Abstract

The autofluorescence under ultraviolet excitation arising from normal squamous and columnar esophageal mucosa is investigated using multispectral microscopy. The results suggest that the autofluorescence signal arises from the superficial tissue layer due to the short penetration depth of the ultraviolet excitation. As a result, visualization of esophageal epithelial cells and their organization can be attained using wide-field autofluorescence microscopy. Our results show tryptophan to be the dominant source of emission under 266 nm excitation, while emission from NADH and collagen are dominant under 355 nm excitation. The analysis of multispectral microscopy images reveals that tryptophan offers the highest image contrast due to its non-uniform distribution in the sub-cellular matrix. This technique can simultaneously provide functional and structural imaging of the microstructure using only the intrinsic tissue fluorophores.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. B. Wallace and P. Fockens, “Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1509–1513 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. Du, A. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. Crawford, A. Lowe, and C. Contag, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nature 200, 8 (2007).
  4. T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. D. Rogers, S. Landau, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, M. S. Rahman, R. Richards-Kortum, A. H. Kärkäinen, and T. Christenson, “Imaging performance of a miniature integrated microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054020 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Gono, “Multifunctional endoscopic imaging system for support of early cancer diagnosis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 62–69 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Li, W. Zheng, and J. Y. Qu, “Imaging of epithelial tissue in vivo based on excitation of multiple endogenous nonlinear optical signals,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2853–2855 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. L. Rice, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Quantitative biomarkers of stem cell differentiation based on intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Lin, S. Urayama, R. M. G. Saroufeem, D. L. Matthews, and S. G. Demos, “Real-time microscopic imaging of esophageal epithelial disease with autofluorescence under ultraviolet excitation,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12502–12509 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Meier, D. Farwell, Y. Sun, N. Hatami, L. Marcu, and H. Xie, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in HNSCC,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 141(3), P51–P52 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. G. Demos, A. J. Vogel, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Advances in optical spectroscopy and imaging of breast lesions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 11(2), 165–181 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Zheng, W. Lau, C. Cheng, K. C. Soo, and M. Olivo, “Optimal excitation-emission wavelengths for autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder tumors,” Int. J. Cancer 104(4), 477–481 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Li, R. K. Pastila, C. Pitsillides, J. M. Runnels, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, and C. P. Lin, “Imaging leukocyte trafficking in vivo with two-photon-excited endogenous tryptophan fluorescence,” Opt. Express 18(2), 988–999 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and E. J. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer--distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 67(2), 143–150 (1991).
    [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (5)

D. Li, W. Zheng, and J. Y. Qu, “Imaging of epithelial tissue in vivo based on excitation of multiple endogenous nonlinear optical signals,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2853–2855 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace and P. Fockens, “Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1509–1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lin, S. Urayama, R. M. G. Saroufeem, D. L. Matthews, and S. G. Demos, “Real-time microscopic imaging of esophageal epithelial disease with autofluorescence under ultraviolet excitation,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12502–12509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Meier, D. Farwell, Y. Sun, N. Hatami, L. Marcu, and H. Xie, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in HNSCC,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 141(3), P51–P52 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, S. Landau, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, M. S. Rahman, R. Richards-Kortum, A. H. Kärkäinen, and T. Christenson, “Imaging performance of a miniature integrated microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gono, “Multifunctional endoscopic imaging system for support of early cancer diagnosis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 62–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

P. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. Du, A. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. Crawford, A. Lowe, and C. Contag, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nature 200, 8 (2007).

W. L. Rice, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Quantitative biomarkers of stem cell differentiation based on intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. G. Demos, A. J. Vogel, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Advances in optical spectroscopy and imaging of breast lesions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 11(2), 165–181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zheng, W. Lau, C. Cheng, K. C. Soo, and M. Olivo, “Optimal excitation-emission wavelengths for autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder tumors,” Int. J. Cancer 104(4), 477–481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and E. J. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer--distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 67(2), 143–150 (1991).
[PubMed]

Adler, D. G.

S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and E. J. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer--distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 67(2), 143–150 (1991).
[PubMed]

Anandasabapathy, S.

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celmer, E. J.

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and E. J. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer--distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 67(2), 143–150 (1991).
[PubMed]

Cheng, C.

W. Zheng, W. Lau, C. Cheng, K. C. Soo, and M. Olivo, “Optimal excitation-emission wavelengths for autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder tumors,” Int. J. Cancer 104(4), 477–481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christenson, T.

J. D. Rogers, S. Landau, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, M. S. Rahman, R. Richards-Kortum, A. H. Kärkäinen, and T. Christenson, “Imaging performance of a miniature integrated microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cleary, J.

