Abstract

We describe a fluorescence lifetime imaging technique employing the collimation detection capabilities of an angular filter array (AFA). The AFA accepts minimally scattered photons emitted from fluorophores up to 2 mm deep within turbid media. The technique, referred to as Angular Domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (ADFLI), is described and its performance evaluated in comparison to a conventional (lens and pinhole) system. Results from a tissue-mimicking phantom demonstrated that ADFLI provides better spatial resolution and image contrast for fluorescent probes at greater depths compared to a lens and pinhole system.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (2)

S. Gioux, S. J. Lomnes, H. S. Choi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Low-frequency wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging using a high-power near-infrared light-emitting diode light source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vasefi, M. Belton, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescence imaging for small animal research,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

F. Vasefi, E. Ng, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescent lifetime imaging in turbid media,” Proc. SPIE 7183, 71830I (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. May, S. Bhaumik, S. S. Gambhir, C. Zhan, and S. Yazdanfar, “Whole-body, real-time preclinical imaging of quantum dot fluorescence with time-gated detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. H. Han, S. Farshchi-Heydari, and D. J. Hall, “Analysis of the fluorescence temporal point-spread function in a turbid medium and its application to optical imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance-coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vasefi, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Image contrast enhancement in angular domain optical imaging of turbid media,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21492–21504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, “Subsurface diffuse optical tomography can localize absorber and fluorescent objects but recovered image sensitivity is nonlinear with depth,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1669–1678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Berezin, H. Lee, W. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Near infrared dyes as lifetime solvatochromic probes for micropolarity measurements of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 93(8), 2892–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rao, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, and H. Yao, “Fluorescence imaging in vivo: recent advances,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18(1), 17–25 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

P. I. H. Bastiaens and A. Squire, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy: spatial resolution of biochemical processes in the cell,” Trends Cell Biol. 9(2), 48–52 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

S. B. Bambot, J. R. Lakowicz, and G. Rao, “Potential applications of lifetime-based, phase-modulation fluorimetry in bioprocess and clinical monitoring,” Trends Biotechnol. 13(3), 106–115 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

J. R. Lakowicz and H. Szmacinski, “Fluorescence lifetime-based sensing of pH, Ca2+, K+, and glucose,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 11(1-3), 133–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, and M. L. Johnson, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of free and protein-bound NADH,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(4), 1271–1275 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Achilefu, S.

M. Y. Berezin, H. Lee, W. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Near infrared dyes as lifetime solvatochromic probes for micropolarity measurements of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 93(8), 2892–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akers, W.

M. Y. Berezin, H. Lee, W. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Near infrared dyes as lifetime solvatochromic probes for micropolarity measurements of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 93(8), 2892–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bacskai, B. J.

Bambot, S. B.

S. B. Bambot, J. R. Lakowicz, and G. Rao, “Potential applications of lifetime-based, phase-modulation fluorimetry in bioprocess and clinical monitoring,” Trends Biotechnol. 13(3), 106–115 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastiaens, P. I. H.

P. I. H. Bastiaens and A. Squire, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy: spatial resolution of biochemical processes in the cell,” Trends Cell Biol. 9(2), 48–52 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belton, M.

F. Vasefi, M. Belton, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescence imaging for small animal research,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benninger, R.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berezin, M. Y.

M. Y. Berezin, H. Lee, W. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Near infrared dyes as lifetime solvatochromic probes for micropolarity measurements of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 93(8), 2892–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhaumik, S.

A. May, S. Bhaumik, S. S. Gambhir, C. Zhan, and S. Yazdanfar, “Whole-body, real-time preclinical imaging of quantum dot fluorescence with time-gated detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

Bouman, C. A.

Carson, J. J. L.

F. Vasefi, M. Belton, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescence imaging for small animal research,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vasefi, E. Ng, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescent lifetime imaging in turbid media,” Proc. SPIE 7183, 71830I (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Vasefi, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Image contrast enhancement in angular domain optical imaging of turbid media,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21492–21504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

Chapman, G. H.

F. Vasefi, M. Belton, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescence imaging for small animal research,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vasefi, E. Ng, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescent lifetime imaging in turbid media,” Proc. SPIE 7183, 71830I (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Vasefi, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Image contrast enhancement in angular domain optical imaging of turbid media,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21492–21504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, A. U.

Cheng, H.

Choi, H. S.

S. Gioux, S. J. Lomnes, H. S. Choi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Low-frequency wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging using a high-power near-infrared light-emitting diode light source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, S. C.

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance-coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, “Subsurface diffuse optical tomography can localize absorber and fluorescent objects but recovered image sensitivity is nonlinear with depth,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1669–1678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance-coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, “Subsurface diffuse optical tomography can localize absorber and fluorescent objects but recovered image sensitivity is nonlinear with depth,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1669–1678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dragulescu-Andrasi, A.

J. Rao, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, and H. Yao, “Fluorescence imaging in vivo: recent advances,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18(1), 17–25 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

Elson, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eppstein, M. J.

