Abstract

We present an integrated optical system that consists of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy for multimodal analysis of pearls and pearl treatments. The OCT source and the LIF excitation beams were aligned together to illuminate the same spot of a pearl fixed on the sample stage that was under rotation. As a result, both OCT images and LIF spectra of the pearls were detected at the same time and also at the same place. For OCT, a 1310 nm-centered swept laser source was used. For LIF, a 405 nm laser diode was used and a lensed multimode fiber was utilized as a fluorescence probe. The tomographic investigation on the internal structure of a pearl allowed us to evaluate and categorize the pearl nondestructively as was previously reported. In addition, the measurements of fluorescence spectrum and its decaying rate helped to determine the species of mother oyster. The proposed multimodal analysis made it possible to classify the pearls and also to disclose the treatments made on the pearls.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. R. Y. Park, Y. C. Kim, and P. C. Kim, “The comparative analyses of akoya pearls using the bio-bead nucleus and bead nucleus made from washboard shell,” J. Korean Gems Jewelry 1, 23–25 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and H. Komatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls to distinguish mother oyster used in pearl culture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26(Part 1, No. 4), 578–581 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

R. Y. Park, Y. C. Kim, and P. C. Kim, “The comparative analyses of akoya pearls using the bio-bead nucleus and bead nucleus made from washboard shell,” J. Korean Gems Jewelry 1, 23–25 (2007).

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

J. U. Oh, J. S. Kim, J. K. Choi, and P. C. Kim, “The estimation characteristics of cultured pearls,” J. Korean Cryst. Growth Technol. 13, 315–319 (2003).

1999 (1)

1988 (1)

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and S. Akamatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls of freshwater bibalves and its contribution to the distinction of mother oysters used in pearl culture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(Part 1, No. 1), 151–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and H. Komatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls to distinguish mother oyster used in pearl culture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26(Part 1, No. 4), 578–581 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and H. Komatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls under N2 laser excitation and its application to distinction of mother oysters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25(Part 1, No. 10), 1606–1607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

K. Wada, “Modern and traditional methods of pearl culture,” Underwater J. 5, 28–33 (1973).

Akamatsu, S.

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and S. Akamatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls of freshwater bibalves and its contribution to the distinction of mother oysters used in pearl culture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(Part 1, No. 1), 151–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, M.

Amblard, F.

Beaurepaire, E.

Chan, K.-P.

Choi, H. Y.

Choi, J. K.

J. U. Oh, J. S. Kim, J. K. Choi, and P. C. Kim, “The estimation characteristics of cultured pearls,” J. Korean Cryst. Growth Technol. 13, 315–319 (2003).

Choi, W. J.

Chong, C.

Itoh, M.

Jaillon, F.

Ju, M. J.

Kim, H. Y.

Kim, J. S.

J. U. Oh, J. S. Kim, J. K. Choi, and P. C. Kim, “The estimation characteristics of cultured pearls,” J. Korean Cryst. Growth Technol. 13, 315–319 (2003).

Kim, P. C.

R. Y. Park, Y. C. Kim, and P. C. Kim, “The comparative analyses of akoya pearls using the bio-bead nucleus and bead nucleus made from washboard shell,” J. Korean Gems Jewelry 1, 23–25 (2007).

J. U. Oh, J. S. Kim, J. K. Choi, and P. C. Kim, “The estimation characteristics of cultured pearls,” J. Korean Cryst. Growth Technol. 13, 315–319 (2003).

Kim, Y.

Kim, Y. C.

R. Y. Park, Y. C. Kim, and P. C. Kim, “The comparative analyses of akoya pearls using the bio-bead nucleus and bead nucleus made from washboard shell,” J. Korean Gems Jewelry 1, 23–25 (2007).

Komatsu, H.

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and H. Komatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls to distinguish mother oyster used in pearl culture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26(Part 1, No. 4), 578–581 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and H. Komatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls under N2 laser excitation and its application to distinction of mother oysters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25(Part 1, No. 10), 1606–1607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, S. J.

Madjarova, V. D.

Makita, S.

Matsuda, Y.

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and S. Akamatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls of freshwater bibalves and its contribution to the distinction of mother oysters used in pearl culture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(Part 1, No. 1), 151–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and H. Komatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls to distinguish mother oyster used in pearl culture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26(Part 1, No. 4), 578–581 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and H. Komatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls under N2 laser excitation and its application to distinction of mother oysters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25(Part 1, No. 10), 1606–1607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mertz, J.

Min, E. J.

Miura, M.

Miyoshi, T.

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and S. Akamatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls of freshwater bibalves and its contribution to the distinction of mother oysters used in pearl culture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(Part 1, No. 1), 151–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and H. Komatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls to distinguish mother oyster used in pearl culture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26(Part 1, No. 4), 578–581 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and H. Komatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls under N2 laser excitation and its application to distinction of mother oysters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25(Part 1, No. 10), 1606–1607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moreaux, L.

