Abstract

A low-cost single-cell isolation system incorporating a digital versatile disc burner (DVD RW) optical pickup has been developed. We show that these readily available modules have the required laser power and focusing optics to provide a steady Gaussian beam capable of optically trapping micron-sized colloids and red blood cells. Utility of the pickup is demonstrated through the non-destructive isolation of such particles in a laminar-flow based microfluidic device that captures and translates single microscale objects across streamlines into designated channel exits. In this, the integrated objective lens focusing coils are used to steer the optical trap across the channel, resulting in the isolation of colloids and red blood cells using a very inexpensive off-the-shelf optical component.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2010 (5)

K. Dotan, B. Feldman, B. Goldman, Y. Peri, and L. Peleg, “The single cell as a tool for genetic testing: credibility, precision, implication,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 27(6), 335–341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Bhakdi, A. Ottinger, S. Somsri, P. Sratongno, P. Pannadaporn, P. Chimma, P. Malasit, K. Pattanapanyasat, and H. P. H. Neumann, “Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells,” Malar. J. 9(1), 30–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. S. W. Thomas, P. D. Mitchell, R. O. C. Oreffo, and H. Morgan, “Trapping single human osteoblast-like cells from a heterogeneous population using a dielectrophoretic microfluidic device,” Biomicrofluidics 4(2), 022806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, X. M. Yang, H. Jiang, P. Bulkhaults, P. Wood, W. Hrushesky, and G. R. Wang, “Dielectrophoretic separation of colorectal cancer cells,” Biomicrofluidics 4(1), 013204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Cho, C. H. Chen, F. S. Tsai, J. M. Godin, and Y. H. Lo, “Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (microFACS),” Lab Chip 10(12), 1567–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fiber-focused diode-bar optical trapping for microfluidic flow manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Beyor, T. S. Seo, P. Liu, and R. A. Mathies, “Immunomagnetic bead-based cell concentration microdevice for dilute pathogen detection,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(6), 909–917 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. T. Hwu, S. K. Hung, C. W. Yang, K. Y. Huang, and I. S. Hwang, “Real-time detection of linear and angular displacements with a modified DVD optical head,” Nanotechnology 19(11), 115501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, S. Kim, and S. G. Jeong, “DNA microarray scanner with a DVD pick-up head,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8(6), 687–691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kostner and M. Vellekoop, “Cell analysis in a microfluidic cytorneter applying a DVD pickup head,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 132(2), 512–517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, L. Hassib, K. Krishnan, C. Surman, R. Wroczynski, S. Boyette, C. Xiao, P. Shrikhande, A. Agree, and T. Cecconie, “Theory and practice of ubiquitous quantitative chemical analysis using conventional computer optical disk drives,” Appl. Opt. 46(28), 7007–7017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Chu, C. H. Lin, and K. C. Fan, “Two-dimensional optical accelerometer based on commercial DVD pick-up head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(1), 265–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, and S. G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol. 13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Applegate, D. Schafer, W. Amir, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Optically-integrated microfluidic systems for cellular characterization and manipulation,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S122–S128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kekarainen, S. Mannelin, J. Laine, and T. Jaatinen, “Optimization of immunomagnetic separation for cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells,” BMC Cell Biol. 7(1), 1–10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, “Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(2), 270–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

C. L. Chu and C. H. Lin, “Development of an optical accelerometer with a DVD pick-up head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16(12), 2498–2502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Windler-Hart, K. Y. Chen, and A. Chenn, “A cell behavior screen: identification, sorting, and enrichment of cells based on motility,” BMC Cell Biol. 6(1), 14–23 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rosenthal and J. Voldman, “Dielectrophoretic traps for single-particle patterning,” Biophys. J. 88(3), 2193–2205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

K. C. Fan, C. L. Chu, J. L. Liao, and J. I. Mou, “Development of a high-precision straightness measuring system with DVD pick-up head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(1), 47–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Oakey, J. Allely, and D. W. M. Marr, “Laminar-flow-based separations at the microscale,” Biotechnol. Prog. 18(6), 1439–1442 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Sieben, C. Bergemann, A. Lubbe, B. Brockmann, and D. Rescheleit, “Comparison of different particles and methods for magnetic isolation of circulating tumor cells,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 225(1-2), 175–179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

F. L. Battye, A. Light, and D. M. Tarlinton, “Single cell sorting and cloning,” J. Immunol. Methods 243(1-2), 25–32 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Drag of a laser trapped fine particle in a microregion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 4A), 1930–1933 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Immink, “The compact disk story,” J. Audio Eng. Soc. 46, 458–465 (1998).