A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, and M. J. Eppstein, “Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography,” Med. Phys. 32(4), 992–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farshchi-Heydari, S.

S. H. Han, S. Farshchi-Heydari, and D. J. Hall, “Analysis of the fluorescence temporal point-spread function in a turbid medium and its application to optical imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frangioni, J. V.

S. Gioux, S. J. Lomnes, H. S. Choi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Low-frequency wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging using a high-power near-infrared light-emitting diode light source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

A. May, S. Bhaumik, S. S. Gambhir, C. Zhan, and S. Yazdanfar, “Whole-body, real-time preclinical imaging of quantum dot fluorescence with time-gated detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs-Strauss, S. L.

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance-coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gioux, S.

S. Gioux, S. J. Lomnes, H. S. Choi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Low-frequency wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging using a high-power near-infrared light-emitting diode light source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godavarty, A.

A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, and M. J. Eppstein, “Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography,” Med. Phys. 32(4), 992–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, D. J.

S. H. Han, S. Farshchi-Heydari, and D. J. Hall, “Analysis of the fluorescence temporal point-spread function in a turbid medium and its application to optical imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. H.

S. H. Han, S. Farshchi-Heydari, and D. J. Hall, “Analysis of the fluorescence temporal point-spread function in a turbid medium and its application to optical imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S. S.

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance-coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, M. L.

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, and M. L. Johnson, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of free and protein-bound NADH,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(4), 1271–1275 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaminska, B.

F. Vasefi, M. Belton, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescence imaging for small animal research,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vasefi, E. Ng, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescent lifetime imaging in turbid media,” Proc. SPIE 7183, 71830I (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Vasefi, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Image contrast enhancement in angular domain optical imaging of turbid media,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21492–21504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kepshire, D. S.

Kirby, M. S.

Kumar, A. T.

Lakowicz, J. R.

S. B. Bambot, J. R. Lakowicz, and G. Rao, “Potential applications of lifetime-based, phase-modulation fluorimetry in bioprocess and clinical monitoring,” Trends Biotechnol. 13(3), 106–115 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz and H. Szmacinski, “Fluorescence lifetime-based sensing of pH, Ca2+, K+, and glucose,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 11(1-3), 133–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, and M. L. Johnson, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of free and protein-bound NADH,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(4), 1271–1275 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanigan, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, W. J.

Lee, H.

M. Y. Berezin, H. Lee, W. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Near infrared dyes as lifetime solvatochromic probes for micropolarity measurements of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 93(8), 2892–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leussler, C.

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance-coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lever, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Lomnes, S. J.

S. Gioux, S. J. Lomnes, H. S. Choi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Low-frequency wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging using a high-power near-infrared light-emitting diode light source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

May, A.

A. May, S. Bhaumik, S. S. Gambhir, C. Zhan, and S. Yazdanfar, “Whole-body, real-time preclinical imaging of quantum dot fluorescence with time-gated detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazurkewitz, P.

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance-coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGinty, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millane, R. P.

Milstein, A. B.

Moes, C. J.

Munro, I.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, M.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, E.

F. Vasefi, E. Ng, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescent lifetime imaging in turbid media,” Proc. SPIE 7183, 71830I (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nowaczyk, K.

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, and M. L. Johnson, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of free and protein-bound NADH,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(4), 1271–1275 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Leary, M. A.

Oh, S.

Paithankar, D. Y.

Patterson, M. S.

Paulsen, K. D.

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance-coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, “Subsurface diffuse optical tomography can localize absorber and fluorescent objects but recovered image sensitivity is nonlinear with depth,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1669–1678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piston, D. W.

Pogue, B. W.

Prahl, S. A.

Rao, G.

S. B. Bambot, J. R. Lakowicz, and G. Rao, “Potential applications of lifetime-based, phase-modulation fluorimetry in bioprocess and clinical monitoring,” Trends Biotechnol. 13(3), 106–115 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, J.

J. Rao, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, and H. Yao, “Fluorescence imaging in vivo: recent advances,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18(1), 17–25 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reavell, F.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Requejo-Isidro, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandison, A.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

Siegel, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skoch, J.

Springett, R.

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance-coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squire, A.

P. I. H. Bastiaens and A. Squire, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy: spatial resolution of biochemical processes in the cell,” Trends Cell Biol. 9(2), 48–52 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamp, G.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suhling, K.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szmacinski, H.

J. R. Lakowicz and H. Szmacinski, “Fluorescence lifetime-based sensing of pH, Ca2+, K+, and glucose,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 11(1-3), 133–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, and M. L. Johnson, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of free and protein-bound NADH,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(4), 1271–1275 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadrous, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talbot, C.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treanor, B.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuttle, S. B.

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance-coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J.

van Marie, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

Vasefi, F.

F. Vasefi, M. Belton, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescence imaging for small animal research,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vasefi, E. Ng, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescent lifetime imaging in turbid media,” Proc. SPIE 7183, 71830I (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Vasefi, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Image contrast enhancement in angular domain optical imaging of turbid media,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21492–21504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, A.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, K. J.

