Abstract

We report on the fabrication by a femtosecond laser of an optofluidic device for optical trapping and stretching of single cells. Versatility and three-dimensional capabilities of this fabrication technology provide straightforward and extremely accurate alignment between the optical and fluidic components. Optical trapping and stretching of single red blood cells are demonstrated, thus proving the effectiveness of the proposed device as a monolithic optical stretcher. Our results pave the way for a new class of optofluidic devices for single cell analysis, in which, taking advantage of the flexibility of femtosecond laser micromachining, it is possible to further integrate sensing and sorting functions.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  22. K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Shape control of microchannels fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser irradiation and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8685–8695 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Sikorski, C. Rablau, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, P. Bado, and L. G. Beholz, “Fabrication and characterization of microstructures with optical quality surfaces in fused silica glass using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Opt. 45(28), 7519–7523 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium with microfluidic structures for dynamic analysis of Cryptomonas and Phormidium fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9893–9897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Shape control of microchannels fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser irradiation and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8685–8695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Maselli, J. R. Grenier, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser written optofluidic sensor: Bragg Grating Waveguide evanescent probing of microfluidic channel,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11719–11729 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

R. R. Gatass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Lincoln, S. Schinkinger, K. Travis, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, F. Sauer, and J. Guck, “Reconfigurable microfluidic integration of a dual-beam laser trap with biomedical applications,” Biomed. Microdevices 9(5), 703–710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liberale, P. Minzioni, F. Bragheri, F. De Angelis, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, “Miniaturized all-fibre probe for three-dimensional optical trapping and manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 723–727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Cran-McGreehin, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Integrated monolithic optical manipulation,” Lab Chip 6(9), 1122–1124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sikorski, C. Rablau, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, P. Bado, and L. G. Beholz, “Fabrication and characterization of microstructures with optical quality surfaces in fused silica glass using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Opt. 45(28), 7519–7523 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. E. Molloy and M. J. Padgett, “Lights, action: optical tweezers,” Contemp. Phys. 43(4), 241–258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156–159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ananthakrishnan, R.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. W.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156–159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bado, P.

Beholz, L. G.

Bellini, N.

Bellouard, Y.

Bilby, C.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bragheri, F.

C. Liberale, P. Minzioni, F. Bragheri, F. De Angelis, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, “Miniaturized all-fibre probe for three-dimensional optical trapping and manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 723–727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cavallotti, P. L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Shape control of microchannels fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser irradiation and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8685–8695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Constable, A.

Cran-McGreehin, S.

S. Cran-McGreehin, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Integrated monolithic optical manipulation,” Lab Chip 6(9), 1122–1124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cristiani, I.

C. Liberale, P. Minzioni, F. Bragheri, F. De Angelis, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, “Miniaturized all-fibre probe for three-dimensional optical trapping and manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 723–727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, C. C.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Angelis, F.

C. Liberale, P. Minzioni, F. Bragheri, F. De Angelis, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, “Miniaturized all-fibre probe for three-dimensional optical trapping and manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 723–727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Della Valle, G.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

S. Cran-McGreehin, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Integrated monolithic optical manipulation,” Lab Chip 6(9), 1122–1124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Fabrizio, E.

C. Liberale, P. Minzioni, F. Bragheri, F. De Angelis, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, “Miniaturized all-fibre probe for three-dimensional optical trapping and manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 723–727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diez, S.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dittrich, P. S.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dongre, C.

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dugan, M.

Dugan, M. A.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duschl, C.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, S.

B. Lincoln, S. Schinkinger, K. Travis, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, F. Sauer, and J. Guck, “Reconfigurable microfluidic integration of a dual-beam laser trap with biomedical applications,” Biomed. Microdevices 9(5), 703–710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erickson, H. M.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gast, F.-U.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gatass, R. R.

R. R. Gatass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geggier, P.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grenier, J. R.

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guck, J.

B. Lincoln, S. Schinkinger, K. Travis, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, F. Sauer, and J. Guck, “Reconfigurable microfluidic integration of a dual-beam laser trap with biomedical applications,” Biomed. Microdevices 9(5), 703–710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanada, Y.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium with microfluidic structures for dynamic analysis of Cryptomonas and Phormidium fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9893–9897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hiromatsu, K.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S.

Howitz, S.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, D. J.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, I. S.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium with microfluidic structures for dynamic analysis of Cryptomonas and Phormidium fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9893–9897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, M. S.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Käs, J.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawano, H.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium with microfluidic structures for dynamic analysis of Cryptomonas and Phormidium fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9893–9897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, M.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

S. Cran-McGreehin, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Integrated monolithic optical manipulation,” Lab Chip 6(9), 1122–1124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laporta, P.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, D.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liberale, C.

C. Liberale, P. Minzioni, F. Bragheri, F. De Angelis, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, “Miniaturized all-fibre probe for three-dimensional optical trapping and manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 723–727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln, B.

B. Lincoln, S. Schinkinger, K. Travis, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, F. Sauer, and J. Guck, “Reconfigurable microfluidic integration of a dual-beam laser trap with biomedical applications,” Biomed. Microdevices 9(5), 703–710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magagnin, L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mahmood, H.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Marr, D. W. M.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez Vazquez, R.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maselli, V.

V. Maselli, J. R. Grenier, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser written optofluidic sensor: Bragg Grating Waveguide evanescent probing of microfluidic channel,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11719–11729 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gatass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mertig, M.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mervis, J.

