Abstract

Anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) is a long-range endoscopic imaging modality capable of quantifying size and shape of the human airway. A challenge to its in vivo application is motion artifact due to respiratory-related movement of the airway walls. This paper represents the first demonstration of respiratory gating of aOCT airway data, and introduces a novel error measure to guide appropriate parameter selection. Results indicate that at least four gates per respiratory cycle should be used, with only minor improvements as the number of gates is further increased. It is shown that respiratory gating can substantially improve the quality of aOCT images and reveal events and features that are otherwise obscured by blurring.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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  23. G. S. Mageras and E. Yorke, "Deep inspiration breath hold and respiratory gating strategies for reducing organ motion in radiation treatment," Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 14, 65-75 (2004).
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Using Optical Coherence Tomography To Improve Diagnostic and Therapeutic Bronchoscopy", Chest (2009) (Epub ahead of print).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Effect of body posture on pharyngeal shape and size in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea," Sleep 31, 1543-1549 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, J. Kirkness, A. Jain, M. S. Leigh, J. Williamson, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Respiratory gating of endoscopic OCT images of the upper airway," 19th Intl. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-19), Proc. SPIE 7004, 70045V (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway," Opt. Express 16, 17521-17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. ?miel, A. Szczeklik, and K. S?adek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using gated optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 173, 226-233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, Z. Hu, V. P. Nikolski, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, I. R. Efimov, A. and M. Rollins, "4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 736-748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, R. Wootton, R. S. Ware, P. W. Francis, P. V. Zimmerman, and A. B. Chang, "A new method for objective identification and measurement of airway lumen in paediatric flexible videobronchoscopy," Thorax 60, 652-658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Arens, S. Sin, J.M. McDonough, J.M. Palmer, T. Dominguez, H. Meyer, D.M. Wootton, A.I. Pack, "Changes in upper airway size during tidal breathing in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 171, 1298-1304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

G. Starkschall, K. M. Forster, K. Kitamura, A. Cardenas, S. L. Tucker, and C. W. Stevens, "Correlation of gross tumor volume excursion with potential benefits of respiratory gating," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 60, 1291-1297 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Mageras and E. Yorke, "Deep inspiration breath hold and respiratory gating strategies for reducing organ motion in radiation treatment," Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 14, 65-75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Boucher, S. Rodrigue, R. Lecomte, and F. Benard, "Respiratory gating for 3-dimensional PET of the thorax: feasibility and initial results," J. Nucl. Med. 45, 214-219 (2004).
[PubMed]

P. P. Hsu, H. N. C. Han, Y. H. Chan, H. N. Tay, R. H. Brett, P. K. S. Lu, and R. L. Blair, "Quantitative computer-assisted digital-imaging upper airway analysis for obstructive sleep apnoea," Clin. Otolaryngol. 29, 522-529 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

G. R. Ferretti, M. Kocier, O. Calaque, F. Arbib, C. Righini, M. Coulomb, and C. Pison, "Follow-up after stent insertion in the tracheobronchial tree: role of helical computed tomography in comparison with fiberoptic bronchoscopy," Eur. Radiol. 13, 1172-1178 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 1817-26 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wiesmann, M. Szimtenings, A. Frydrychowicz, R. Illinger, A. Hunecke, E. Rommel, S. Neubauer, and A. Haase, "High-resolution MRI with cardiac and respiratory gating allows for accurate in vivo atherosclerotic plaque visualization in the murine aortic arch," Magn. Reson. Med. 50, 69-74 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. M. Shamsuzzaman et al., "Obstructive sleep apnea: implications for cardiac and vascular disease," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 290, 1906-1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. A. Nehmeh, Y. E. Erdi, C. C. Ling, K. E. Rosenzweig, H. Schoder, S. M. Larson, H. A. Macapinlac, O. D. Sqire, and J. L. Humm, "Effect of respiratory gating on quantifying PET images of lung cancer," J. Nucl. Med. 43, 876-881 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

K. Ikeda, M. Ogura, T. Oshima, H. Suzuki,  et al., "Quantitative assessment of the pharyngeal airway by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 110, 183-189 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. A. Ciscar, G. Juan, V. Martinez, M. Ramon, T. Lloret, J. Minguez, M. Armengot, J. Marin, and J. Basterra, "Magnetic resonance imaging of the pharynx in OSA patients and healthy subjects," Eur. Respir. J. 17, 79-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

F. Javier Nieto et al., "Association of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep apnea, and hypertension in a large community-based study," J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 283, 1829-1836 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. J. Wadsworth, M. C. Juniper, M. K. Benson, and F. V. Gleeson, "Fatal complication of an expandable metallic bronchial stent," Brit. J. Radiol. 72, 706-708 (1999).

K. Cho, S. Kumiata, S. Okada, and T. Kumazaki, "Development of respiratory gated myocardial SPECT system," J. Nucl. Cardiol. 6, 20-28 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sinkus and P. Bornert, "Motion pattern adapted real-time respiratory gating," Magn. Reson. Med. 41, 148-155 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

D. Li, S. Kaushikkar, E. M. Haacke, P. K. Woodard, P. J. Dhawale, R. M. Kroeker, G. Laub, Y. Kuginuki, and F. R. Gutierrez, "Coronary arteries: three-dimensional MR imaging with retrospective respiratory gating," Radiology 201, 857-863 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. C. Post, A. C. van Rossum, M. B. M. Hofman, J. Valk, and C. A. Visser, "Three-dimensional respiratory-gated MR angiography of coronary arteries: comparison with conventional coronary angiography," Am. J. Roentgeol. 166, 1399-1404 (1996).

1994 (1)

E. Senéterre, F. Paganin, J.M. Bruel, F. B. Michel, and J. Bousquet, "Measurement of the internal size of bronchi using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)," Eur. Respir. J. 7, 596-600 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

R. J. Schwab, W. B. Gefter, A. I. Pack, and E. A. Hoffman, "Dynamic imaging of the upper airway during respiration in normal subjects," J. Appl. Physiol. 74, 1504-1514 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

T. Young, M. Palta, J. Dempsey, J. Skatrud, S. Weber, and S. Badr, "The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle aged adults," New Engl. J. Med. 328, 1230-1235 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

W. Stanford, J. Galvin, and M. Rooholamini, "Effects of awake tidal breathing, swallowing, nasal breathing, oral breathing and the Muller and Valsalva maneuvers on the dimensions of the upper airway: evaluation by ultrafast computerized tomography," Chest 94, 149-154 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

I. G. Brown, N. Zamel, and V. Hoffstein, "Pharyngeal cross-sectional area in normal men and women," J. Appl. Physiol. 61, 890-895 (1986).
[PubMed]

C. E. Lewis, F. S. Prato, D. J. Drost, and R. L. Nicholson, "Comparison of respiratory triggering and gating techniques for the removal of respiratory artifacts in MR imaging," Radiology 160, 803-810 (1986).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

R. L. Ehman, M. T. McNamara, M. Pallack, H. Hricak, and C. B. Higgins, "Magnetic resonance imaging with respiratory gating: techniques and advantages," Am. J. Roentgeol. 143, 1175-1182 (1984).

