Abstract

In this communication, we will describe one unique phenomenon and the potential application of it. In this work, the dispersion relation of an air-silver-silicon-silver-fluid (air-Ag-Si-Ag-fluid) five-layer slab is analyzed theoretically, in which the super-long range surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) modes, whose energy penetrates deeply into the fluid, are found with their losses being extremely small and sensitive to the change of the fluid refractive index when operating near their interspace cut-off regions, where the dispersion curves are non-continuous. By applying this phenomenon in detecting the fluid refractive index change, a SPP sensor based on intensity measurement is proposed. It is a waveguide structure with an Ag-Si-Ag slab together with a flow cell filled with the detecting fluid. It is found that a large scale of linear detection (e.g., 0.08, for 1550 nm ~1.33 to 1.41) with high resolution (e.g., 7.9 × 10−6 Refractive Index Units) can be achieved for a very short device, which is 200 μm.

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References

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    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

L. Ma, T. Katagiri, and Y. Matsuura, “Surface-plasmon resonance sensor using silica-core Bragg fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1069–1071 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

A. Hassani and M. Skorobogatiy, “Design criteria for microstructured-optical-fiber-based surface-plasmon-resonance sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(6), 1423–1429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

1999

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

D. Sarid, “Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(26), 1927–1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

Burke, J. J.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catrysse, P. B.

Etheridge, S.

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

Hassani, A.

Hastings, J. T.

Hautakorpi, M.

Homola, J.

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. D.

Hwang, G. M.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katagiri, T.

Keathley, P. D.

Liu, F.

Ludvigsen, H.

Ma, L.

Matsuura, Y.

Mattinen, M.

Pang, L.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roach, J. A.

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, D.

D. Sarid, “Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(26), 1927–1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Selker, M. D.

Skorobogatiy, M.

Slutsky, B.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamir, T.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tetz, K. A.

Vala, M.

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wan, R. Y.

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zia, R.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Sarid, “Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(26), 1927–1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

http://www.luxpop.com

D. Marcuse, Theory of dielectric optical waveguides (Academic, 1974).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The geometry of the SPP sensor consisting of an Ag-Si-Ag slab and a flow cell filled with the detecting fluid.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The real part of the complex effective index with different Si layer thicknesses of the air-Ag-Si-Ag-water five-layer slab, both the Ag layer thicknesses are fixed at 30 nm. Three so-called interspace cut-off regions, which represent the discontinuous regions of the dispersion curves, are marked with A, B and C, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The imaginary part of the complex effective index with different Si layer thicknesses of the air-Ag-Si-Ag-water five-layer slab, both the Ag layer thicknesses are fixed at 30 nm. Three so-called interspace cut-off regions, which represent the discontinuous regions of the dispersion curves, are marked with A, B and C, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized Sz field of (a) TM2 mode with dSi = 300 nm (b) TM4 mode with dSi = 700 nm (c) TM3 mode with dSi = 300 nm (d) TM5 mode with dSi = 700 nm in the air-Ag-Si-Ag-water five-layer slab. The four cases are also marked in Fig. 2 as points a, b, c and d, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Normalized Hy field of TM3 mode with Si layer thickness of 401 nm and Ag layer thickness of 30 nm in the air-Ag-Si-Ag-water five-layer slab. Inset shows the local field divided by three regions (air, Ag-Si-Ag and water) with two red dashed lines. (b) The real part of the complex effective index with different Si layer thicknesses, where the Ag layer thickness is changed to 70 nm with other parameters remained the same. (c) (d) Normalized Sz field of TM3 mode with Si layer thickness of (c) 401.998 nm (d) 412.745 nm and Ag layer thickness of 30 nm. The two cases are marked in Fig. 2 as point e and f, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The real and (b) imaginary part of complex effective index with different Si layer thicknesses around interspace cut-off region C in Fig. 2, both the Ag layer thicknesses are fixed at 30 nm. The growing wave solutions are also included. The red lines correspond to TM3 mode, while the blue lines correspond to the growing wave solutions that take up the space of interspace cut-off region C to the moment. Two green points named as hC1 and hC2 represent the critical Si layer thicknesses in the boundary between TM3 mode and the mode with growing wave solutions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relation between the attenuation of TM3 mode and Si layer thickness with four different fluid refractive index: nD = 1.33 (red line), nD = 1.3305 (green line), nD = 1.333 (blue line) and nD = 1.335 (purple line).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relation between output optical power of TM3 mode and fluid refractive index nD with three different Si layer thicknesses: dSi = 402 nm (blue line), dSi = 405 nm (red line) and dSi = 410 nm (green line). The device length is fixed at 200 μm. Three linear dashed curves are given to compare with the curves of the detection so as to show the linear properties of the detection which is, more specifically, scale of 1.33-1.41 for dSi = 402 nm, scale of 1.415~1.485 for dSi = 405 nm and scale of 1.552-1.592 for dSi = 410 nm.

Equations (2)

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2 H y x 2 + ( k 0 2 ε β 2 ) H y = 0 ,
E x = β ω ε H y E z = i ω ε H y x .

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