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

C. E. M. Sharrock, E. Kaminski, and S. Man, “Limiting dilution analysis of human T cells: a useful clinical tool,” Immunol. Today 11(8), 281–286 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agree, A.

Allely, J.

J. Oakey, J. Allely, and D. W. M. Marr, “Laminar-flow-based separations at the microscale,” Biotechnol. Prog. 18(6), 1439–1442 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amir, W.

R. W. Applegate, D. Schafer, W. Amir, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Optically-integrated microfluidic systems for cellular characterization and manipulation,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S122–S128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Applegate, R. W.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fiber-focused diode-bar optical trapping for microfluidic flow manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Applegate, D. Schafer, W. Amir, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Optically-integrated microfluidic systems for cellular characterization and manipulation,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S122–S128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Optical trapping, manipulation, and sorting of cells and colloids in microfluidic systems with diode laser bars,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4390–4398 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bado, P.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartoli, A.

Battye, F. L.

F. L. Battye, A. Light, and D. M. Tarlinton, “Single cell sorting and cloning,” J. Immunol. Methods 243(1-2), 25–32 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benschop, J.

Bergemann, C.

S. Sieben, C. Bergemann, A. Lubbe, B. Brockmann, and D. Rescheleit, “Comparison of different particles and methods for magnetic isolation of circulating tumor cells,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 225(1-2), 175–179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, A.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, “Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(2), 270–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beyor, N.

N. Beyor, T. S. Seo, P. Liu, and R. A. Mathies, “Immunomagnetic bead-based cell concentration microdevice for dilute pathogen detection,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(6), 909–917 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhakdi, S. C.

S. C. Bhakdi, A. Ottinger, S. Somsri, P. Sratongno, P. Pannadaporn, P. Chimma, P. Malasit, K. Pattanapanyasat, and H. P. H. Neumann, “Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells,” Malar. J. 9(1), 30–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boyette, S.

Breitinger, B.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, “Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(2), 270–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brockmann, B.

S. Sieben, C. Bergemann, A. Lubbe, B. Brockmann, and D. Rescheleit, “Comparison of different particles and methods for magnetic isolation of circulating tumor cells,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 225(1-2), 175–179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buck, D. W.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulkhaults, P.

F. Yang, X. M. Yang, H. Jiang, P. Bulkhaults, P. Wood, W. Hrushesky, and G. R. Wang, “Dielectrophoretic separation of colorectal cancer cells,” Biomicrofluidics 4(1), 013204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cecconie, T.

Chen, C. H.

S. H. Cho, C. H. Chen, F. S. Tsai, J. M. Godin, and Y. H. Lo, “Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (microFACS),” Lab Chip 10(12), 1567–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. Y.

S. L. Windler-Hart, K. Y. Chen, and A. Chenn, “A cell behavior screen: identification, sorting, and enrichment of cells based on motility,” BMC Cell Biol. 6(1), 14–23 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chenn, A.

S. L. Windler-Hart, K. Y. Chen, and A. Chenn, “A cell behavior screen: identification, sorting, and enrichment of cells based on motility,” BMC Cell Biol. 6(1), 14–23 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chimma, P.

S. C. Bhakdi, A. Ottinger, S. Somsri, P. Sratongno, P. Pannadaporn, P. Chimma, P. Malasit, K. Pattanapanyasat, and H. P. H. Neumann, “Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells,” Malar. J. 9(1), 30–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

S. H. Cho, C. H. Chen, F. S. Tsai, J. M. Godin, and Y. H. Lo, “Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (microFACS),” Lab Chip 10(12), 1567–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, C. L.