Alexandrov, S. A.

Arbib, F.

G. R. Ferretti, M. Kocier, O. Calaque, F. Arbib, C. Righini, M. Coulomb, and C. Pison, "Follow-up after stent insertion in the tracheobronchial tree: role of helical computed tomography in comparison with fiberoptic bronchoscopy," Eur. Radiol. 13, 1172-1178 (2003).
[PubMed]

Arens, R.

R. Arens, S. Sin, J.M. McDonough, J.M. Palmer, T. Dominguez, H. Meyer, D.M. Wootton, A.I. Pack, "Changes in upper airway size during tidal breathing in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 171, 1298-1304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Armengot, M.

M. A. Ciscar, G. Juan, V. Martinez, M. Ramon, T. Lloret, J. Minguez, M. Armengot, J. Marin, and J. Basterra, "Magnetic resonance imaging of the pharynx in OSA patients and healthy subjects," Eur. Respir. J. 17, 79-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. J.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Using Optical Coherence Tomography To Improve Diagnostic and Therapeutic Bronchoscopy", Chest (2009) (Epub ahead of print).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Effect of body posture on pharyngeal shape and size in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea," Sleep 31, 1543-1549 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, J. Kirkness, A. Jain, M. S. Leigh, J. Williamson, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Respiratory gating of endoscopic OCT images of the upper airway," 19th Intl. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-19), Proc. SPIE 7004, 70045V (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway," Opt. Express 16, 17521-17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 173, 226-233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 1817-26 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badr, S.

T. Young, M. Palta, J. Dempsey, J. Skatrud, S. Weber, and S. Badr, "The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle aged adults," New Engl. J. Med. 328, 1230-1235 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using gated optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basterra, J.

M. A. Ciscar, G. Juan, V. Martinez, M. Ramon, T. Lloret, J. Minguez, M. Armengot, J. Marin, and J. Basterra, "Magnetic resonance imaging of the pharynx in OSA patients and healthy subjects," Eur. Respir. J. 17, 79-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, S.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Using Optical Coherence Tomography To Improve Diagnostic and Therapeutic Bronchoscopy", Chest (2009) (Epub ahead of print).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway," Opt. Express 16, 17521-17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, J. Kirkness, A. Jain, M. S. Leigh, J. Williamson, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Respiratory gating of endoscopic OCT images of the upper airway," 19th Intl. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-19), Proc. SPIE 7004, 70045V (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benard, F.

L. Boucher, S. Rodrigue, R. Lecomte, and F. Benard, "Respiratory gating for 3-dimensional PET of the thorax: feasibility and initial results," J. Nucl. Med. 45, 214-219 (2004).
[PubMed]

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S. J. Wadsworth, M. C. Juniper, M. K. Benson, and F. V. Gleeson, "Fatal complication of an expandable metallic bronchial stent," Brit. J. Radiol. 72, 706-708 (1999).

Blair, R. L.

P. P. Hsu, H. N. C. Han, Y. H. Chan, H. N. Tay, R. H. Brett, P. K. S. Lu, and R. L. Blair, "Quantitative computer-assisted digital-imaging upper airway analysis for obstructive sleep apnoea," Clin. Otolaryngol. 29, 522-529 (2004).
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R. Sinkus and P. Bornert, "Motion pattern adapted real-time respiratory gating," Magn. Reson. Med. 41, 148-155 (1999).
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L. Boucher, S. Rodrigue, R. Lecomte, and F. Benard, "Respiratory gating for 3-dimensional PET of the thorax: feasibility and initial results," J. Nucl. Med. 45, 214-219 (2004).
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E. Senéterre, F. Paganin, J.M. Bruel, F. B. Michel, and J. Bousquet, "Measurement of the internal size of bronchi using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)," Eur. Respir. J. 7, 596-600 (1994).
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P. P. Hsu, H. N. C. Han, Y. H. Chan, H. N. Tay, R. H. Brett, P. K. S. Lu, and R. L. Blair, "Quantitative computer-assisted digital-imaging upper airway analysis for obstructive sleep apnoea," Clin. Otolaryngol. 29, 522-529 (2004).
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I. G. Brown, N. Zamel, and V. Hoffstein, "Pharyngeal cross-sectional area in normal men and women," J. Appl. Physiol. 61, 890-895 (1986).
[PubMed]

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E. Senéterre, F. Paganin, J.M. Bruel, F. B. Michel, and J. Bousquet, "Measurement of the internal size of bronchi using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)," Eur. Respir. J. 7, 596-600 (1994).
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G. R. Ferretti, M. Kocier, O. Calaque, F. Arbib, C. Righini, M. Coulomb, and C. Pison, "Follow-up after stent insertion in the tracheobronchial tree: role of helical computed tomography in comparison with fiberoptic bronchoscopy," Eur. Radiol. 13, 1172-1178 (2003).
[PubMed]

Cardenas, A.

G. Starkschall, K. M. Forster, K. Kitamura, A. Cardenas, S. L. Tucker, and C. W. Stevens, "Correlation of gross tumor volume excursion with potential benefits of respiratory gating," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 60, 1291-1297 (2004).
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Chan, Y. H.

P. P. Hsu, H. N. C. Han, Y. H. Chan, H. N. Tay, R. H. Brett, P. K. S. Lu, and R. L. Blair, "Quantitative computer-assisted digital-imaging upper airway analysis for obstructive sleep apnoea," Clin. Otolaryngol. 29, 522-529 (2004).
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Chang, A. B.

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, R. Wootton, R. S. Ware, P. W. Francis, P. V. Zimmerman, and A. B. Chang, "A new method for objective identification and measurement of airway lumen in paediatric flexible videobronchoscopy," Thorax 60, 652-658 (2005).
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K. Cho, S. Kumiata, S. Okada, and T. Kumazaki, "Development of respiratory gated myocardial SPECT system," J. Nucl. Cardiol. 6, 20-28 (1999).
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Chughtai, O. Q.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using gated optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciscar, M. A.

M. A. Ciscar, G. Juan, V. Martinez, M. Ramon, T. Lloret, J. Minguez, M. Armengot, J. Marin, and J. Basterra, "Magnetic resonance imaging of the pharynx in OSA patients and healthy subjects," Eur. Respir. J. 17, 79-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cmiel, A.

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. ?miel, A. Szczeklik, and K. S?adek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coulomb, M.

G. R. Ferretti, M. Kocier, O. Calaque, F. Arbib, C. Righini, M. Coulomb, and C. Pison, "Follow-up after stent insertion in the tracheobronchial tree: role of helical computed tomography in comparison with fiberoptic bronchoscopy," Eur. Radiol. 13, 1172-1178 (2003).
[PubMed]

Czaja, P.