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and E. J. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer--distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 67(2), 143–150 (1991).
[PubMed]

Contag, C.

P. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. Du, A. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. Crawford, A. Lowe, and C. Contag, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nature 200, 8 (2007).

Conway, J. D.

S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Côté, D.

Crawford, J.

P. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. Du, A. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. Crawford, A. Lowe, and C. Contag, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nature 200, 8 (2007).

Das, B. B.

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and E. J. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer--distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 67(2), 143–150 (1991).
[PubMed]

Demos, S. G.

Descour, M. R.

J. D. Rogers, S. Landau, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, M. S. Rahman, R. Richards-Kortum, A. H. Kärkäinen, and T. Christenson, “Imaging performance of a miniature integrated microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diehl, D. L.

S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, C.

P. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. Du, A. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. Crawford, A. Lowe, and C. Contag, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nature 200, 8 (2007).

Farraye, F. A.

S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farwell, D.

J. Meier, D. Farwell, Y. Sun, N. Hatami, L. Marcu, and H. Xie, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in HNSCC,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 141(3), P51–P52 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fockens, P.

M. B. Wallace and P. Fockens, “Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1509–1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedland, S.

P. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. Du, A. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. Crawford, A. Lowe, and C. Contag, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nature 200, 8 (2007).

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

S. G. Demos, A. J. Vogel, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Advances in optical spectroscopy and imaging of breast lesions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 11(2), 165–181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

W. L. Rice, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Quantitative biomarkers of stem cell differentiation based on intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerlach, C.

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gono, K.

K. Gono, “Multifunctional endoscopic imaging system for support of early cancer diagnosis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 62–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, E. G.

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardy, J.

P. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. Du, A. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. Crawford, A. Lowe, and C. Contag, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nature 200, 8 (2007).

Hatami, N.

J. Meier, D. Farwell, Y. Sun, N. Hatami, L. Marcu, and H. Xie, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in HNSCC,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 141(3), P51–P52 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hohenberger, W.

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horbach, T.

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horner, P.

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiung, P.

P. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. Du, A. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. Crawford, A. Lowe, and C. Contag, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nature 200, 8 (2007).

Jordan, M.

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kantsevoy, S. V.

S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, D. L.

W. L. Rice, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Quantitative biomarkers of stem cell differentiation based on intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kärkäinen, A. H.

J. D. Rogers, S. Landau, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, M. S. Rahman, R. Richards-Kortum, A. H. Kärkäinen, and T. Christenson, “Imaging performance of a miniature integrated microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaul, V.

S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kethu, S. R.

S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, R. S.

S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landau, S.

J. D. Rogers, S. Landau, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, M. S. Rahman, R. Richards-Kortum, A. H. Kärkäinen, and T. Christenson, “Imaging performance of a miniature integrated microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lau, W.

W. Zheng, W. Lau, C. Cheng, K. C. Soo, and M. Olivo, “Optimal excitation-emission wavelengths for autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder tumors,” Int. J. Cancer 104(4), 477–481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Li, D.

Lin, B.

Lin, C. P.

Lowe, A.

P. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. Du, A. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. Crawford, A. Lowe, and C. Contag, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nature 200, 8 (2007).

Mamula, P.

S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcu, L.

J. Meier, D. Farwell, Y. Sun, N. Hatami, L. Marcu, and H. Xie, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in HNSCC,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 141(3), P51–P52 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maru, D.

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, D. L.

Mayinger, B.

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meier, J.

J. Meier, D. Farwell, Y. Sun, N. Hatami, L. Marcu, and H. Xie, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in HNSCC,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 141(3), P51–P52 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muldoon, T. J.

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivo, M.

W. Zheng, W. Lau, C. Cheng, K. C. Soo, and M. Olivo, “Optimal excitation-emission wavelengths for autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder tumors,” Int. J. Cancer 104(4), 477–481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paithankar, D. Y.

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pastila, R. K.

Pfefer, T. J.

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitsillides, C.

Poneros, J. M.

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prudente, R.

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and E. J. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer--distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 67(2), 143–150 (1991).
[PubMed]

Puoris’haag, M.

Qu, J. Y.

Rahman, M. S.

J. D. Rogers, S. Landau, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, M. S. Rahman, R. Richards-Kortum, A. H. Kärkäinen, and T. Christenson, “Imaging performance of a miniature integrated microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, W. L.

W. L. Rice, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Quantitative biomarkers of stem cell differentiation based on intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

J. D. Rogers, S. Landau, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, M. S. Rahman, R. Richards-Kortum, A. H. Kärkäinen, and T. Christenson, “Imaging performance of a miniature integrated microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, S. A.

S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. D.