C. L. Chu, C. H. Lin, and K. C. Fan, “Two-dimensional optical accelerometer based on commercial DVD pick-up head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(1), 265–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Chu and C. H. Lin, “Development of an optical accelerometer with a DVD pick-up head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16(12), 2498–2502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Fan, C. L. Chu, J. L. Liao, and J. I. Mou, “Development of a high-precision straightness measuring system with DVD pick-up head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(1), 47–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dotan, K.

K. Dotan, B. Feldman, B. Goldman, Y. Peri, and L. Peleg, “The single cell as a tool for genetic testing: credibility, precision, implication,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 27(6), 335–341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dübel, S.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, “Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(2), 270–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duffy, D. C.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dugan, M. A.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, K. C.

C. L. Chu, C. H. Lin, and K. C. Fan, “Two-dimensional optical accelerometer based on commercial DVD pick-up head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(1), 265–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Fan, C. L. Chu, J. L. Liao, and J. I. Mou, “Development of a high-precision straightness measuring system with DVD pick-up head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(1), 47–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, B.

K. Dotan, B. Feldman, B. Goldman, Y. Peri, and L. Peleg, “The single cell as a tool for genetic testing: credibility, precision, implication,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 27(6), 335–341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gage, F. H.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godin, J. M.

S. H. Cho, C. H. Chen, F. S. Tsai, J. M. Godin, and Y. H. Lo, “Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (microFACS),” Lab Chip 10(12), 1567–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, B.

K. Dotan, B. Feldman, B. Goldman, Y. Peri, and L. Peleg, “The single cell as a tool for genetic testing: credibility, precision, implication,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 27(6), 335–341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grässle, J.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, “Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(2), 270–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hassib, L.

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N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 14720–14725 (2000).
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S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, “Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(2), 270–273 (2006).
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F. Yang, X. M. Yang, H. Jiang, P. Bulkhaults, P. Wood, W. Hrushesky, and G. R. Wang, “Dielectrophoretic separation of colorectal cancer cells,” Biomicrofluidics 4(1), 013204 (2010).
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E. T. Hwu, S. K. Hung, C. W. Yang, K. Y. Huang, and I. S. Hwang, “Real-time detection of linear and angular displacements with a modified DVD optical head,” Nanotechnology 19(11), 115501 (2008).
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K. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, S. Kim, and S. G. Jeong, “DNA microarray scanner with a DVD pick-up head,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8(6), 687–691 (2008).
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K. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, and S. G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol. 13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
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F. Yang, X. M. Yang, H. Jiang, P. Bulkhaults, P. Wood, W. Hrushesky, and G. R. Wang, “Dielectrophoretic separation of colorectal cancer cells,” Biomicrofluidics 4(1), 013204 (2010).
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M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Drag of a laser trapped fine particle in a microregion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 4A), 1930–1933 (2000).
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C. E. M. Sharrock, E. Kaminski, and S. Man, “Limiting dilution analysis of human T cells: a useful clinical tool,” Immunol. Today 11(8), 281–286 (1990).
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T. Kekarainen, S. Mannelin, J. Laine, and T. Jaatinen, “Optimization of immunomagnetic separation for cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells,” BMC Cell Biol. 7(1), 1–10 (2006).
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K. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, S. Kim, and S. G. Jeong, “DNA microarray scanner with a DVD pick-up head,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8(6), 687–691 (2008).
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K. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, and S. G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol. 13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
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K. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, S. Kim, and S. G. Jeong, “DNA microarray scanner with a DVD pick-up head,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8(6), 687–691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, and S. G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol. 13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
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S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, “Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(2), 270–273 (2006).
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S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, “Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(2), 270–273 (2006).
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S. Kostner and M. Vellekoop, “Cell analysis in a microfluidic cytorneter applying a DVD pickup head,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 132(2), 512–517 (2008).
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Lacoste, T.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, “Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(2), 270–273 (2006).
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T. Kekarainen, S. Mannelin, J. Laine, and T. Jaatinen, “Optimization of immunomagnetic separation for cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells,” BMC Cell Biol. 7(1), 1–10 (2006).
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Lange, S. A.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, “Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(2), 270–273 (2006).
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Lee, S. H.

K. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, and S. G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol. 13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

K. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, S. Kim, and S. G. Jeong, “DNA microarray scanner with a DVD pick-up head,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8(6), 687–691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, and S. G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol. 13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, J. L.