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. ?miel, A. Szczeklik, and K. S?adek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dempsey, J.

T. Young, M. Palta, J. Dempsey, J. Skatrud, S. Weber, and S. Badr, "The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle aged adults," New Engl. J. Med. 328, 1230-1235 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dhawale, P. J.

D. Li, S. Kaushikkar, E. M. Haacke, P. K. Woodard, P. J. Dhawale, R. M. Kroeker, G. Laub, Y. Kuginuki, and F. R. Gutierrez, "Coronary arteries: three-dimensional MR imaging with retrospective respiratory gating," Radiology 201, 857-863 (1996).
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Dominguez, T.

R. Arens, S. Sin, J.M. McDonough, J.M. Palmer, T. Dominguez, H. Meyer, D.M. Wootton, A.I. Pack, "Changes in upper airway size during tidal breathing in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 171, 1298-1304 (2005).
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C. E. Lewis, F. S. Prato, D. J. Drost, and R. L. Nicholson, "Comparison of respiratory triggering and gating techniques for the removal of respiratory artifacts in MR imaging," Radiology 160, 803-810 (1986).
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I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, R. Wootton, R. S. Ware, P. W. Francis, P. V. Zimmerman, and A. B. Chang, "A new method for objective identification and measurement of airway lumen in paediatric flexible videobronchoscopy," Thorax 60, 652-658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eastwood, P. R.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Using Optical Coherence Tomography To Improve Diagnostic and Therapeutic Bronchoscopy", Chest (2009) (Epub ahead of print).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Effect of body posture on pharyngeal shape and size in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea," Sleep 31, 1543-1549 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway," Opt. Express 16, 17521-17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, J. Kirkness, A. Jain, M. S. Leigh, J. Williamson, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Respiratory gating of endoscopic OCT images of the upper airway," 19th Intl. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-19), Proc. SPIE 7004, 70045V (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 173, 226-233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 1817-26 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Efimov, I. R.

Ehman, R. L.

R. L. Ehman, M. T. McNamara, M. Pallack, H. Hricak, and C. B. Higgins, "Magnetic resonance imaging with respiratory gating: techniques and advantages," Am. J. Roentgeol. 143, 1175-1182 (1984).

Erdi, Y. E.

S. A. Nehmeh, Y. E. Erdi, C. C. Ling, K. E. Rosenzweig, H. Schoder, S. M. Larson, H. A. Macapinlac, O. D. Sqire, and J. L. Humm, "Effect of respiratory gating on quantifying PET images of lung cancer," J. Nucl. Med. 43, 876-881 (2002).
[PubMed]

Ferretti, G. R.

G. R. Ferretti, M. Kocier, O. Calaque, F. Arbib, C. Righini, M. Coulomb, and C. Pison, "Follow-up after stent insertion in the tracheobronchial tree: role of helical computed tomography in comparison with fiberoptic bronchoscopy," Eur. Radiol. 13, 1172-1178 (2003).
[PubMed]

Forster, K. M.

G. Starkschall, K. M. Forster, K. Kitamura, A. Cardenas, S. L. Tucker, and C. W. Stevens, "Correlation of gross tumor volume excursion with potential benefits of respiratory gating," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 60, 1291-1297 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francis, P. W.

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, R. Wootton, R. S. Ware, P. W. Francis, P. V. Zimmerman, and A. B. Chang, "A new method for objective identification and measurement of airway lumen in paediatric flexible videobronchoscopy," Thorax 60, 652-658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frydrychowicz, A.

F. Wiesmann, M. Szimtenings, A. Frydrychowicz, R. Illinger, A. Hunecke, E. Rommel, S. Neubauer, and A. Haase, "High-resolution MRI with cardiac and respiratory gating allows for accurate in vivo atherosclerotic plaque visualization in the murine aortic arch," Magn. Reson. Med. 50, 69-74 (2003).
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W. Stanford, J. Galvin, and M. Rooholamini, "Effects of awake tidal breathing, swallowing, nasal breathing, oral breathing and the Muller and Valsalva maneuvers on the dimensions of the upper airway: evaluation by ultrafast computerized tomography," Chest 94, 149-154 (1988).
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R. J. Schwab, W. B. Gefter, A. I. Pack, and E. A. Hoffman, "Dynamic imaging of the upper airway during respiration in normal subjects," J. Appl. Physiol. 74, 1504-1514 (1993).
[PubMed]

Gleeson, F. V.

S. J. Wadsworth, M. C. Juniper, M. K. Benson, and F. V. Gleeson, "Fatal complication of an expandable metallic bronchial stent," Brit. J. Radiol. 72, 706-708 (1999).

Grzanka, P.

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. ?miel, A. Szczeklik, and K. S?adek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez, F. R.

D. Li, S. Kaushikkar, E. M. Haacke, P. K. Woodard, P. J. Dhawale, R. M. Kroeker, G. Laub, Y. Kuginuki, and F. R. Gutierrez, "Coronary arteries: three-dimensional MR imaging with retrospective respiratory gating," Radiology 201, 857-863 (1996).
[PubMed]

Haacke, E. M.

D. Li, S. Kaushikkar, E. M. Haacke, P. K. Woodard, P. J. Dhawale, R. M. Kroeker, G. Laub, Y. Kuginuki, and F. R. Gutierrez, "Coronary arteries: three-dimensional MR imaging with retrospective respiratory gating," Radiology 201, 857-863 (1996).
[PubMed]

Haase, A.

F. Wiesmann, M. Szimtenings, A. Frydrychowicz, R. Illinger, A. Hunecke, E. Rommel, S. Neubauer, and A. Haase, "High-resolution MRI with cardiac and respiratory gating allows for accurate in vivo atherosclerotic plaque visualization in the murine aortic arch," Magn. Reson. Med. 50, 69-74 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, H. N. C.

P. P. Hsu, H. N. C. Han, Y. H. Chan, H. N. Tay, R. H. Brett, P. K. S. Lu, and R. L. Blair, "Quantitative computer-assisted digital-imaging upper airway analysis for obstructive sleep apnoea," Clin. Otolaryngol. 29, 522-529 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higgins, C. B.

R. L. Ehman, M. T. McNamara, M. Pallack, H. Hricak, and C. B. Higgins, "Magnetic resonance imaging with respiratory gating: techniques and advantages," Am. J. Roentgeol. 143, 1175-1182 (1984).

Hillman, D. R.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Using Optical Coherence Tomography To Improve Diagnostic and Therapeutic Bronchoscopy", Chest (2009) (Epub ahead of print).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Effect of body posture on pharyngeal shape and size in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea," Sleep 31, 1543-1549 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway," Opt. Express 16, 17521-17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, J. Kirkness, A. Jain, M. S. Leigh, J. Williamson, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Respiratory gating of endoscopic OCT images of the upper airway," 19th Intl. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-19), Proc. SPIE 7004, 70045V (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 173, 226-233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 1817-26 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, E. A.