Morosawa, A.

Na, J.

Na, J. H.

Oh, J. U.

J. U. Oh, J. S. Kim, J. K. Choi, and P. C. Kim, “The estimation characteristics of cultured pearls,” J. Korean Cryst. Growth Technol. 13, 315–319 (2003).

Park, R. Y.

R. Y. Park, Y. C. Kim, and P. C. Kim, “The comparative analyses of akoya pearls using the bio-bead nucleus and bead nucleus made from washboard shell,” J. Korean Gems Jewelry 1, 23–25 (2007).

Ryu, S. Y.

Sakai, T.

Wada, K.

K. Wada, “Modern and traditional methods of pearl culture,” Underwater J. 5, 28–33 (1973).

Yamanari, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Korean Cryst. Growth Technol. (1)

J. U. Oh, J. S. Kim, J. K. Choi, and P. C. Kim, “The estimation characteristics of cultured pearls,” J. Korean Cryst. Growth Technol. 13, 315–319 (2003).

J. Korean Gems Jewelry (1)

R. Y. Park, Y. C. Kim, and P. C. Kim, “The comparative analyses of akoya pearls using the bio-bead nucleus and bead nucleus made from washboard shell,” J. Korean Gems Jewelry 1, 23–25 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and S. Akamatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls of freshwater bibalves and its contribution to the distinction of mother oysters used in pearl culture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(Part 1, No. 1), 151–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and H. Komatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls under N2 laser excitation and its application to distinction of mother oysters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25(Part 1, No. 10), 1606–1607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyoshi, Y. Matsuda, and H. Komatsu, “Fluorescence from pearls to distinguish mother oyster used in pearl culture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26(Part 1, No. 4), 578–581 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Underwater J. (1)

K. Wada, “Modern and traditional methods of pearl culture,” Underwater J. 5, 28–33 (1973).

Other (4)

J. Y. Kim, Korea Pearl Laboratory, 141–1 Bongik-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110–390, Korea (personal communication, 2009).

http://www.ajsgem.com/gemstone-information/pearl-109.html .

http://www.gemstonebuzz.com/pearl

J. E. Falk, porphyrins and Metalloporphyrins (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1964), p. 87.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photographs of pearls actually used for this study. There are four representative types, and ten pearls in different sizes and colors for each type.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the optical integrating system. SS: swept laser source, PC: in-line polarization controller, C: circulator, L1–3: collimation lenses, DF: dichroic filter, RM: reference mirror, OL: objective lens, MRS: motorized rotation stage, BPD: balanced photodetector, LD: laser diode, LPF: long-pass filter, LF: lensed fiber probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3D volume OCT images of the pearls which are single frames excerpted from video recordings; (a) Akoya, (b) freshwater, (c) South Sea, and (d) Tahitian pearls. Nuclei and cracks inside the pearls are clearly identified and confirmed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photographs and (b) 3D volume OCT image of the filling processed pearl, and its 2D tomography images taken along; (c) XY-plane, (d) XZ-plane, and (e) YZ-plane.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Segmented OCT volumes of three representative Akoya pearls.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The fluorescence spectra of pearls under 405 nm excitation; (a) Akoya, (b) South Sea, (c) Tahitian, (d) freshwater pearls. Peak intensities are normalized.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Distribution of the peak wavelengths of fluorescence spectra from three kinds of pearls; Akoya (red), South Sea (green), and freshwater (blue) pearls.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Series of fluorescence spectra of (a) Akoya and (b) South Sea pearls, and (c) the plot of normalized peak wavelength intensities. The decaying rate of South Sea pearl (blue) is faster than the one of Akoya pearl (red).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The fluorescence spectra of pearls under 405 nm excitation; (a) South Sea, (b) black Tahitian, (c) white Tahitian pearls. Peak intensities are normalized.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The fluorescence spectra of ten freshwater pearls having diverse colors, under 405 nm excitation. Peak intensities are normalized.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The fluorescence spectra of γ-ray irradiated pearls under 405 nm excitation; (a) Akoya, (b) South Sea, (c) Tahitian pearls. Peak intensities are normalized.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Photographs of four typical pearls and OCT images of (b) Akoya, (c) South Sea, (d) Tahitian, and (e) freshwater pearls. Each OCT image represents an area of 360 degree (horizontal) × 2.5 mm (vertical) along the angle and the depth, respectively (all pearls are in round shapes).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Maps of fluorescence spectra of (a) Akoya, (b) South Sea, (c) Tahitian, and (d) freshwater pearls, which were simultaneously measured with the 2D OCT images of Fig. 12. At each angle across the pearl, the fluorescence spectrum was measured and plotted with pseudo-colors.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Multimodal analysis of buffing processed pearl; (a) photograph, (b) OCT image, (c) segmented OCT image, (d) multiple site of fluorescence, and (e) fluorescence spectra at 72 and 252 degree.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measured Parameters of the Pearls for Fig. 5

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