Abstract

We present an efficient, low-cost modulation transfer function (MTF) measurement approach, optimized for characterization of tunable micro-lenses; the MTF may easily be measured at a variety of different focal lengths. The approach uses a conventional optical microscope with an optimized approach for lens illumination and the measurement results have been correlated with a commercial MTF measurement system. Measurements on fixed-focus and tunable micro-lenses were performed; for the latter, resolution for lenses with back focal length of 11 mm was 55 lines/mm, decreasing to 40 lines/mm for a back focal length of 4 mm. In general, it was seen that performance was better for lenses with longer focal lengths.

© 2010 OSA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. C. Roulet, R. Völkel, H. P. Herzig, E. Verpoorte, N. F. deRooij, and R. Dändliker, “Microlens systems for fluorescence detection in chemical microsystems,” Opt. Eng. 40(5), 814–821 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Divetia, T. H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. P. Chen, M. Bachman, G.-P. Li, M Bachman, and G. P Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optical tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Agarwal, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Polymer-based variable focal length microlens system,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(12), 1665–1673 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Variable-focal liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15(10), 5931–5936 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Lee, J. D. Rogers, M. R. Descour, E. Hsu, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Imaging quality assessment of multi-modal miniature microscope,” Opt. Express 11(12), 1436–1451 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. M. Backman, A. J. Makynen, T. Kolehmainen, and K. Ojala, “Random target method for fast MTF inspection,” Opt. Express 12(12), 2610–2615 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. R. Rawer, W. Stork, C. W. Spraul, and C. Lingenfelder, “Imaging quality of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(8), 1618–1631 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Werber and H. Zappe, “Tunable microfluidic microlenses,” Appl. Opt. 44(16), 3238–3245 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, (McGraw Hill, 2005), pp. 12–15, 127–167.
  13. R. R. Shannon, The Art and Science of Optical Design, (Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 265–330.
  14. G. Boreman, Modulation Transfer Function in Optical and Electro-Optical Systems,” (SPIE Publications, 2001), pps, 1–9, 71–73, 85–88, 94–96.
  15. B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics,(John Wiley & Sons, 2007), pp. 427–432.
  16. K. Aljasem, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Tunable multi-micro-lens system for high lateral resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” in the Proceedings of IEEE Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics, 1, 44–45 (2008).

2008 (1)

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optical tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (3)

A. Werber and H. Zappe, “Tunable microfluidic microlenses,” Appl. Opt. 44(16), 3238–3245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Divetia, T. H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. P. Chen, M. Bachman, G.-P. Li, M Bachman, and G. P Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Rawer, W. Stork, C. W. Spraul, and C. Lingenfelder, “Imaging quality of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(8), 1618–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Agarwal, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Polymer-based variable focal length microlens system,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(12), 1665–1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Backman, A. J. Makynen, T. Kolehmainen, and K. Ojala, “Random target method for fast MTF inspection,” Opt. Express 12(12), 2610–2615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, J. D. Rogers, M. R. Descour, E. Hsu, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Imaging quality assessment of multi-modal miniature microscope,” Opt. Express 11(12), 1436–1451 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. C. Roulet, R. Völkel, H. P. Herzig, E. Verpoorte, N. F. deRooij, and R. Dändliker, “Microlens systems for fluorescence detection in chemical microsystems,” Opt. Eng. 40(5), 814–821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aaron, J.

Agarwal, M.

M. Agarwal, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Polymer-based variable focal length microlens system,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(12), 1665–1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aljasem, K.

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optical tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bachman, M

A. Divetia, T. H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. P. Chen, M. Bachman, G.-P. Li, M Bachman, and G. P Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bachman, M.

A. Divetia, T. H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. P. Chen, M. Bachman, G.-P. Li, M Bachman, and G. P Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Backman, S. M.

Berdichevsky, Y.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. P.

A. Divetia, T. H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. P. Chen, M. Bachman, G.-P. Li, M Bachman, and G. P Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coane, P.

M. Agarwal, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Polymer-based variable focal length microlens system,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(12), 1665–1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dändliker, R.

J. C. Roulet, R. Völkel, H. P. Herzig, E. Verpoorte, N. F. deRooij, and R. Dändliker, “Microlens systems for fluorescence detection in chemical microsystems,” Opt. Eng. 40(5), 814–821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

deRooij, N. F.