R. J. Schwab, W. B. Gefter, A. I. Pack, and E. A. Hoffman, "Dynamic imaging of the upper airway during respiration in normal subjects," J. Appl. Physiol. 74, 1504-1514 (1993).
[PubMed]

Hoffstein, V.

I. G. Brown, N. Zamel, and V. Hoffstein, "Pharyngeal cross-sectional area in normal men and women," J. Appl. Physiol. 61, 890-895 (1986).
[PubMed]

Hofman, M. B. M.

J. C. Post, A. C. van Rossum, M. B. M. Hofman, J. Valk, and C. A. Visser, "Three-dimensional respiratory-gated MR angiography of coronary arteries: comparison with conventional coronary angiography," Am. J. Roentgeol. 166, 1399-1404 (1996).

Hricak, H.

R. L. Ehman, M. T. McNamara, M. Pallack, H. Hricak, and C. B. Higgins, "Magnetic resonance imaging with respiratory gating: techniques and advantages," Am. J. Roentgeol. 143, 1175-1182 (1984).

Hsu, P. P.

P. P. Hsu, H. N. C. Han, Y. H. Chan, H. N. Tay, R. H. Brett, P. K. S. Lu, and R. L. Blair, "Quantitative computer-assisted digital-imaging upper airway analysis for obstructive sleep apnoea," Clin. Otolaryngol. 29, 522-529 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Z.

Humm, J. L.

S. A. Nehmeh, Y. E. Erdi, C. C. Ling, K. E. Rosenzweig, H. Schoder, S. M. Larson, H. A. Macapinlac, O. D. Sqire, and J. L. Humm, "Effect of respiratory gating on quantifying PET images of lung cancer," J. Nucl. Med. 43, 876-881 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hunecke, A.

F. Wiesmann, M. Szimtenings, A. Frydrychowicz, R. Illinger, A. Hunecke, E. Rommel, S. Neubauer, and A. Haase, "High-resolution MRI with cardiac and respiratory gating allows for accurate in vivo atherosclerotic plaque visualization in the murine aortic arch," Magn. Reson. Med. 50, 69-74 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, K.

K. Ikeda, M. Ogura, T. Oshima, H. Suzuki,  et al., "Quantitative assessment of the pharyngeal airway by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 110, 183-189 (2001).
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Illinger, R.

F. Wiesmann, M. Szimtenings, A. Frydrychowicz, R. Illinger, A. Hunecke, E. Rommel, S. Neubauer, and A. Haase, "High-resolution MRI with cardiac and respiratory gating allows for accurate in vivo atherosclerotic plaque visualization in the murine aortic arch," Magn. Reson. Med. 50, 69-74 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jain, A.

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, J. Kirkness, A. Jain, M. S. Leigh, J. Williamson, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Respiratory gating of endoscopic OCT images of the upper airway," 19th Intl. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-19), Proc. SPIE 7004, 70045V (2008).
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Javier Nieto, F.

F. Javier Nieto et al., "Association of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep apnea, and hypertension in a large community-based study," J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 283, 1829-1836 (2000).
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Jenkins, M. W.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using gated optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, Z. Hu, V. P. Nikolski, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, I. R. Efimov, A. and M. Rollins, "4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 736-748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juan, G.

M. A. Ciscar, G. Juan, V. Martinez, M. Ramon, T. Lloret, J. Minguez, M. Armengot, J. Marin, and J. Basterra, "Magnetic resonance imaging of the pharynx in OSA patients and healthy subjects," Eur. Respir. J. 17, 79-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juniper, M. C.

S. J. Wadsworth, M. C. Juniper, M. K. Benson, and F. V. Gleeson, "Fatal complication of an expandable metallic bronchial stent," Brit. J. Radiol. 72, 706-708 (1999).

Kaushikkar, S.

D. Li, S. Kaushikkar, E. M. Haacke, P. K. Woodard, P. J. Dhawale, R. M. Kroeker, G. Laub, Y. Kuginuki, and F. R. Gutierrez, "Coronary arteries: three-dimensional MR imaging with retrospective respiratory gating," Radiology 201, 857-863 (1996).
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R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, J. Kirkness, A. Jain, M. S. Leigh, J. Williamson, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Respiratory gating of endoscopic OCT images of the upper airway," 19th Intl. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-19), Proc. SPIE 7004, 70045V (2008).
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G. Starkschall, K. M. Forster, K. Kitamura, A. Cardenas, S. L. Tucker, and C. W. Stevens, "Correlation of gross tumor volume excursion with potential benefits of respiratory gating," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 60, 1291-1297 (2004).
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Kocier, M.

G. R. Ferretti, M. Kocier, O. Calaque, F. Arbib, C. Righini, M. Coulomb, and C. Pison, "Follow-up after stent insertion in the tracheobronchial tree: role of helical computed tomography in comparison with fiberoptic bronchoscopy," Eur. Radiol. 13, 1172-1178 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kroeker, R. M.

D. Li, S. Kaushikkar, E. M. Haacke, P. K. Woodard, P. J. Dhawale, R. M. Kroeker, G. Laub, Y. Kuginuki, and F. R. Gutierrez, "Coronary arteries: three-dimensional MR imaging with retrospective respiratory gating," Radiology 201, 857-863 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kuginuki, Y.

D. Li, S. Kaushikkar, E. M. Haacke, P. K. Woodard, P. J. Dhawale, R. M. Kroeker, G. Laub, Y. Kuginuki, and F. R. Gutierrez, "Coronary arteries: three-dimensional MR imaging with retrospective respiratory gating," Radiology 201, 857-863 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kulkarni, M.

Kumazaki, T.

K. Cho, S. Kumiata, S. Okada, and T. Kumazaki, "Development of respiratory gated myocardial SPECT system," J. Nucl. Cardiol. 6, 20-28 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumiata, S.

K. Cho, S. Kumiata, S. Okada, and T. Kumazaki, "Development of respiratory gated myocardial SPECT system," J. Nucl. Cardiol. 6, 20-28 (1999).
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S. A. Nehmeh, Y. E. Erdi, C. C. Ling, K. E. Rosenzweig, H. Schoder, S. M. Larson, H. A. Macapinlac, O. D. Sqire, and J. L. Humm, "Effect of respiratory gating on quantifying PET images of lung cancer," J. Nucl. Med. 43, 876-881 (2002).
[PubMed]

Laub, G.

D. Li, S. Kaushikkar, E. M. Haacke, P. K. Woodard, P. J. Dhawale, R. M. Kroeker, G. Laub, Y. Kuginuki, and F. R. Gutierrez, "Coronary arteries: three-dimensional MR imaging with retrospective respiratory gating," Radiology 201, 857-863 (1996).
[PubMed]

Lecomte, R.