K. C. Fan, C. L. Chu, J. L. Liao, and J. I. Mou, “Development of a high-precision straightness measuring system with DVD pick-up head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(1), 47–54 (2003).
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F. L. Battye, A. Light, and D. M. Tarlinton, “Single cell sorting and cloning,” J. Immunol. Methods 243(1-2), 25–32 (2000).
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C. L. Chu, C. H. Lin, and K. C. Fan, “Two-dimensional optical accelerometer based on commercial DVD pick-up head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(1), 265–274 (2007).
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C. L. Chu and C. H. Lin, “Development of an optical accelerometer with a DVD pick-up head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16(12), 2498–2502 (2005).
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N. Beyor, T. S. Seo, P. Liu, and R. A. Mathies, “Immunomagnetic bead-based cell concentration microdevice for dilute pathogen detection,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(6), 909–917 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, Y. H.

S. H. Cho, C. H. Chen, F. S. Tsai, J. M. Godin, and Y. H. Lo, “Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (microFACS),” Lab Chip 10(12), 1567–1573 (2010).
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Lubbe, A.

S. Sieben, C. Bergemann, A. Lubbe, B. Brockmann, and D. Rescheleit, “Comparison of different particles and methods for magnetic isolation of circulating tumor cells,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 225(1-2), 175–179 (2001).
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S. C. Bhakdi, A. Ottinger, S. Somsri, P. Sratongno, P. Pannadaporn, P. Chimma, P. Malasit, K. Pattanapanyasat, and H. P. H. Neumann, “Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells,” Malar. J. 9(1), 30–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Man, S.

C. E. M. Sharrock, E. Kaminski, and S. Man, “Limiting dilution analysis of human T cells: a useful clinical tool,” Immunol. Today 11(8), 281–286 (1990).
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Mannelin, S.

T. Kekarainen, S. Mannelin, J. Laine, and T. Jaatinen, “Optimization of immunomagnetic separation for cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells,” BMC Cell Biol. 7(1), 1–10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marr, D. W. M.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fiber-focused diode-bar optical trapping for microfluidic flow manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013904 (2008).
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R. W. Applegate, D. Schafer, W. Amir, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Optically-integrated microfluidic systems for cellular characterization and manipulation,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S122–S128 (2007).
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R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Optical trapping, manipulation, and sorting of cells and colloids in microfluidic systems with diode laser bars,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4390–4398 (2004).
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J. Oakey, J. Allely, and D. W. M. Marr, “Laminar-flow-based separations at the microscale,” Biotechnol. Prog. 18(6), 1439–1442 (2002).
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Masek, M.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathies, R. A.

N. Beyor, T. S. Seo, P. Liu, and R. A. Mathies, “Immunomagnetic bead-based cell concentration microdevice for dilute pathogen detection,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(6), 909–917 (2008).
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D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
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M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Drag of a laser trapped fine particle in a microregion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 4A), 1930–1933 (2000).
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R. S. W. Thomas, P. D. Mitchell, R. O. C. Oreffo, and H. Morgan, “Trapping single human osteoblast-like cells from a heterogeneous population using a dielectrophoretic microfluidic device,” Biomicrofluidics 4(2), 022806 (2010).
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Miwa, M.

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Drag of a laser trapped fine particle in a microregion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 4A), 1930–1933 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, H.

R. S. W. Thomas, P. D. Mitchell, R. O. C. Oreffo, and H. Morgan, “Trapping single human osteoblast-like cells from a heterogeneous population using a dielectrophoretic microfluidic device,” Biomicrofluidics 4(2), 022806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morris, W. G.

Mou, J. I.

K. C. Fan, C. L. Chu, J. L. Liao, and J. I. Mou, “Development of a high-precision straightness measuring system with DVD pick-up head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(1), 47–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, H. P. H.

