Abstract

Abstract: Detection of high-risk coronary arterial plaques prior to rupture remains an unmet clinical challenge, in part due to the stringent resolution and sensitivity requirements for in vivo human coronary arterial imaging. To address this need, we have developed a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging catheter system for intra-vascular molecular imaging of atherosclerosis in coronary artery-sized vessels, capable of resolving two-dimensional fluorescence activity in hollow organs, such as blood vessels. Based on a rotational fiber design, the catheter system illuminates and detects perpendicular to the rotational axis, while an automated pullback mechanism enables visualization along blood vessels with a scan speed of up to 1.5 mm/sec. We demonstrate the previously undocumented capacity to produce intravascular NIR fluorescence images of hollow organs in vivo and showcase the performance metrics of the system developed using blood vessel mimicking phantoms. This imaging approach is geared toward in vivo molecular imaging of atherosclerotic biomarkers and is engineered to allow seamless integration into the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Hyde, R. de Kleine, S. A. MacLaurin, E. Miller, D. H. Brooks, T. Krucker, and V. Ntziachristos, “Hybrid FMT-CT imaging of amyloid-beta plaques in a murine Alzheimer’s disease model,” Neuroimage 44(4), 1304–1311 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Optical and multimodality molecular imaging: insights into atherosclerosis,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 29(7), 1017–1024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. S. Sheng, R. Lang, Q. He, Y. J. Yang, D. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Chen, “Indocyanine green clearance test and model for end-stage liver disease score of patients with liver cirrhosis,” Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Dis. Int. 8(1), 46–49 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. Reekers, M. J. G. Simon, F. Boer, R. A. G. Mooren, J. W. van Kleef, A. Dahan, and J. Vuyk, “Cardiovascular monitoring by pulse dye densitometry or arterial indocyanine green dilution,” Anesth. Analg. 109(2), 441–446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hyde, R. de Kleine, S. A. MacLaurin, E. Miller, D. H. Brooks, T. Krucker, and V. Ntziachristos, “Hybrid FMT-CT imaging of amyloid-beta plaques in a murine Alzheimer’s disease model,” Neuroimage 44(4), 1304–1311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sanz and Z. A. Fayad, “Imaging of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease,” Nature 451(7181), 953–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Molecular imaging of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 116(9), 1052–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schaar, F. Mastik, E. Regar, C. A. den Uil, F. J. Gijsen, J. J. Wentzel, P. W. Serruys, A. F. W., and van der Stehen, “Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 13(10), 995–1001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Weight-matrix structured regularization provides optimal generalized least-squares estimate in diffuse optical tomography,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2085–2098 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. Jacob, P. Conzen, U. Finsterer, A. Krafft, B. F. Becker, and M. Rehm, “Technical and physiological background of plasma volume measurement with indocyanine green: a clarification of misunderstandings,” J. Appl. Physiol. 102(3), 1235–1242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, “Detection and treatment of vulnerable plaques and vulnerable patients: novel approaches to prevention of coronary events,” Circulation 114(22), 2390–2411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Molecular and cellular imaging of atherosclerosis: emerging applications,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(7), 1328–1338 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

G. K. Hansson, “Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease - Reply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 353(4), 429–430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, F. Jaffer, V. Ntziachristos, and R. Weissleder, “Development of a near infrared fluorescence catheter: operating characteristics and feasibility for atherosclerotic plaque detection,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2701–2707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. MacNeill, H. C. Lowe, M. Takano, V. Fuster, and I. K. Jang, “Intravascular modalities for detection of vulnerable plaque: current status,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23(8), 1333–1342 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

P. Libby, “Inflammation in atherosclerosis,” Nature 420(6917), 868–874 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, and R. Weissleder, “Would near-infrared fluorescence signals propagate through large human organs for clinical studies?” Opt. Lett. 27(5), 333–335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Z. A. Fayad and V. Fuster, “Clinical imaging of the high-risk or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque,” Circ. Res. 89(4), 305–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. Sekimoto, M. Fukui, and K. Fujita, “Plasma volume estimation using indocyanine green with biexponential regression analysis of the decay curves,” Anaesthesia 52(12), 1166–1172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Haller, C. Akbulut, H. Brechtelsbauer, W. Fett, J. Briegel, U. Finsterer, and K. Peter, “Determination of plasma volume with indocyanine green in man,” Life Sci. 53(21), 1597–1604 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Cheong, S. Prahl, and A. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aikawa, E.

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aikawa, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akbulut, C.

M. Haller, C. Akbulut, H. Brechtelsbauer, W. Fett, J. Briegel, U. Finsterer, and K. Peter, “Determination of plasma volume with indocyanine green in man,” Life Sci. 53(21), 1597–1604 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assmann, G.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badimon, J. J.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahr, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballantyne, C.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, B. F.

M. Jacob, P. Conzen, U. Finsterer, A. Krafft, B. F. Becker, and M. Rehm, “Technical and physiological background of plasma volume measurement with indocyanine green: a clarification of misunderstandings,” J. Appl. Physiol. 102(3), 1235–1242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, C. R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boer, F.

M. Reekers, M. J. G. Simon, F. Boer, R. A. G. Mooren, J. W. van Kleef, A. Dahan, and J. Vuyk, “Cardiovascular monitoring by pulse dye densitometry or arterial indocyanine green dilution,” Anesth. Analg. 109(2), 441–446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boerwinkle, E.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brechtelsbauer, H.

M. Haller, C. Akbulut, H. Brechtelsbauer, W. Fett, J. Briegel, U. Finsterer, and K. Peter, “Determination of plasma volume with indocyanine green in man,” Life Sci. 53(21), 1597–1604 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

Briegel, J.

M. Haller, C. Akbulut, H. Brechtelsbauer, W. Fett, J. Briegel, U. Finsterer, and K. Peter, “Determination of plasma volume with indocyanine green in man,” Life Sci. 53(21), 1597–1604 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooks, D. H.

D. Hyde, R. de Kleine, S. A. MacLaurin, E. Miller, D. H. Brooks, T. Krucker, and V. Ntziachristos, “Hybrid FMT-CT imaging of amyloid-beta plaques in a murine Alzheimer’s disease model,” Neuroimage 44(4), 1304–1311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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M. Jacob, P. Conzen, U. Finsterer, A. Krafft, B. F. Becker, and M. Rehm, “Technical and physiological background of plasma volume measurement with indocyanine green: a clarification of misunderstandings,” J. Appl. Physiol. 102(3), 1235–1242 (2006).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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den Uil, C. A.

J. A. Schaar, F. Mastik, E. Regar, C. A. den Uil, F. J. Gijsen, J. J. Wentzel, P. W. Serruys, A. F. W., and van der Stehen, “Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 13(10), 995–1001 (2007).
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Drexler, H.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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Falk, E.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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Farb, A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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Faxon, D. P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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Fayad, Z.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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Z. A. Fayad and V. Fuster, “Clinical imaging of the high-risk or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque,” Circ. Res. 89(4), 305–316 (2001).
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Fett, W.

M. Haller, C. Akbulut, H. Brechtelsbauer, W. Fett, J. Briegel, U. Finsterer, and K. Peter, “Determination of plasma volume with indocyanine green in man,” Life Sci. 53(21), 1597–1604 (1993).
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Finn, A. V.

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
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Finsterer, U.

M. Jacob, P. Conzen, U. Finsterer, A. Krafft, B. F. Becker, and M. Rehm, “Technical and physiological background of plasma volume measurement with indocyanine green: a clarification of misunderstandings,” J. Appl. Physiol. 102(3), 1235–1242 (2006).
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M. Haller, C. Akbulut, H. Brechtelsbauer, W. Fett, J. Briegel, U. Finsterer, and K. Peter, “Determination of plasma volume with indocyanine green in man,” Life Sci. 53(21), 1597–1604 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, P. J.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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Fujita, K.

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Fukui, M.

M. Sekimoto, M. Fukui, and K. Fujita, “Plasma volume estimation using indocyanine green with biexponential regression analysis of the decay curves,” Anaesthesia 52(12), 1166–1172 (1997).
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Fuster, V.

B. D. MacNeill, H. C. Lowe, M. Takano, V. Fuster, and I. K. Jang, “Intravascular modalities for detection of vulnerable plaque: current status,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23(8), 1333–1342 (2003).
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Z. A. Fayad and V. Fuster, “Clinical imaging of the high-risk or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque,” Circ. Res. 89(4), 305–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galis, Z. S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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Gijsen, F. J.

J. A. Schaar, F. Mastik, E. Regar, C. A. den Uil, F. J. Gijsen, J. J. Wentzel, P. W. Serruys, A. F. W., and van der Stehen, “Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 13(10), 995–1001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gold, H. K.

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenland, P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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Grundy, S. M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
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Haller, M.

M. Haller, C. Akbulut, H. Brechtelsbauer, W. Fett, J. Briegel, U. Finsterer, and K. Peter, “Determination of plasma volume with indocyanine green in man,” Life Sci. 53(21), 1597–1604 (1993).
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Hansson, G. K.

G. K. Hansson, “Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease - Reply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 353(4), 429–430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Q.

Q. S. Sheng, R. Lang, Q. He, Y. J. Yang, D. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Chen, “Indocyanine green clearance test and model for end-stage liver disease score of patients with liver cirrhosis,” Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Dis. Int. 8(1), 46–49 (2009).
[PubMed]

Hyde, D.

D. Hyde, R. de Kleine, S. A. MacLaurin, E. Miller, D. H. Brooks, T. Krucker, and V. Ntziachristos, “Hybrid FMT-CT imaging of amyloid-beta plaques in a murine Alzheimer’s disease model,” Neuroimage 44(4), 1304–1311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Insull, W.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishibashi, F.

S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, “Detection and treatment of vulnerable plaques and vulnerable patients: novel approaches to prevention of coronary events,” Circulation 114(22), 2390–2411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, C.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacob, M.

M. Jacob, P. Conzen, U. Finsterer, A. Krafft, B. F. Becker, and M. Rehm, “Technical and physiological background of plasma volume measurement with indocyanine green: a clarification of misunderstandings,” J. Appl. Physiol. 102(3), 1235–1242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaffer, F.

B. Zhu, F. Jaffer, V. Ntziachristos, and R. Weissleder, “Development of a near infrared fluorescence catheter: operating characteristics and feasibility for atherosclerotic plaque detection,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2701–2707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaffer, F. A.

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Optical and multimodality molecular imaging: insights into atherosclerosis,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 29(7), 1017–1024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Molecular imaging of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 116(9), 1052–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Molecular and cellular imaging of atherosclerosis: emerging applications,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(7), 1328–1338 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, I. K.

B. D. MacNeill, H. C. Lowe, M. Takano, V. Fuster, and I. K. Jang, “Intravascular modalities for detection of vulnerable plaque: current status,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23(8), 1333–1342 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, M. C.

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juhani Airaksinen, K. E.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaul, S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koenig, W.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krafft, A.

M. Jacob, P. Conzen, U. Finsterer, A. Krafft, B. F. Becker, and M. Rehm, “Technical and physiological background of plasma volume measurement with indocyanine green: a clarification of misunderstandings,” J. Appl. Physiol. 102(3), 1235–1242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krucker, T.

D. Hyde, R. de Kleine, S. A. MacLaurin, E. Miller, D. H. Brooks, T. Krucker, and V. Ntziachristos, “Hybrid FMT-CT imaging of amyloid-beta plaques in a murine Alzheimer’s disease model,” Neuroimage 44(4), 1304–1311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R.

Q. S. Sheng, R. Lang, Q. He, Y. J. Yang, D. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Chen, “Indocyanine green clearance test and model for end-stage liver disease score of patients with liver cirrhosis,” Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Dis. Int. 8(1), 46–49 (2009).
[PubMed]

Libby, P.

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Optical and multimodality molecular imaging: insights into atherosclerosis,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 29(7), 1017–1024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Molecular imaging of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 116(9), 1052–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Molecular and cellular imaging of atherosclerosis: emerging applications,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(7), 1328–1338 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Libby, “Inflammation in atherosclerosis,” Nature 420(6917), 868–874 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litovsky, S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lodder, R. A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowe, H. C.

B. D. MacNeill, H. C. Lowe, M. Takano, V. Fuster, and I. K. Jang, “Intravascular modalities for detection of vulnerable plaque: current status,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23(8), 1333–1342 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacLaurin, S. A.

D. Hyde, R. de Kleine, S. A. MacLaurin, E. Miller, D. H. Brooks, T. Krucker, and V. Ntziachristos, “Hybrid FMT-CT imaging of amyloid-beta plaques in a murine Alzheimer’s disease model,” Neuroimage 44(4), 1304–1311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MacNeill, B. D.

B. D. MacNeill, H. C. Lowe, M. Takano, V. Fuster, and I. K. Jang, “Intravascular modalities for detection of vulnerable plaque: current status,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23(8), 1333–1342 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjid, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

March, K.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mastik, F.

J. A. Schaar, F. Mastik, E. Regar, C. A. den Uil, F. J. Gijsen, J. J. Wentzel, P. W. Serruys, A. F. W., and van der Stehen, “Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 13(10), 995–1001 (2007).
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Mehran, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, E.

D. Hyde, R. de Kleine, S. A. MacLaurin, E. Miller, D. H. Brooks, T. Krucker, and V. Ntziachristos, “Hybrid FMT-CT imaging of amyloid-beta plaques in a murine Alzheimer’s disease model,” Neuroimage 44(4), 1304–1311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mooren, R. A. G.

M. Reekers, M. J. G. Simon, F. Boer, R. A. G. Mooren, J. W. van Kleef, A. Dahan, and J. Vuyk, “Cardiovascular monitoring by pulse dye densitometry or arterial indocyanine green dilution,” Anesth. Analg. 109(2), 441–446 (2009).
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Moreno, P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, D. S.

Muller, J. E.

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Tran, P. H.

Tung, C.-H.

V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Stehen,

J. A. Schaar, F. Mastik, E. Regar, C. A. den Uil, F. J. Gijsen, J. J. Wentzel, P. W. Serruys, A. F. W., and van der Stehen, “Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 13(10), 995–1001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Kleef, J. W.

M. Reekers, M. J. G. Simon, F. Boer, R. A. G. Mooren, J. W. van Kleef, A. Dahan, and J. Vuyk, “Cardiovascular monitoring by pulse dye densitometry or arterial indocyanine green dilution,” Anesth. Analg. 109(2), 441–446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinegoni, C.

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virmani, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuyk, J.

M. Reekers, M. J. G. Simon, F. Boer, R. A. G. Mooren, J. W. van Kleef, A. Dahan, and J. Vuyk, “Cardiovascular monitoring by pulse dye densitometry or arterial indocyanine green dilution,” Anesth. Analg. 109(2), 441–446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W., A. F.

J. A. Schaar, F. Mastik, E. Regar, C. A. den Uil, F. J. Gijsen, J. J. Wentzel, P. W. Serruys, A. F. W., and van der Stehen, “Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 13(10), 995–1001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waxman, S.

S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, “Detection and treatment of vulnerable plaques and vulnerable patients: novel approaches to prevention of coronary events,” Circulation 114(22), 2390–2411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Optical and multimodality molecular imaging: insights into atherosclerosis,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 29(7), 1017–1024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Molecular imaging of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 116(9), 1052–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Molecular and cellular imaging of atherosclerosis: emerging applications,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(7), 1328–1338 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, F. Jaffer, V. Ntziachristos, and R. Weissleder, “Development of a near infrared fluorescence catheter: operating characteristics and feasibility for atherosclerotic plaque detection,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2701–2707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, and R. Weissleder, “Would near-infrared fluorescence signals propagate through large human organs for clinical studies?” Opt. Lett. 27(5), 333–335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A.

W. Cheong, S. Prahl, and A. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wentzel, J. J.

J. A. Schaar, F. Mastik, E. Regar, C. A. den Uil, F. J. Gijsen, J. J. Wentzel, P. W. Serruys, A. F. W., and van der Stehen, “Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 13(10), 995–1001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willerson, J. T.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yalavarthy, P. K.

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Weight-matrix structured regularization provides optimal generalized least-squares estimate in diffuse optical tomography,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2085–2098 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. J.

Q. S. Sheng, R. Lang, Q. He, Y. J. Yang, D. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Chen, “Indocyanine green clearance test and model for end-stage liver disease score of patients with liver cirrhosis,” Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Dis. Int. 8(1), 46–49 (2009).
[PubMed]

Yuan, C.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zarrabi, A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, D. F.

Q. S. Sheng, R. Lang, Q. He, Y. J. Yang, D. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Chen, “Indocyanine green clearance test and model for end-stage liver disease score of patients with liver cirrhosis,” Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Dis. Int. 8(1), 46–49 (2009).
[PubMed]

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, F. Jaffer, V. Ntziachristos, and R. Weissleder, “Development of a near infrared fluorescence catheter: operating characteristics and feasibility for atherosclerotic plaque detection,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2701–2707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zipes, D. P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anaesthesia (1)

M. Sekimoto, M. Fukui, and K. Fujita, “Plasma volume estimation using indocyanine green with biexponential regression analysis of the decay curves,” Anaesthesia 52(12), 1166–1172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anesth. Analg. (1)

M. Reekers, M. J. G. Simon, F. Boer, R. A. G. Mooren, J. W. van Kleef, A. Dahan, and J. Vuyk, “Cardiovascular monitoring by pulse dye densitometry or arterial indocyanine green dilution,” Anesth. Analg. 109(2), 441–446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2)

B. D. MacNeill, H. C. Lowe, M. Takano, V. Fuster, and I. K. Jang, “Intravascular modalities for detection of vulnerable plaque: current status,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23(8), 1333–1342 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Optical and multimodality molecular imaging: insights into atherosclerosis,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 29(7), 1017–1024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circ. Res. (1)

Z. A. Fayad and V. Fuster, “Clinical imaging of the high-risk or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque,” Circ. Res. 89(4), 305–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation (4)

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108(14), 1664–1672 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, “Detection and treatment of vulnerable plaques and vulnerable patients: novel approaches to prevention of coronary events,” Circulation 114(22), 2390–2411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Molecular imaging of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 116(9), 1052–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Pharm. Des. (1)

J. A. Schaar, F. Mastik, E. Regar, C. A. den Uil, F. J. Gijsen, J. J. Wentzel, P. W. Serruys, A. F. W., and van der Stehen, “Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 13(10), 995–1001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Dis. Int. (1)

Q. S. Sheng, R. Lang, Q. He, Y. J. Yang, D. F. Zhao, and D. Z. Chen, “Indocyanine green clearance test and model for end-stage liver disease score of patients with liver cirrhosis,” Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Dis. Int. 8(1), 46–49 (2009).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Cheong, S. Prahl, and A. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1)

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Molecular and cellular imaging of atherosclerosis: emerging applications,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(7), 1328–1338 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Jacob, P. Conzen, U. Finsterer, A. Krafft, B. F. Becker, and M. Rehm, “Technical and physiological background of plasma volume measurement with indocyanine green: a clarification of misunderstandings,” J. Appl. Physiol. 102(3), 1235–1242 (2006).
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B. Zhu, F. Jaffer, V. Ntziachristos, and R. Weissleder, “Development of a near infrared fluorescence catheter: operating characteristics and feasibility for atherosclerotic plaque detection,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2701–2707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Life Sci. (1)

M. Haller, C. Akbulut, H. Brechtelsbauer, W. Fett, J. Briegel, U. Finsterer, and K. Peter, “Determination of plasma volume with indocyanine green in man,” Life Sci. 53(21), 1597–1604 (1993).
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Med. Phys. (1)

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Weight-matrix structured regularization provides optimal generalized least-squares estimate in diffuse optical tomography,” Med. Phys. 34(6), 2085–2098 (2007).
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G. K. Hansson, “Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease - Reply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 353(4), 429–430 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Sanz and Z. A. Fayad, “Imaging of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease,” Nature 451(7181), 953–957 (2008).
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Neuroimage (1)

D. Hyde, R. de Kleine, S. A. MacLaurin, E. Miller, D. H. Brooks, T. Krucker, and V. Ntziachristos, “Hybrid FMT-CT imaging of amyloid-beta plaques in a murine Alzheimer’s disease model,” Neuroimage 44(4), 1304–1311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

NIR fluorescence imaging system catheter. Schematics of the experimental setup: laser light propagated through the optical cube into multimodal (MM) fiber, travels through rotational coupler and, finally, propagate into MM fiber that has angle-polished, mirror-coated front end. The delivered light excites fluorochromes in the ROI and collects corresponding emission signal, which propagates through the same MM fiber to the detection cube and measured by two PMTs. Signal is then digitized, stored and analyzed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the rotating pullback device with imaging fiber mounted inside of modified IVUS catheter. Rotational stage with coupler inside ensure uniform rotation of the fiber inside of the IVUS housing, while linear stage provides automatic pullback of the rotational stage together with sensor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phantom schematics: (a) phantom with two thin NIR fluorescent tubes lying parallel to the main tube, representing a blood vessel; (b) transverse phantom consisting of 4 thin tubes filled with NIR fluorochromes attached at different angles to the vessel-mimicking tube; (c) resolution phantom with two thin tubes crossed on the vessel surface; (d) SNR phantom; (e) sensitivity phantom.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

2D NIRF imaging experiments. (a) Reconstruction of a two-tube phantom shown in Fig. 3a; (b) Reconstruction of a 4-tube phantom shown in Fig. 3b.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of the spatial resolution experiment. (a) Representative portion of the fluorescence signal in the vicinity of the intersection point between the two tubes; (b) Reconstructed two-dimensional projection image of the crossed tubes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Fluorescence counts on an arbitrary scale, detected from three tubes with varying concentration of AF750; (b) Fluorescence signal degradation versus separation between the probe and the fiber tip in saline and in blood mimicking solution.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

In vivo measurements of ICG blood clearance time dynamics. Normalized fluorescence count was taken at 4 time points (in red asterisks) and the bi-exponential fit (blue line) was based on them.

Equations (1)

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C ( t ) = a · exp ( k 1 · t ) + b · exp ( k 2 · t ) ,

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