L. Boucher, S. Rodrigue, R. Lecomte, and F. Benard, "Respiratory gating for 3-dimensional PET of the thorax: feasibility and initial results," J. Nucl. Med. 45, 214-219 (2004).
[PubMed]

Leigh, M. S.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Effect of body posture on pharyngeal shape and size in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea," Sleep 31, 1543-1549 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, J. Kirkness, A. Jain, M. S. Leigh, J. Williamson, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Respiratory gating of endoscopic OCT images of the upper airway," 19th Intl. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-19), Proc. SPIE 7004, 70045V (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 173, 226-233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 1817-26 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. E. Lewis, F. S. Prato, D. J. Drost, and R. L. Nicholson, "Comparison of respiratory triggering and gating techniques for the removal of respiratory artifacts in MR imaging," Radiology 160, 803-810 (1986).
[PubMed]

Li, D.

D. Li, S. Kaushikkar, E. M. Haacke, P. K. Woodard, P. J. Dhawale, R. M. Kroeker, G. Laub, Y. Kuginuki, and F. R. Gutierrez, "Coronary arteries: three-dimensional MR imaging with retrospective respiratory gating," Radiology 201, 857-863 (1996).
[PubMed]

Ling, C. C.

S. A. Nehmeh, Y. E. Erdi, C. C. Ling, K. E. Rosenzweig, H. Schoder, S. M. Larson, H. A. Macapinlac, O. D. Sqire, and J. L. Humm, "Effect of respiratory gating on quantifying PET images of lung cancer," J. Nucl. Med. 43, 876-881 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lloret, T.

M. A. Ciscar, G. Juan, V. Martinez, M. Ramon, T. Lloret, J. Minguez, M. Armengot, J. Marin, and J. Basterra, "Magnetic resonance imaging of the pharynx in OSA patients and healthy subjects," Eur. Respir. J. 17, 79-86 (2001).
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P. P. Hsu, H. N. C. Han, Y. H. Chan, H. N. Tay, R. H. Brett, P. K. S. Lu, and R. L. Blair, "Quantitative computer-assisted digital-imaging upper airway analysis for obstructive sleep apnoea," Clin. Otolaryngol. 29, 522-529 (2004).
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S. A. Nehmeh, Y. E. Erdi, C. C. Ling, K. E. Rosenzweig, H. Schoder, S. M. Larson, H. A. Macapinlac, O. D. Sqire, and J. L. Humm, "Effect of respiratory gating on quantifying PET images of lung cancer," J. Nucl. Med. 43, 876-881 (2002).
[PubMed]

Maddison, K. J.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Effect of body posture on pharyngeal shape and size in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea," Sleep 31, 1543-1549 (2008).
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G. S. Mageras and E. Yorke, "Deep inspiration breath hold and respiratory gating strategies for reducing organ motion in radiation treatment," Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 14, 65-75 (2004).
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M. A. Ciscar, G. Juan, V. Martinez, M. Ramon, T. Lloret, J. Minguez, M. Armengot, J. Marin, and J. Basterra, "Magnetic resonance imaging of the pharynx in OSA patients and healthy subjects," Eur. Respir. J. 17, 79-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, V.

M. A. Ciscar, G. Juan, V. Martinez, M. Ramon, T. Lloret, J. Minguez, M. Armengot, J. Marin, and J. Basterra, "Magnetic resonance imaging of the pharynx in OSA patients and healthy subjects," Eur. Respir. J. 17, 79-86 (2001).
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I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, R. Wootton, R. S. Ware, P. W. Francis, P. V. Zimmerman, and A. B. Chang, "A new method for objective identification and measurement of airway lumen in paediatric flexible videobronchoscopy," Thorax 60, 652-658 (2005).
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R. Arens, S. Sin, J.M. McDonough, J.M. Palmer, T. Dominguez, H. Meyer, D.M. Wootton, A.I. Pack, "Changes in upper airway size during tidal breathing in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 171, 1298-1304 (2005).
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McLaughlin, R. A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Using Optical Coherence Tomography To Improve Diagnostic and Therapeutic Bronchoscopy", Chest (2009) (Epub ahead of print).
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R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, J. Kirkness, A. Jain, M. S. Leigh, J. Williamson, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Respiratory gating of endoscopic OCT images of the upper airway," 19th Intl. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-19), Proc. SPIE 7004, 70045V (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway," Opt. Express 16, 17521-17529 (2008).
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R. L. Ehman, M. T. McNamara, M. Pallack, H. Hricak, and C. B. Higgins, "Magnetic resonance imaging with respiratory gating: techniques and advantages," Am. J. Roentgeol. 143, 1175-1182 (1984).

Meyer, H.

R. Arens, S. Sin, J.M. McDonough, J.M. Palmer, T. Dominguez, H. Meyer, D.M. Wootton, A.I. Pack, "Changes in upper airway size during tidal breathing in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 171, 1298-1304 (2005).
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E. Senéterre, F. Paganin, J.M. Bruel, F. B. Michel, and J. Bousquet, "Measurement of the internal size of bronchi using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)," Eur. Respir. J. 7, 596-600 (1994).
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M. A. Ciscar, G. Juan, V. Martinez, M. Ramon, T. Lloret, J. Minguez, M. Armengot, J. Marin, and J. Basterra, "Magnetic resonance imaging of the pharynx in OSA patients and healthy subjects," Eur. Respir. J. 17, 79-86 (2001).
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S. A. Nehmeh, Y. E. Erdi, C. C. Ling, K. E. Rosenzweig, H. Schoder, S. M. Larson, H. A. Macapinlac, O. D. Sqire, and J. L. Humm, "Effect of respiratory gating on quantifying PET images of lung cancer," J. Nucl. Med. 43, 876-881 (2002).
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F. Wiesmann, M. Szimtenings, A. Frydrychowicz, R. Illinger, A. Hunecke, E. Rommel, S. Neubauer, and A. Haase, "High-resolution MRI with cardiac and respiratory gating allows for accurate in vivo atherosclerotic plaque visualization in the murine aortic arch," Magn. Reson. Med. 50, 69-74 (2003).
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Nicholson, R. L.

C. E. Lewis, F. S. Prato, D. J. Drost, and R. L. Nicholson, "Comparison of respiratory triggering and gating techniques for the removal of respiratory artifacts in MR imaging," Radiology 160, 803-810 (1986).
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Ogura, M.

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K. Cho, S. Kumiata, S. Okada, and T. Kumazaki, "Development of respiratory gated myocardial SPECT system," J. Nucl. Cardiol. 6, 20-28 (1999).
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K. Ikeda, M. Ogura, T. Oshima, H. Suzuki,  et al., "Quantitative assessment of the pharyngeal airway by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 110, 183-189 (2001).
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R. Arens, S. Sin, J.M. McDonough, J.M. Palmer, T. Dominguez, H. Meyer, D.M. Wootton, A.I. Pack, "Changes in upper airway size during tidal breathing in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 171, 1298-1304 (2005).
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Paduch, A.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Effect of body posture on pharyngeal shape and size in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea," Sleep 31, 1543-1549 (2008).
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J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
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M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paganin, F.

E. Senéterre, F. Paganin, J.M. Bruel, F. B. Michel, and J. Bousquet, "Measurement of the internal size of bronchi using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)," Eur. Respir. J. 7, 596-600 (1994).
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Pallack, M.

R. L. Ehman, M. T. McNamara, M. Pallack, H. Hricak, and C. B. Higgins, "Magnetic resonance imaging with respiratory gating: techniques and advantages," Am. J. Roentgeol. 143, 1175-1182 (1984).

Palmer, J.M.

R. Arens, S. Sin, J.M. McDonough, J.M. Palmer, T. Dominguez, H. Meyer, D.M. Wootton, A.I. Pack, "Changes in upper airway size during tidal breathing in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 171, 1298-1304 (2005).
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J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
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Phillips, M. J.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Using Optical Coherence Tomography To Improve Diagnostic and Therapeutic Bronchoscopy", Chest (2009) (Epub ahead of print).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway," Opt. Express 16, 17521-17529 (2008).
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Pison, C.

G. R. Ferretti, M. Kocier, O. Calaque, F. Arbib, C. Righini, M. Coulomb, and C. Pison, "Follow-up after stent insertion in the tracheobronchial tree: role of helical computed tomography in comparison with fiberoptic bronchoscopy," Eur. Radiol. 13, 1172-1178 (2003).
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Prato, F. S.

C. E. Lewis, F. S. Prato, D. J. Drost, and R. L. Nicholson, "Comparison of respiratory triggering and gating techniques for the removal of respiratory artifacts in MR imaging," Radiology 160, 803-810 (1986).
[PubMed]

Ramon, M.

M. A. Ciscar, G. Juan, V. Martinez, M. Ramon, T. Lloret, J. Minguez, M. Armengot, J. Marin, and J. Basterra, "Magnetic resonance imaging of the pharynx in OSA patients and healthy subjects," Eur. Respir. J. 17, 79-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Righini, C.

G. R. Ferretti, M. Kocier, O. Calaque, F. Arbib, C. Righini, M. Coulomb, and C. Pison, "Follow-up after stent insertion in the tracheobronchial tree: role of helical computed tomography in comparison with fiberoptic bronchoscopy," Eur. Radiol. 13, 1172-1178 (2003).
[PubMed]

Rodrigue, S.

L. Boucher, S. Rodrigue, R. Lecomte, and F. Benard, "Respiratory gating for 3-dimensional PET of the thorax: feasibility and initial results," J. Nucl. Med. 45, 214-219 (2004).
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M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using gated optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
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F. Wiesmann, M. Szimtenings, A. Frydrychowicz, R. Illinger, A. Hunecke, E. Rommel, S. Neubauer, and A. Haase, "High-resolution MRI with cardiac and respiratory gating allows for accurate in vivo atherosclerotic plaque visualization in the murine aortic arch," Magn. Reson. Med. 50, 69-74 (2003).
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W. Stanford, J. Galvin, and M. Rooholamini, "Effects of awake tidal breathing, swallowing, nasal breathing, oral breathing and the Muller and Valsalva maneuvers on the dimensions of the upper airway: evaluation by ultrafast computerized tomography," Chest 94, 149-154 (1988).
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S. A. Nehmeh, Y. E. Erdi, C. C. Ling, K. E. Rosenzweig, H. Schoder, S. M. Larson, H. A. Macapinlac, O. D. Sqire, and J. L. Humm, "Effect of respiratory gating on quantifying PET images of lung cancer," J. Nucl. Med. 43, 876-881 (2002).
[PubMed]

Rothenberg, F.

Roy, D.

Sampson, D. D.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Using Optical Coherence Tomography To Improve Diagnostic and Therapeutic Bronchoscopy", Chest (2009) (Epub ahead of print).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Effect of body posture on pharyngeal shape and size in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea," Sleep 31, 1543-1549 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway," Opt. Express 16, 17521-17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, J. Kirkness, A. Jain, M. S. Leigh, J. Williamson, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Respiratory gating of endoscopic OCT images of the upper airway," 19th Intl. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-19), Proc. SPIE 7004, 70045V (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 173, 226-233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 1817-26 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoder, H.

S. A. Nehmeh, Y. E. Erdi, C. C. Ling, K. E. Rosenzweig, H. Schoder, S. M. Larson, H. A. Macapinlac, O. D. Sqire, and J. L. Humm, "Effect of respiratory gating on quantifying PET images of lung cancer," J. Nucl. Med. 43, 876-881 (2002).
[PubMed]

Schwab, R. J.

R. J. Schwab, W. B. Gefter, A. I. Pack, and E. A. Hoffman, "Dynamic imaging of the upper airway during respiration in normal subjects," J. Appl. Physiol. 74, 1504-1514 (1993).
[PubMed]

Schwer, S.

Senéterre, E.

E. Senéterre, F. Paganin, J.M. Bruel, F. B. Michel, and J. Bousquet, "Measurement of the internal size of bronchi using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)," Eur. Respir. J. 7, 596-600 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shamsuzzaman, A. S. M.

A. S. M. Shamsuzzaman et al., "Obstructive sleep apnea: implications for cardiac and vascular disease," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 290, 1906-1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sin, S.

R. Arens, S. Sin, J.M. McDonough, J.M. Palmer, T. Dominguez, H. Meyer, D.M. Wootton, A.I. Pack, "Changes in upper airway size during tidal breathing in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 171, 1298-1304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sinkus, R.

R. Sinkus and P. Bornert, "Motion pattern adapted real-time respiratory gating," Magn. Reson. Med. 41, 148-155 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skatrud, J.

T. Young, M. Palta, J. Dempsey, J. Skatrud, S. Weber, and S. Badr, "The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle aged adults," New Engl. J. Med. 328, 1230-1235 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sladek, K.

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. ?miel, A. Szczeklik, and K. S?adek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soja, J.

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. ?miel, A. Szczeklik, and K. S?adek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sqire, O. D.

S. A. Nehmeh, Y. E. Erdi, C. C. Ling, K. E. Rosenzweig, H. Schoder, S. M. Larson, H. A. Macapinlac, O. D. Sqire, and J. L. Humm, "Effect of respiratory gating on quantifying PET images of lung cancer," J. Nucl. Med. 43, 876-881 (2002).
[PubMed]

Stanford, W.