S. C. Bhakdi, A. Ottinger, S. Somsri, P. Sratongno, P. Pannadaporn, P. Chimma, P. Malasit, K. Pattanapanyasat, and H. P. H. Neumann, “Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells,” Malar. J. 9(1), 30–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oakey, J.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fiber-focused diode-bar optical trapping for microfluidic flow manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Applegate, D. Schafer, W. Amir, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Optically-integrated microfluidic systems for cellular characterization and manipulation,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S122–S128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Optical trapping, manipulation, and sorting of cells and colloids in microfluidic systems with diode laser bars,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4390–4398 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Oakey, J. Allely, and D. W. M. Marr, “Laminar-flow-based separations at the microscale,” Biotechnol. Prog. 18(6), 1439–1442 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oreffo, R. O. C.

R. S. W. Thomas, P. D. Mitchell, R. O. C. Oreffo, and H. Morgan, “Trapping single human osteoblast-like cells from a heterogeneous population using a dielectrophoretic microfluidic device,” Biomicrofluidics 4(2), 022806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ottinger, A.

S. C. Bhakdi, A. Ottinger, S. Somsri, P. Sratongno, P. Pannadaporn, P. Chimma, P. Malasit, K. Pattanapanyasat, and H. P. H. Neumann, “Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells,” Malar. J. 9(1), 30–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pannadaporn, P.

S. C. Bhakdi, A. Ottinger, S. Somsri, P. Sratongno, P. Pannadaporn, P. Chimma, P. Malasit, K. Pattanapanyasat, and H. P. H. Neumann, “Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells,” Malar. J. 9(1), 30–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pattanapanyasat, K.

S. C. Bhakdi, A. Ottinger, S. Somsri, P. Sratongno, P. Pannadaporn, P. Chimma, P. Malasit, K. Pattanapanyasat, and H. P. H. Neumann, “Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells,” Malar. J. 9(1), 30–38 (2010).
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K. Dotan, B. Feldman, B. Goldman, Y. Peri, and L. Peleg, “The single cell as a tool for genetic testing: credibility, precision, implication,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 27(6), 335–341 (2010).
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K. Dotan, B. Feldman, B. Goldman, Y. Peri, and L. Peleg, “The single cell as a tool for genetic testing: credibility, precision, implication,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 27(6), 335–341 (2010).
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Phan, T. V.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potyrailo, R. A.

Quercioli, F.

Reitsma, M. J.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rescheleit, D.

S. Sieben, C. Bergemann, A. Lubbe, B. Brockmann, and D. Rescheleit, “Comparison of different particles and methods for magnetic isolation of circulating tumor cells,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 225(1-2), 175–179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rosenthal, A.

A. Rosenthal and J. Voldman, “Dielectrophoretic traps for single-particle patterning,” Biophys. J. 88(3), 2193–2205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roth, G.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, “Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(2), 270–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, D.

R. W. Applegate, D. Schafer, W. Amir, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Optically-integrated microfluidic systems for cellular characterization and manipulation,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S122–S128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schueller, O. J. A.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, T. S.

N. Beyor, T. S. Seo, P. Liu, and R. A. Mathies, “Immunomagnetic bead-based cell concentration microdevice for dilute pathogen detection,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(6), 909–917 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharrock, C. E. M.

C. E. M. Sharrock, E. Kaminski, and S. Man, “Limiting dilution analysis of human T cells: a useful clinical tool,” Immunol. Today 11(8), 281–286 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shrikhande, P.

Sieben, S.

S. Sieben, C. Bergemann, A. Lubbe, B. Brockmann, and D. Rescheleit, “Comparison of different particles and methods for magnetic isolation of circulating tumor cells,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 225(1-2), 175–179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Somsri, S.

S. C. Bhakdi, A. Ottinger, S. Somsri, P. Sratongno, P. Pannadaporn, P. Chimma, P. Malasit, K. Pattanapanyasat, and H. P. H. Neumann, “Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells,” Malar. J. 9(1), 30–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fiber-focused diode-bar optical trapping for microfluidic flow manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Applegate, D. Schafer, W. Amir, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Optically-integrated microfluidic systems for cellular characterization and manipulation,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S122–S128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Optical trapping, manipulation, and sorting of cells and colloids in microfluidic systems with diode laser bars,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4390–4398 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sratongno, P.

S. C. Bhakdi, A. Ottinger, S. Somsri, P. Sratongno, P. Pannadaporn, P. Chimma, P. Malasit, K. Pattanapanyasat, and H. P. H. Neumann, “Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells,” Malar. J. 9(1), 30–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Surman, C.