Webb, S.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

Yao, H.

J. Rao, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, and H. Yao, “Fluorescence imaging in vivo: recent advances,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18(1), 17–25 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

A. May, S. Bhaumik, S. S. Gambhir, C. Zhan, and S. Yazdanfar, “Whole-body, real-time preclinical imaging of quantum dot fluorescence with time-gated detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

Zhan, C.

A. May, S. Bhaumik, S. S. Gambhir, C. Zhan, and S. Yazdanfar, “Whole-body, real-time preclinical imaging of quantum dot fluorescence with time-gated detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Biophys. J. (1)

M. Y. Berezin, H. Lee, W. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Near infrared dyes as lifetime solvatochromic probes for micropolarity measurements of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 93(8), 2892–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

J. Rao, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, and H. Yao, “Fluorescence imaging in vivo: recent advances,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18(1), 17–25 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

A. May, S. Bhaumik, S. S. Gambhir, C. Zhan, and S. Yazdanfar, “Whole-body, real-time preclinical imaging of quantum dot fluorescence with time-gated detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Gioux, S. J. Lomnes, H. S. Choi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Low-frequency wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging using a high-power near-infrared light-emitting diode light source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vasefi, M. Belton, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescence imaging for small animal research,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Han, S. Farshchi-Heydari, and D. J. Hall, “Analysis of the fluorescence temporal point-spread function in a turbid medium and its application to optical imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, and M. J. Eppstein, “Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography,” Med. Phys. 32(4), 992–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. (1)

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, and M. L. Johnson, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of free and protein-bound NADH,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(4), 1271–1275 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Vasefi, E. Ng, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain fluorescent lifetime imaging in turbid media,” Proc. SPIE 7183, 71830I (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance-coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz and H. Szmacinski, “Fluorescence lifetime-based sensing of pH, Ca2+, K+, and glucose,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 11(1-3), 133–143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trends Biotechnol. (1)

S. B. Bambot, J. R. Lakowicz, and G. Rao, “Potential applications of lifetime-based, phase-modulation fluorimetry in bioprocess and clinical monitoring,” Trends Biotechnol. 13(3), 106–115 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Cell Biol. (1)

P. I. H. Bastiaens and A. Squire, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy: spatial resolution of biochemical processes in the cell,” Trends Cell Biol. 9(2), 48–52 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

A. Diaspro, Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications and Advances, (Wiley-VCH, New York, 2001) 101–125.

F. Vasefi, A. Akhbardeh, M. Najiminaini, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. Carson, “Correction of Artifacts in Angular Domain Imaging,” in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BSuD36.

Optical properties of “Intralipid™”, an aqueous suspension of lipid droplets [Online]. Available: http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/intralipid/index.html .

F. Vasefi, B. S. Hung, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Angular domain optical imaging of turbid media using enhanced micro-tunnel filter arrays,” in Proceedings of SPIE 7369, 73691N (2009).

K. M. Tichauer, M. Najiminaini, F. Vasefi, T. Lee, B. Kaminska, and J. J. L. Carson, “Improved Lifetime Analysis Using Angular-Domain Fluorescence Imaging in a Tissue-Like Phantom,” in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BSuD36.
[PubMed]

M. Najiminaini, F. Vasefi, B. Kaminska, G. H. Chapman, and J. J. L. Carson, “Macroscopic fluorescent lifetime imaging in turbid media using angular filter arrays,” in the 31st Annual International Conference of IEEE EMBS (Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2009), pp. 5364–5368.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Illustration of angular filtering, (b) an illustration of the full angular filter array, and (c) scanning electron microscope image of uncapped angular filter array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) An illustration of the ADFLI system, (b) three-dimensional schematic of the phantom, and (c) a schematic of the tubes used to contain the fluorescent dyes showing wall thickness and tube separation distance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Intensity (hot scale; arbitrary units) normalized to facilitate comparison and (b) lifetime (colormetric; ns) maps of the three phantoms without and with AFA for three depths (0 mm, 1 mm, and 2 mm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sections of fluorescence intensity of (a) 0 mm, (b) 1mm, and (c) 2 mm depth phantoms and lifetime maps of (d) 0 mm, (e) 1mm, and (f) 2 mm depth phantoms. The black solid curve represents the smoothed curve while the thin line represent the measured signal of fluorescence intensity and lifetime line profile without AFA and the red curve represents with the same measure with the AFA. Arrows denote the location of each fluorophore inclusion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The lifetime maps of ICG and DTTCI tubes at 1 mm depth within 1% Intralipid solution quantified with different temporal resolution (from 25 ps to 150 ps). The lifetime maps show the effect of undersampling of the FTPSF on the lifetime map (DTTCI and ICG) (color map scale; ns, each fluorescent lifetime map presents a region of interest of 20 mm wide × 0.75 mm high). (b) Correlation between noise on the fluorescence lifetime estimates and the temporal sampling resolution for the AFA (red symbols) and No AFA (blue symbols) computed for images of ICG and DTTCI fluorophores at 1 mm depth.

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