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium with microfluidic structures for dynamic analysis of Cryptomonas and Phormidium fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9893–9897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minzioni, P.

C. Liberale, P. Minzioni, F. Bragheri, F. De Angelis, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, “Miniaturized all-fibre probe for three-dimensional optical trapping and manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 723–727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

Mitchell, D.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miwa, M.

Miyawaki, A.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium with microfluidic structures for dynamic analysis of Cryptomonas and Phormidium fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9893–9897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Molloy, J. E.

J. E. Molloy and M. J. Padgett, “Lights, action: optical tweezers,” Contemp. Phys. 43(4), 241–258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moon, T. J.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishii, J.

Nolli, D.

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oakey, J.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opitz, J.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Shape control of microchannels fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser irradiation and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8685–8695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

J. E. Molloy and M. J. Padgett, “Lights, action: optical tweezers,” Contemp. Phys. 43(4), 241–258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M.

Queitsch, U.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rablau, C.

Ramponi, R.

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Shape control of microchannels fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser irradiation and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8685–8695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romeyke, M.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Said, A.

Said, A. A.

Y. Sikorski, C. Rablau, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, P. Bado, and L. G. Beholz, “Fabrication and characterization of microstructures with optical quality surfaces in fused silica glass using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Opt. 45(28), 7519–7523 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salchert, K.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, F.

B. Lincoln, S. Schinkinger, K. Travis, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, F. Sauer, and J. Guck, “Reconfigurable microfluidic integration of a dual-beam laser trap with biomedical applications,” Biomed. Microdevices 9(5), 703–710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schinkinger, S.

B. Lincoln, S. Schinkinger, K. Travis, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, F. Sauer, and J. Guck, “Reconfigurable microfluidic integration of a dual-beam laser trap with biomedical applications,” Biomed. Microdevices 9(5), 703–710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwille, P.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sikorski, Y.

Smolinski, J.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugioka, K.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium with microfluidic structures for dynamic analysis of Cryptomonas and Phormidium fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9893–9897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Travis, K.

B. Lincoln, S. Schinkinger, K. Travis, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, F. Sauer, and J. Guck, “Reconfigurable microfluidic integration of a dual-beam laser trap with biomedical applications,” Biomed. Microdevices 9(5), 703–710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uhlig, K.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ulvick, S.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Vlekkert, H.

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vazquez, R. M.

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vestad, T.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vishnubhatla, K. C.

Watanabe, M.

Weigel, M.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Werner, C.

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wottawah, F.

B. Lincoln, S. Schinkinger, K. Travis, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, F. Sauer, and J. Guck, “Reconfigurable microfluidic integration of a dual-beam laser trap with biomedical applications,” Biomed. Microdevices 9(5), 703–710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-U. Gast, P. S. Dittrich, P. Schwille, M. Weigel, M. Mertig, J. Opitz, U. Queitsch, S. Diez, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Schinkinger, J. Guck, J. Käs, J. Smolinski, K. Salchert, C. Werner, C. Duschl, M. S. Jäger, K. Uhlig, P. Geggier, and S. Howitz, “The microscopy cell (MicCell), a versatile modular flowthrough system for cell biology, biomaterial research, and nanotechnology,” Microfluid Nanofluid 2(1), 21–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zarinetchi, F.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (738 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (782 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (745 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (1229 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

3D rendering of the monolithic optical stretcher fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining. The cells flowing in the microchannel are trapped and stretched in correspondence of the dual beam trap created by the optical waveguides. Connections to capillaries and optical fibers are also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sketch of the femtosecond laser beam irradiated path: red lines represent the structure that will create the microchannel after etching; green lines indicate the waveguides, orthogonally crossing the microchannel, that will form the optical trap. (b) Microscope picture of the irradiated structure with three coaxial helixes and connecting straight line. (c) Fabricated microchannel with access holes after chemical etching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Near field intensity profile of a waveguide at 1 µm wavelength; the measurement is performed on a waveguide reaching the polished end-facet of the glass substrate. (b) Microscope picture of the integrated waveguides orthogonal to the microchannel; two waveguide sets are fabricated with different distances between the waveguide end-faces, i.e. 200 µm and 250 µm, respectively (c) Beam profile in the middle of the channel coming from an optical waveguide; the measurement is performed in a half-chip cut along the channel axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Microscope image of the capillary insertion inside the access hole (Media 1); the dashed red line shows the capillary end that is half way inserted. (b) Picture of the experimental set-up: the optofluidic chip, connected to capillaries and optical fibers, is placed on a thin glass slide over the objective of a phase contrast microscope. The CCD camera is also able to detect the 1 µm scattered light from the fibers and waveguides (violet in the picture).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the all-fiber set-up used to couple light in the integrated OS. The laser beam is split in two by a 50%-50% fiber coupler (FC1); the optical power in each arm is controlled by variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and monitored through 99%-1% fiber couplers (FC2a); additional fiber couplers (FC2b) are used to optimize the fiber-to-waveguide coupling.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic of the dual beam optical trap; the dashed box represents the acquisition area of the CCD. (b) CCD sequence of frames demonstrating the optical trapping of a single RBC; solid arrow indicates the trapped cell, while dashed arrow points to an out-of-focus cell flowing below the trap (Media 2). (c) CCD sequence of frames showing the motion of two trapped RBCs along the trap axis obtained by varying the output power of the bottom waveguide (Media 3).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CCD sequence of frames showing the optical stretching of a RBC from its initial shape to 25% elongation in the direction of the trapping beams (Media 4).

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