Tarlinton, D. M.

F. L. Battye, A. Light, and D. M. Tarlinton, “Single cell sorting and cloning,” J. Immunol. Methods 243(1-2), 25–32 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, R. S. W.

R. S. W. Thomas, P. D. Mitchell, R. O. C. Oreffo, and H. Morgan, “Trapping single human osteoblast-like cells from a heterogeneous population using a dielectrophoretic microfluidic device,” Biomicrofluidics 4(2), 022806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tiribilli, B.

Tsai, F. S.

S. H. Cho, C. H. Chen, F. S. Tsai, J. M. Godin, and Y. H. Lo, “Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (microFACS),” Lab Chip 10(12), 1567–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsukamoto, A. S.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchida, N.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Rosmalen, G.

Vellekoop, M.

S. Kostner and M. Vellekoop, “Cell analysis in a microfluidic cytorneter applying a DVD pickup head,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 132(2), 512–517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vestad, T.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fiber-focused diode-bar optical trapping for microfluidic flow manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Applegate, D. Schafer, W. Amir, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Optically-integrated microfluidic systems for cellular characterization and manipulation,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S122–S128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Optical trapping, manipulation, and sorting of cells and colloids in microfluidic systems with diode laser bars,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4390–4398 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetter, A.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, “Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(2), 270–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Voldman, J.

A. Rosenthal and J. Voldman, “Dielectrophoretic traps for single-particle patterning,” Biophys. J. 88(3), 2193–2205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, “Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(2), 270–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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F. Yang, X. M. Yang, H. Jiang, P. Bulkhaults, P. Wood, W. Hrushesky, and G. R. Wang, “Dielectrophoretic separation of colorectal cancer cells,” Biomicrofluidics 4(1), 013204 (2010).
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E. T. Hwu, S. K. Hung, C. W. Yang, K. Y. Huang, and I. S. Hwang, “Real-time detection of linear and angular displacements with a modified DVD optical head,” Nanotechnology 19(11), 115501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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F. Yang, X. M. Yang, H. Jiang, P. Bulkhaults, P. Wood, W. Hrushesky, and G. R. Wang, “Dielectrophoretic separation of colorectal cancer cells,” Biomicrofluidics 4(1), 013204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (1316 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1700 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (647 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Schematic of an optical pickup displaying the laser diode, the tracking coil, the diffraction grating (subsequently removed for optical trapping experiments) and the photodetector along with other associated optics. b) Top view of the LPC-815 optical pickup employed in these studies.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the microfluidic device with the arrow indentifying the optical tweezer translation region right after the hydrodynamic focusing zone (center) along with a magnified image of the laminar sorting section downstream (left) and the hydrodynamic focusing region upstream (right) that directs particles to the center of the channel and the laser focus. Due to the focusing, colloids that are not optically sorted drain into the middle reservoir. The fluidic channels are 100 μm wide and 10 μm tall.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental setup displaying the location of the optical pickup within the optical train.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time lapse images of the translation of a trapped red blood cell identified by the arrow. The other 3 cells are stationary and act as reference points (Media 1). Media 2 shows similar experiments on colloids.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(left) Drag force (□) experimentally determined via measured escape velocities (◯, right). Black markers are polystyrene colloids, red markers correspond to red blood cells. Lines are guides to the eye.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time-lapse images of sorting in action. Circles track the trapped colloid, shifted across streamlines and sorted into exit 2. A reference 3-colloid aggregate is outlined that traverses the same streamline as the trapped colloid and takes exit 1. The vacant laser trap after colloid release is marked with an × . The attached schematic of the microfluidic device locates the field of view of the camera (Media 3).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) Back view of the LPC-815 optical pickup with the major components identified. b) Pin configuration of the red laser for the wiring.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Circuit diagram of the 420 mA laser driver used to operate the optical trap using a battery power source. A trapping power of ~60 mW was measured.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Side view with pin-outs identified for wiring the tracking coil.

Equations (1)

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F = 6 π μ a V 1 9 a 16 ( L ​ ​   1 1 L ​   2 1 )

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