J. C. Roulet, R. Völkel, H. P. Herzig, E. Verpoorte, N. F. deRooij, and R. Dändliker, “Microlens systems for fluorescence detection in chemical microsystems,” Opt. Eng. 40(5), 814–821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Descour, M. R.

Divetia, A.

A. Divetia, T. H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. P. Chen, M. Bachman, G.-P. Li, M Bachman, and G. P Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gunasekaran, R. A.

M. Agarwal, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Polymer-based variable focal length microlens system,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(12), 1665–1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

J. C. Roulet, R. Völkel, H. P. Herzig, E. Verpoorte, N. F. deRooij, and R. Dändliker, “Microlens systems for fluorescence detection in chemical microsystems,” Opt. Eng. 40(5), 814–821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, T. H.

A. Divetia, T. H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. P. Chen, M. Bachman, G.-P. Li, M Bachman, and G. P Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, E.

Kolehmainen, T.

Lee, J.

Li, G. P

A. Divetia, T. H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. P. Chen, M. Bachman, G.-P. Li, M Bachman, and G. P Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.-P.

A. Divetia, T. H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. P. Chen, M. Bachman, G.-P. Li, M Bachman, and G. P Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lien, V.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lingenfelder, C.

R. R. Rawer, W. Stork, C. W. Spraul, and C. Lingenfelder, “Imaging quality of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(8), 1618–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. H.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Makynen, A. J.

Ojala, K.

Rawer, R. R.

R. R. Rawer, W. Stork, C. W. Spraul, and C. Lingenfelder, “Imaging quality of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(8), 1618–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H. W.

Richards-Kortum, R.

Rogers, J. D.

Roulet, J. C.

J. C. Roulet, R. Völkel, H. P. Herzig, E. Verpoorte, N. F. deRooij, and R. Dändliker, “Microlens systems for fluorescence detection in chemical microsystems,” Opt. Eng. 40(5), 814–821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, A.

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optical tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, K.

Spraul, C. W.

R. R. Rawer, W. Stork, C. W. Spraul, and C. Lingenfelder, “Imaging quality of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(8), 1618–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stork, W.

R. R. Rawer, W. Stork, C. W. Spraul, and C. Lingenfelder, “Imaging quality of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(8), 1618–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varahramyan, K.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Agarwal, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Polymer-based variable focal length microlens system,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(12), 1665–1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verpoorte, E.

J. C. Roulet, R. Völkel, H. P. Herzig, E. Verpoorte, N. F. deRooij, and R. Dändliker, “Microlens systems for fluorescence detection in chemical microsystems,” Opt. Eng. 40(5), 814–821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Völkel, R.

J. C. Roulet, R. Völkel, H. P. Herzig, E. Verpoorte, N. F. deRooij, and R. Dändliker, “Microlens systems for fluorescence detection in chemical microsystems,” Opt. Eng. 40(5), 814–821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Werber, A.

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optical tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Werber and H. Zappe, “Tunable microfluidic microlenses,” Appl. Opt. 44(16), 3238–3245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Zappe, H.

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optical tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Werber and H. Zappe, “Tunable microfluidic microlenses,” Appl. Opt. 44(16), 3238–3245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. Y.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

A. Divetia, T. H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. P. Chen, M. Bachman, G.-P. Li, M Bachman, and G. P Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Divetia, T. H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. P. Chen, M. Bachman, G.-P. Li, M Bachman, and G. P Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tenability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

R. R. Rawer, W. Stork, C. W. Spraul, and C. Lingenfelder, “Imaging quality of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(8), 1618–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (2)

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Agarwal, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Polymer-based variable focal length microlens system,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(12), 1665–1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optical tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. C. Roulet, R. Völkel, H. P. Herzig, E. Verpoorte, N. F. deRooij, and R. Dändliker, “Microlens systems for fluorescence detection in chemical microsystems,” Opt. Eng. 40(5), 814–821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Other (5)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, (McGraw Hill, 2005), pp. 12–15, 127–167.

R. R. Shannon, The Art and Science of Optical Design, (Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 265–330.

G. Boreman, Modulation Transfer Function in Optical and Electro-Optical Systems,” (SPIE Publications, 2001), pps, 1–9, 71–73, 85–88, 94–96.

B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics,(John Wiley & Sons, 2007), pp. 427–432.

K. Aljasem, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Tunable multi-micro-lens system for high lateral resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” in the Proceedings of IEEE Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics, 1, 44–45 (2008).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics