” Electroanalysis 19(12), 1239–1257 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Länge, B. E. Rapp, and M. Rapp, “Surface acoustic wave biosensors: a review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391(5), 1509–1519 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, and R. Dinu, “Design of ring resonators using electro-optic polymer waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 7953–7958 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(6), 2862–2866 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Mandal, J. M. Goddard, and D. Erickson, “A multiplexed optofluidic biomolecular sensor for low mass detection,” Lab Chip 9(20), 2924–2932 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. L. Martin, D. K. Armani, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Replica-molded high-Q polymer microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 533–535 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. B. Myers and L. P. Lee, “Innovations in optical microfluidic technologies for point-of-care diagnostics,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2015–2031 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2528–2533 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. A. Barrios, “Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(6), 4751–4765 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. G. Rabus, M. Bruendel, Y. Ichihashi, A. Welle, R. A. Seger, and M. Isaacson, “A bio-fluidic-photonic platform based on deep UV modification of polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(2), 214–222 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. Kehagias, S. Zankovych, A. Goldschmidt, R. Kian, M. Zelsmann, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, K. Pfeiffer, G. Ahrens, and G. Gruetzner, “Embedded polymer waveguides: design and fabrication approaches,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(1-3), 201–210 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Xu, P. Datta, H. Wang, S. Gurung, M. Hashimoto, S. Wei, J. Goettert, R. L. McCarley, and S. A. Soper, “Polymer microfluidic chips with integrated waveguides for reading microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(23), 9007–9013 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. M. Goddard and J. H. Hotchkiss, “Polymer surface modification for the attachment of bioactive compounds,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 32(7), 698–725 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Li, J. Q. Pham, K. P. Johnston, and P. F. Green, “Contact Angle of Water on Polystyrene Thin Films: Effects of CO(2) Environment and Film Thickness,” Langmuir 23(19), 9785–9793 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Mahajan, S. Renker, P. F. W. Simon, J. S. Gutmann, A. Jain, S. M. Gruner, L. J. Fetters, G. W. Coates, and U. Wiesner, “Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) copolymers,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 204(8), 1047–1055 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

S. Mandal, J. M. Goddard, and D. Erickson, “A multiplexed optofluidic biomolecular sensor for low mass detection,” Lab Chip 9(20), 2924–2932 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, “Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(6), 4751–4765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (8)

F. B. Myers and L. P. Lee, “Innovations in optical microfluidic technologies for point-of-care diagnostics,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2015–2031 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, and R. Dinu, “Design of ring resonators using electro-optic polymer waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 7953–7958 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 33–52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Länge, B. E. Rapp, and M. Rapp, “Surface acoustic wave biosensors: a review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391(5), 1509–1519 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, “Nanoscale Optofluidic Sensor Arrays,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1623–1631 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

F. Xu, P. Datta, H. Wang, S. Gurung, M. Hashimoto, S. Wei, J. Goettert, R. L. McCarley, and S. A. Soper, “Polymer microfluidic chips with integrated waveguides for reading microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(23), 9007–9013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Goddard and J. H. Hotchkiss, “Polymer surface modification for the attachment of bioactive compounds,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 32(7), 698–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, J. Q. Pham, K. P. Johnston, and P. F. Green, “Contact Angle of Water on Polystyrene Thin Films: Effects of CO(2) Environment and Film Thickness,” Langmuir 23(19), 9785–9793 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Daniels and N. Pourmand, “Label-free impedance biosensors: Opportunities and challenges,” Electroanalysis 19(12), 1239–1257 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Rabus, M. Bruendel, Y. Ichihashi, A. Welle, R. A. Seger, and M. Isaacson, “A bio-fluidic-photonic platform based on deep UV modification of polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(2), 214–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. L. Martin, D. K. Armani, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Replica-molded high-Q polymer microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 533–535 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kehagias, S. Zankovych, A. Goldschmidt, R. Kian, M. Zelsmann, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, K. Pfeiffer, G. Ahrens, and G. Gruetzner, “Embedded polymer waveguides: design and fabrication approaches,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(1-3), 201–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. A. Cooper, “Label-free screening of bio-molecular interactions,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(5), 834–842 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mahajan, S. Renker, P. F. W. Simon, J. S. Gutmann, A. Jain, S. M. Gruner, L. J. Fetters, G. W. Coates, and U. Wiesner, “Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) copolymers,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 204(8), 1047–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(6), 2862–2866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahrens, G.

N. Kehagias, S. Zankovych, A. Goldschmidt, R. Kian, M. Zelsmann, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, K. Pfeiffer, G. Ahrens, and G. Gruetzner, “Embedded polymer waveguides: design and fabrication approaches,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(1-3), 201–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armani, D. K.

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

Bienstman, P.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruendel, M.

D. G. Rabus, M. Bruendel, Y. Ichihashi, A. Welle, R. A. Seger, and M. Isaacson, “A bio-fluidic-photonic platform based on deep UV modification of polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(2), 214–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Casquel, R.

Chao, C. Y.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(6), 2862–2866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Coates, G. W.

S. Mahajan, S. Renker, P. F. W. Simon, J. S. Gutmann, A. Jain, S. M. Gruner, L. J. Fetters, G. W. Coates, and U. Wiesner, “Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) copolymers,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 204(8), 1047–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, M. A.

M. A. Cooper, “Label-free screening of bio-molecular interactions,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(5), 834–842 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cordovez, B.

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 33–52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniels, J. S.

J. S. Daniels and N. Pourmand, “Label-free impedance biosensors: Opportunities and challenges,” Electroanalysis 19(12), 1239–1257 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Datta, P.

F. Xu, P. Datta, H. Wang, S. Gurung, M. Hashimoto, S. Wei, J. Goettert, R. L. McCarley, and S. A. Soper, “Polymer microfluidic chips with integrated waveguides for reading microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(23), 9007–9013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Vos, K.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Dinu, R.

B. J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, and R. Dinu, “Design of ring resonators using electro-optic polymer waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 7953–7958 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

S. Mandal, J. M. Goddard, and D. Erickson, “A multiplexed optofluidic biomolecular sensor for low mass detection,” Lab Chip 9(20), 2924–2932 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, “Nanoscale Optofluidic Sensor Arrays,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1623–1631 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 33–52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fetterman, H.

B. J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, and R. Dinu, “Design of ring resonators using electro-optic polymer waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 7953–7958 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fetters, L. J.

S. Mahajan, S. Renker, P. F. W. Simon, J. S. Gutmann, A. Jain, S. M. Gruner, L. J. Fetters, G. W. Coates, and U. Wiesner, “Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) copolymers,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 204(8), 1047–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fung, W.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Girones, J.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goddard, J. M.

S. Mandal, J. M. Goddard, and D. Erickson, “A multiplexed optofluidic biomolecular sensor for low mass detection,” Lab Chip 9(20), 2924–2932 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Goddard and J. H. Hotchkiss, “Polymer surface modification for the attachment of bioactive compounds,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 32(7), 698–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goettert, J.

F. Xu, P. Datta, H. Wang, S. Gurung, M. Hashimoto, S. Wei, J. Goettert, R. L. McCarley, and S. A. Soper, “Polymer microfluidic chips with integrated waveguides for reading microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(23), 9007–9013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldschmidt, A.

N. Kehagias, S. Zankovych, A. Goldschmidt, R. Kian, M. Zelsmann, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, K. Pfeiffer, G. Ahrens, and G. Gruetzner, “Embedded polymer waveguides: design and fabrication approaches,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(1-3), 201–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, P. F.

Y. Li, J. Q. Pham, K. P. Johnston, and P. F. Green, “Contact Angle of Water on Polystyrene Thin Films: Effects of CO(2) Environment and Film Thickness,” Langmuir 23(19), 9785–9793 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griol, A.

Gruetzner, G.

N. Kehagias, S. Zankovych, A. Goldschmidt, R. Kian, M. Zelsmann, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, K. Pfeiffer, G. Ahrens, and G. Gruetzner, “Embedded polymer waveguides: design and fabrication approaches,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(1-3), 201–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gruner, S. M.

S. Mahajan, S. Renker, P. F. W. Simon, J. S. Gutmann, A. Jain, S. M. Gruner, L. J. Fetters, G. W. Coates, and U. Wiesner, “Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) copolymers,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 204(8), 1047–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(6), 2862–2866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gurung, S.

F. Xu, P. Datta, H. Wang, S. Gurung, M. Hashimoto, S. Wei, J. Goettert, R. L. McCarley, and S. A. Soper, “Polymer microfluidic chips with integrated waveguides for reading microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(23), 9007–9013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutmann, J. S.

S. Mahajan, S. Renker, P. F. W. Simon, J. S. Gutmann, A. Jain, S. M. Gruner, L. J. Fetters, G. W. Coates, and U. Wiesner, “Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) copolymers,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 204(8), 1047–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gylfason, K. B.

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, M.

F. Xu, P. Datta, H. Wang, S. Gurung, M. Hashimoto, S. Wei, J. Goettert, R. L. McCarley, and S. A. Soper, “Polymer microfluidic chips with integrated waveguides for reading microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(23), 9007–9013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holgado, M.

Hotchkiss, J. H.

J. M. Goddard and J. H. Hotchkiss, “Polymer surface modification for the attachment of bioactive compounds,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 32(7), 698–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ichihashi, Y.

D. G. Rabus, M. Bruendel, Y. Ichihashi, A. Welle, R. A. Seger, and M. Isaacson, “A bio-fluidic-photonic platform based on deep UV modification of polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(2), 214–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Isaacson, M.

D. G. Rabus, M. Bruendel, Y. Ichihashi, A. Welle, R. A. Seger, and M. Isaacson, “A bio-fluidic-photonic platform based on deep UV modification of polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(2), 214–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A.

S. Mahajan, S. Renker, P. F. W. Simon, J. S. Gutmann, A. Jain, S. M. Gruner, L. J. Fetters, G. W. Coates, and U. Wiesner, “Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) copolymers,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 204(8), 1047–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Jin, D.

B. J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, and R. Dinu, “Design of ring resonators using electro-optic polymer waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 7953–7958 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, K. P.

Y. Li, J. Q. Pham, K. P. Johnston, and P. F. Green, “Contact Angle of Water on Polystyrene Thin Films: Effects of CO(2) Environment and Film Thickness,” Langmuir 23(19), 9785–9793 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kehagias, N.

N. Kehagias, S. Zankovych, A. Goldschmidt, R. Kian, M. Zelsmann, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, K. Pfeiffer, G. Ahrens, and G. Gruetzner, “Embedded polymer waveguides: design and fabrication approaches,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(1-3), 201–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kian, R.

N. Kehagias, S. Zankovych, A. Goldschmidt, R. Kian, M. Zelsmann, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, K. Pfeiffer, G. Ahrens, and G. Gruetzner, “Embedded polymer waveguides: design and fabrication approaches,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(1-3), 201–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

B. J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, and R. Dinu, “Design of ring resonators using electro-optic polymer waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 7953–7958 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Länge, K.

K. Länge, B. E. Rapp, and M. Rapp, “Surface acoustic wave biosensors: a review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391(5), 1509–1519 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lapointe, J.

Lee, L. P.

F. B. Myers and L. P. Lee, “Innovations in optical microfluidic technologies for point-of-care diagnostics,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2015–2031 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, J. Q. Pham, K. P. Johnston, and P. F. Green, “Contact Angle of Water on Polystyrene Thin Films: Effects of CO(2) Environment and Film Thickness,” Langmuir 23(19), 9785–9793 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopinski, G.

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahajan, S.

S. Mahajan, S. Renker, P. F. W. Simon, J. S. Gutmann, A. Jain, S. M. Gruner, L. J. Fetters, G. W. Coates, and U. Wiesner, “Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) copolymers,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 204(8), 1047–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mandal, S.

S. Mandal, J. M. Goddard, and D. Erickson, “A multiplexed optofluidic biomolecular sensor for low mass detection,” Lab Chip 9(20), 2924–2932 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 33–52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, “Nanoscale Optofluidic Sensor Arrays,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1623–1631 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, A. L.

McCarley, R. L.

F. Xu, P. Datta, H. Wang, S. Gurung, M. Hashimoto, S. Wei, J. Goettert, R. L. McCarley, and S. A. Soper, “Polymer microfluidic chips with integrated waveguides for reading microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(23), 9007–9013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinnon, R.

Mischki, T.

Myers, F. B.

F. B. Myers and L. P. Lee, “Innovations in optical microfluidic technologies for point-of-care diagnostics,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2015–2031 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, K.

N. Kehagias, S. Zankovych, A. Goldschmidt, R. Kian, M. Zelsmann, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, K. Pfeiffer, G. Ahrens, and G. Gruetzner, “Embedded polymer waveguides: design and fabrication approaches,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(1-3), 201–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pham, J. Q.

Y. Li, J. Q. Pham, K. P. Johnston, and P. F. Green, “Contact Angle of Water on Polystyrene Thin Films: Effects of CO(2) Environment and Film Thickness,” Langmuir 23(19), 9785–9793 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popelka, S.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Post, E.

Pourmand, N.

J. S. Daniels and N. Pourmand, “Label-free impedance biosensors: Opportunities and challenges,” Electroanalysis 19(12), 1239–1257 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabus, D. G.

D. G. Rabus, M. Bruendel, Y. Ichihashi, A. Welle, R. A. Seger, and M. Isaacson, “A bio-fluidic-photonic platform based on deep UV modification of polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(2), 214–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rapp, B. E.

K. Länge, B. E. Rapp, and M. Rapp, “Surface acoustic wave biosensors: a review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391(5), 1509–1519 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rapp, M.

K. Länge, B. E. Rapp, and M. Rapp, “Surface acoustic wave biosensors: a review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391(5), 1509–1519 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renker, S.

S. Mahajan, S. Renker, P. F. W. Simon, J. S. Gutmann, A. Jain, S. M. Gruner, L. J. Fetters, G. W. Coates, and U. Wiesner, “Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) copolymers,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 204(8), 1047–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, B.

Schacht, E.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, J. H.

Seger, R. A.

D. G. Rabus, M. Bruendel, Y. Ichihashi, A. Welle, R. A. Seger, and M. Isaacson, “A bio-fluidic-photonic platform based on deep UV modification of polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(2), 214–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seo, B. J.

B. J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, and R. Dinu, “Design of ring resonators using electro-optic polymer waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 7953–7958 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, P. F. W.

S. Mahajan, S. Renker, P. F. W. Simon, J. S. Gutmann, A. Jain, S. M. Gruner, L. J. Fetters, G. W. Coates, and U. Wiesner, “Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) copolymers,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 204(8), 1047–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sohlström, H.

Soper, S. A.

F. Xu, P. Datta, H. Wang, S. Gurung, M. Hashimoto, S. Wei, J. Goettert, R. L. McCarley, and S. A. Soper, “Polymer microfluidic chips with integrated waveguides for reading microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(23), 9007–9013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steier, W.

B. J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, and R. Dinu, “Design of ring resonators using electro-optic polymer waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 7953–7958 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torres, C. M. Sotomayor

N. Kehagias, S. Zankovych, A. Goldschmidt, R. Kian, M. Zelsmann, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, K. Pfeiffer, G. Ahrens, and G. Gruetzner, “Embedded polymer waveguides: design and fabrication approaches,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(1-3), 201–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldron, P.

Wang, H.

F. Xu, P. Datta, H. Wang, S. Gurung, M. Hashimoto, S. Wei, J. Goettert, R. L. McCarley, and S. A. Soper, “Polymer microfluidic chips with integrated waveguides for reading microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(23), 9007–9013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, S.