J. D. Rogers, S. Landau, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, M. S. Rahman, R. Richards-Kortum, A. H. Kärkäinen, and T. Christenson, “Imaging performance of a miniature integrated microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Runnels, J. M.

Sahbaie, P.

P. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. Du, A. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. Crawford, A. Lowe, and C. Contag, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nature 200, 8 (2007).

Saroufeem, R. M. G.

Schomacker, K. T.

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soetikno, R.

P. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. Du, A. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. Crawford, A. Lowe, and C. Contag, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nature 200, 8 (2007).

Soo, K. C.

W. Zheng, W. Lau, C. Cheng, K. C. Soo, and M. Olivo, “Optimal excitation-emission wavelengths for autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder tumors,” Int. J. Cancer 104(4), 477–481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

J. Meier, D. Farwell, Y. Sun, N. Hatami, L. Marcu, and H. Xie, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in HNSCC,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 141(3), P51–P52 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tierney,, W. M.

S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

J. D. Rogers, S. Landau, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, M. S. Rahman, R. Richards-Kortum, A. H. Kärkäinen, and T. Christenson, “Imaging performance of a miniature integrated microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urayama, S.

Vogel, A. J.

S. G. Demos, A. J. Vogel, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Advances in optical spectroscopy and imaging of breast lesions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 11(2), 165–181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

M. B. Wallace and P. Fockens, “Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1509–1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, A.

P. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. Du, A. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. Crawford, A. Lowe, and C. Contag, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nature 200, 8 (2007).

Xie, H.

J. Meier, D. Farwell, Y. Sun, N. Hatami, L. Marcu, and H. Xie, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in HNSCC,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 141(3), P51–P52 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, W.

D. Li, W. Zheng, and J. Y. Qu, “Imaging of epithelial tissue in vivo based on excitation of multiple endogenous nonlinear optical signals,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2853–2855 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zheng, W. Lau, C. Cheng, K. C. Soo, and M. Olivo, “Optimal excitation-emission wavelengths for autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder tumors,” Int. J. Cancer 104(4), 477–481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Endoscopic fluorescence spectroscopy in the upper GI tract for the detection of GI cancer: initial experience,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2616–2621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. (1)

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and E. J. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer--distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 67(2), 143–150 (1991).
[PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

M. B. Wallace and P. Fockens, “Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 136(5), 1509–1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (2)

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Kantsevoy, D. G. Adler, J. D. Conway, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, S. R. Kethu, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, S. A. Rodriguez, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 197–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Gono, “Multifunctional endoscopic imaging system for support of early cancer diagnosis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 62–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

W. Zheng, W. Lau, C. Cheng, K. C. Soo, and M. Olivo, “Optimal excitation-emission wavelengths for autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder tumors,” Int. J. Cancer 104(4), 477–481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

W. L. Rice, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Quantitative biomarkers of stem cell differentiation based on intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Rogers, S. Landau, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, M. S. Rahman, R. Richards-Kortum, A. H. Kärkäinen, and T. Christenson, “Imaging performance of a miniature integrated microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia (1)

S. G. Demos, A. J. Vogel, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Advances in optical spectroscopy and imaging of breast lesions,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 11(2), 165–181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

P. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. Du, A. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. Crawford, A. Lowe, and C. Contag, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nature 200, 8 (2007).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1)

J. Meier, D. Farwell, Y. Sun, N. Hatami, L. Marcu, and H. Xie, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in HNSCC,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 141(3), P51–P52 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized mean autofluorescence spectra of esophagus mucosal biopsy specimens under 266 nm excitation and 355 nm excitation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

142 µm x 136 µm raw images of a single ex vivo human esophagus columnar mucosa biopsy specimen under (a) 355 nm excitation and (b) 266 nm excitation with a 400 nm long pass filter and (c) the ratio image of (b) divided by (a). NBI under 266 nm excitation using the (d) 450 nm, (e) 550 nm and, (f) 600 nm filters. Ratio of spectral images (g) 450 nm/400 lp, (h) 550 nm/400 lp and, (i) 600 nm/400 lp.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Digitized intensity profile along the same 1.2 µm zone spanning through 4 cells from a section of the specimen shown in Fig. 2 corresponding to the images obtained (a) under 266 nm excitation with a 400 nm long pass filter, and the spectral ratio images (b) I 450 n b 266 / I 400 l p 266 , (c) I 550 n b 266 / I 400 l p 266 , and d) I 600 n b 266 / I 400 l p 266 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) 340 µm x 180 µm raw image of a single ex vivo human esophagus squamous mucosa biopsy specimen under 266 nm excitation with a 400 nm long pass filter. (b) Digitized intensity profile along a 1.5 µm zone spanning through 3 cells from a section of the specimen shown in Fig. 2.

Metrics