F. Xu, P. Datta, H. Wang, S. Gurung, M. Hashimoto, S. Wei, J. Goettert, R. L. McCarley, and S. A. Soper, “Polymer microfluidic chips with integrated waveguides for reading microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(23), 9007–9013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welle, A.

D. G. Rabus, M. Bruendel, Y. Ichihashi, A. Welle, R. A. Seger, and M. Isaacson, “A bio-fluidic-photonic platform based on deep UV modification of polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(2), 214–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiesner, U.

S. Mahajan, S. Renker, P. F. W. Simon, J. S. Gutmann, A. Jain, S. M. Gruner, L. J. Fetters, G. W. Coates, and U. Wiesner, “Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) copolymers,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 204(8), 1047–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. X.

Xu, F.

F. Xu, P. Datta, H. Wang, S. Gurung, M. Hashimoto, S. Wei, J. Goettert, R. L. McCarley, and S. A. Soper, “Polymer microfluidic chips with integrated waveguides for reading microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(23), 9007–9013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, A. H. J.

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 33–52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zankovych, S.

N. Kehagias, S. Zankovych, A. Goldschmidt, R. Kian, M. Zelsmann, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, K. Pfeiffer, G. Ahrens, and G. Gruetzner, “Embedded polymer waveguides: design and fabrication approaches,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(1-3), 201–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zelsmann, M.

N. Kehagias, S. Zankovych, A. Goldschmidt, R. Kian, M. Zelsmann, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, K. Pfeiffer, G. Ahrens, and G. Gruetzner, “Embedded polymer waveguides: design and fabrication approaches,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(1-3), 201–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (2)

M. A. Cooper, “Label-free screening of bio-molecular interactions,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(5), 834–842 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Länge, B. E. Rapp, and M. Rapp, “Surface acoustic wave biosensors: a review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391(5), 1509–1519 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

F. Xu, P. Datta, H. Wang, S. Gurung, M. Hashimoto, S. Wei, J. Goettert, R. L. McCarley, and S. A. Soper, “Polymer microfluidic chips with integrated waveguides for reading microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(23), 9007–9013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electroanalysis (1)

J. S. Daniels and N. Pourmand, “Label-free impedance biosensors: Opportunities and challenges,” Electroanalysis 19(12), 1239–1257 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Rabus, M. Bruendel, Y. Ichihashi, A. Welle, R. A. Seger, and M. Isaacson, “A bio-fluidic-photonic platform based on deep UV modification of polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(2), 214–222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

B. J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, and R. Dinu, “Design of ring resonators using electro-optic polymer waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 7953–7958 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(6), 2862–2866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (2)

S. Mandal, J. M. Goddard, and D. Erickson, “A multiplexed optofluidic biomolecular sensor for low mass detection,” Lab Chip 9(20), 2924–2932 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. Myers and L. P. Lee, “Innovations in optical microfluidic technologies for point-of-care diagnostics,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2015–2031 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

Y. Li, J. Q. Pham, K. P. Johnston, and P. F. Green, “Contact Angle of Water on Polystyrene Thin Films: Effects of CO(2) Environment and Film Thickness,” Langmuir 23(19), 9785–9793 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Mahajan, S. Renker, P. F. W. Simon, J. S. Gutmann, A. Jain, S. M. Gruner, L. J. Fetters, G. W. Coates, and U. Wiesner, “Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) copolymers,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 204(8), 1047–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microfluid. Nanofluid. (1)

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 33–52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Prog. Polym. Sci. (1)

J. M. Goddard and J. H. Hotchkiss, “Polymer surface modification for the attachment of bioactive compounds,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 32(7), 698–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (Basel Switzerland) (1)

C. A. Barrios, “Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(6), 4751–4765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

N. Kehagias, S. Zankovych, A. Goldschmidt, R. Kian, M. Zelsmann, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, K. Pfeiffer, G. Ahrens, and G. Gruetzner, “Embedded polymer waveguides: design and fabrication approaches,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(1-3), 201–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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