W. Stanford, J. Galvin, and M. Rooholamini, "Effects of awake tidal breathing, swallowing, nasal breathing, oral breathing and the Muller and Valsalva maneuvers on the dimensions of the upper airway: evaluation by ultrafast computerized tomography," Chest 94, 149-154 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starkschall, G.

G. Starkschall, K. M. Forster, K. Kitamura, A. Cardenas, S. L. Tucker, and C. W. Stevens, "Correlation of gross tumor volume excursion with potential benefits of respiratory gating," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 60, 1291-1297 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, C. W.

G. Starkschall, K. M. Forster, K. Kitamura, A. Cardenas, S. L. Tucker, and C. W. Stevens, "Correlation of gross tumor volume excursion with potential benefits of respiratory gating," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 60, 1291-1297 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, H.

K. Ikeda, M. Ogura, T. Oshima, H. Suzuki,  et al., "Quantitative assessment of the pharyngeal airway by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 110, 183-189 (2001).
[PubMed]

Szczeklik, A.

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. ?miel, A. Szczeklik, and K. S?adek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Szimtenings, M.

F. Wiesmann, M. Szimtenings, A. Frydrychowicz, R. Illinger, A. Hunecke, E. Rommel, S. Neubauer, and A. Haase, "High-resolution MRI with cardiac and respiratory gating allows for accurate in vivo atherosclerotic plaque visualization in the murine aortic arch," Magn. Reson. Med. 50, 69-74 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tay, H. N.

P. P. Hsu, H. N. C. Han, Y. H. Chan, H. N. Tay, R. H. Brett, P. K. S. Lu, and R. L. Blair, "Quantitative computer-assisted digital-imaging upper airway analysis for obstructive sleep apnoea," Clin. Otolaryngol. 29, 522-529 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tucker, S. L.

G. Starkschall, K. M. Forster, K. Kitamura, A. Cardenas, S. L. Tucker, and C. W. Stevens, "Correlation of gross tumor volume excursion with potential benefits of respiratory gating," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 60, 1291-1297 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valk, J.

J. C. Post, A. C. van Rossum, M. B. M. Hofman, J. Valk, and C. A. Visser, "Three-dimensional respiratory-gated MR angiography of coronary arteries: comparison with conventional coronary angiography," Am. J. Roentgeol. 166, 1399-1404 (1996).

van Rossum, A. C.

J. C. Post, A. C. van Rossum, M. B. M. Hofman, J. Valk, and C. A. Visser, "Three-dimensional respiratory-gated MR angiography of coronary arteries: comparison with conventional coronary angiography," Am. J. Roentgeol. 166, 1399-1404 (1996).

Visser, C. A.

J. C. Post, A. C. van Rossum, M. B. M. Hofman, J. Valk, and C. A. Visser, "Three-dimensional respiratory-gated MR angiography of coronary arteries: comparison with conventional coronary angiography," Am. J. Roentgeol. 166, 1399-1404 (1996).

Wadsworth, S. J.

S. J. Wadsworth, M. C. Juniper, M. K. Benson, and F. V. Gleeson, "Fatal complication of an expandable metallic bronchial stent," Brit. J. Radiol. 72, 706-708 (1999).

Walsh, J. H.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Using Optical Coherence Tomography To Improve Diagnostic and Therapeutic Bronchoscopy", Chest (2009) (Epub ahead of print).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Effect of body posture on pharyngeal shape and size in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea," Sleep 31, 1543-1549 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, J. Kirkness, A. Jain, M. S. Leigh, J. Williamson, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Respiratory gating of endoscopic OCT images of the upper airway," 19th Intl. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-19), Proc. SPIE 7004, 70045V (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 173, 226-233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walton, I. D.

Ware, R. S.

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, R. Wootton, R. S. Ware, P. W. Francis, P. V. Zimmerman, and A. B. Chang, "A new method for objective identification and measurement of airway lumen in paediatric flexible videobronchoscopy," Thorax 60, 652-658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using gated optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, Z. Hu, V. P. Nikolski, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, I. R. Efimov, A. and M. Rollins, "4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 736-748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, S.

T. Young, M. Palta, J. Dempsey, J. Skatrud, S. Weber, and S. Badr, "The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle aged adults," New Engl. J. Med. 328, 1230-1235 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, F.

F. Wiesmann, M. Szimtenings, A. Frydrychowicz, R. Illinger, A. Hunecke, E. Rommel, S. Neubauer, and A. Haase, "High-resolution MRI with cardiac and respiratory gating allows for accurate in vivo atherosclerotic plaque visualization in the murine aortic arch," Magn. Reson. Med. 50, 69-74 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williamson, J.

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, J. Kirkness, A. Jain, M. S. Leigh, J. Williamson, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Respiratory gating of endoscopic OCT images of the upper airway," 19th Intl. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-19), Proc. SPIE 7004, 70045V (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, J. P.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Using Optical Coherence Tomography To Improve Diagnostic and Therapeutic Bronchoscopy", Chest (2009) (Epub ahead of print).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway," Opt. Express 16, 17521-17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. L.

Woodard, P. K.

D. Li, S. Kaushikkar, E. M. Haacke, P. K. Woodard, P. J. Dhawale, R. M. Kroeker, G. Laub, Y. Kuginuki, and F. R. Gutierrez, "Coronary arteries: three-dimensional MR imaging with retrospective respiratory gating," Radiology 201, 857-863 (1996).
[PubMed]

Wootton, D.M.

R. Arens, S. Sin, J.M. McDonough, J.M. Palmer, T. Dominguez, H. Meyer, D.M. Wootton, A.I. Pack, "Changes in upper airway size during tidal breathing in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 171, 1298-1304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wootton, R.

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, R. Wootton, R. S. Ware, P. W. Francis, P. V. Zimmerman, and A. B. Chang, "A new method for objective identification and measurement of airway lumen in paediatric flexible videobronchoscopy," Thorax 60, 652-658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

Yorke, E.

G. S. Mageras and E. Yorke, "Deep inspiration breath hold and respiratory gating strategies for reducing organ motion in radiation treatment," Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 14, 65-75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, T.

T. Young, M. Palta, J. Dempsey, J. Skatrud, S. Weber, and S. Badr, "The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle aged adults," New Engl. J. Med. 328, 1230-1235 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zamel, N.

I. G. Brown, N. Zamel, and V. Hoffstein, "Pharyngeal cross-sectional area in normal men and women," J. Appl. Physiol. 61, 890-895 (1986).
[PubMed]

Zimmerman, P. V.

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, R. Wootton, R. S. Ware, P. W. Francis, P. V. Zimmerman, and A. B. Chang, "A new method for objective identification and measurement of airway lumen in paediatric flexible videobronchoscopy," Thorax 60, 652-658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zvyagin, A. V.

Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care (2)

R. Arens, S. Sin, J.M. McDonough, J.M. Palmer, T. Dominguez, H. Meyer, D.M. Wootton, A.I. Pack, "Changes in upper airway size during tidal breathing in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 171, 1298-1304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 173, 226-233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Roentgeol. (2)

R. L. Ehman, M. T. McNamara, M. Pallack, H. Hricak, and C. B. Higgins, "Magnetic resonance imaging with respiratory gating: techniques and advantages," Am. J. Roentgeol. 143, 1175-1182 (1984).

J. C. Post, A. C. van Rossum, M. B. M. Hofman, J. Valk, and C. A. Visser, "Three-dimensional respiratory-gated MR angiography of coronary arteries: comparison with conventional coronary angiography," Am. J. Roentgeol. 166, 1399-1404 (1996).

Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. (1)

K. Ikeda, M. Ogura, T. Oshima, H. Suzuki,  et al., "Quantitative assessment of the pharyngeal airway by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 110, 183-189 (2001).
[PubMed]

Brit. J. Radiol. (1)

S. J. Wadsworth, M. C. Juniper, M. K. Benson, and F. V. Gleeson, "Fatal complication of an expandable metallic bronchial stent," Brit. J. Radiol. 72, 706-708 (1999).

Chest (2)

W. Stanford, J. Galvin, and M. Rooholamini, "Effects of awake tidal breathing, swallowing, nasal breathing, oral breathing and the Muller and Valsalva maneuvers on the dimensions of the upper airway: evaluation by ultrafast computerized tomography," Chest 94, 149-154 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Using Optical Coherence Tomography To Improve Diagnostic and Therapeutic Bronchoscopy", Chest (2009) (Epub ahead of print).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Otolaryngol. (1)

P. P. Hsu, H. N. C. Han, Y. H. Chan, H. N. Tay, R. H. Brett, P. K. S. Lu, and R. L. Blair, "Quantitative computer-assisted digital-imaging upper airway analysis for obstructive sleep apnoea," Clin. Otolaryngol. 29, 522-529 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Radiol. (1)

G. R. Ferretti, M. Kocier, O. Calaque, F. Arbib, C. Righini, M. Coulomb, and C. Pison, "Follow-up after stent insertion in the tracheobronchial tree: role of helical computed tomography in comparison with fiberoptic bronchoscopy," Eur. Radiol. 13, 1172-1178 (2003).
[PubMed]

Eur. Respir. J. (2)

E. Senéterre, F. Paganin, J.M. Bruel, F. B. Michel, and J. Bousquet, "Measurement of the internal size of bronchi using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)," Eur. Respir. J. 7, 596-600 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Ciscar, G. Juan, V. Martinez, M. Ramon, T. Lloret, J. Minguez, M. Armengot, J. Marin, and J. Basterra, "Magnetic resonance imaging of the pharynx in OSA patients and healthy subjects," Eur. Respir. J. 17, 79-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1)

G. Starkschall, K. M. Forster, K. Kitamura, A. Cardenas, S. L. Tucker, and C. W. Stevens, "Correlation of gross tumor volume excursion with potential benefits of respiratory gating," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 60, 1291-1297 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Med. Assoc. (1)

A. S. M. Shamsuzzaman et al., "Obstructive sleep apnea: implications for cardiac and vascular disease," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 290, 1906-1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Amer. Med. Assoc. (1)

F. Javier Nieto et al., "Association of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep apnea, and hypertension in a large community-based study," J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 283, 1829-1836 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Physiol. (2)

R. J. Schwab, W. B. Gefter, A. I. Pack, and E. A. Hoffman, "Dynamic imaging of the upper airway during respiration in normal subjects," J. Appl. Physiol. 74, 1504-1514 (1993).
[PubMed]

I. G. Brown, N. Zamel, and V. Hoffstein, "Pharyngeal cross-sectional area in normal men and women," J. Appl. Physiol. 61, 890-895 (1986).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using gated optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nucl. Cardiol. (1)

K. Cho, S. Kumiata, S. Okada, and T. Kumazaki, "Development of respiratory gated myocardial SPECT system," J. Nucl. Cardiol. 6, 20-28 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nucl. Med. (2)

S. A. Nehmeh, Y. E. Erdi, C. C. Ling, K. E. Rosenzweig, H. Schoder, S. M. Larson, H. A. Macapinlac, O. D. Sqire, and J. L. Humm, "Effect of respiratory gating on quantifying PET images of lung cancer," J. Nucl. Med. 43, 876-881 (2002).
[PubMed]

L. Boucher, S. Rodrigue, R. Lecomte, and F. Benard, "Respiratory gating for 3-dimensional PET of the thorax: feasibility and initial results," J. Nucl. Med. 45, 214-219 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. Sleep Res. (1)

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magn. Reson. Med. (2)

R. Sinkus and P. Bornert, "Motion pattern adapted real-time respiratory gating," Magn. Reson. Med. 41, 148-155 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wiesmann, M. Szimtenings, A. Frydrychowicz, R. Illinger, A. Hunecke, E. Rommel, S. Neubauer, and A. Haase, "High-resolution MRI with cardiac and respiratory gating allows for accurate in vivo atherosclerotic plaque visualization in the murine aortic arch," Magn. Reson. Med. 50, 69-74 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New Engl. J. Med. (1)

T. Young, M. Palta, J. Dempsey, J. Skatrud, S. Weber, and S. Badr, "The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle aged adults," New Engl. J. Med. 328, 1230-1235 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, J. Kirkness, A. Jain, M. S. Leigh, J. Williamson, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Respiratory gating of endoscopic OCT images of the upper airway," 19th Intl. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-19), Proc. SPIE 7004, 70045V (2008).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (2)

C. E. Lewis, F. S. Prato, D. J. Drost, and R. L. Nicholson, "Comparison of respiratory triggering and gating techniques for the removal of respiratory artifacts in MR imaging," Radiology 160, 803-810 (1986).
[PubMed]

D. Li, S. Kaushikkar, E. M. Haacke, P. K. Woodard, P. J. Dhawale, R. M. Kroeker, G. Laub, Y. Kuginuki, and F. R. Gutierrez, "Coronary arteries: three-dimensional MR imaging with retrospective respiratory gating," Radiology 201, 857-863 (1996).
[PubMed]

Respiration (1)

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. ?miel, A. Szczeklik, and K. S?adek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semin. Radiat. Oncol. (1)

G. S. Mageras and E. Yorke, "Deep inspiration breath hold and respiratory gating strategies for reducing organ motion in radiation treatment," Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 14, 65-75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sleep (1)

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Effect of body posture on pharyngeal shape and size in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea," Sleep 31, 1543-1549 (2008).
[PubMed]

Thorax (1)

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, R. Wootton, R. S. Ware, P. W. Francis, P. V. Zimmerman, and A. B. Chang, "A new method for objective identification and measurement of airway lumen in paediatric flexible videobronchoscopy," Thorax 60, 652-658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (6)

» Media 1: AVI (130 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (254 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (505 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (83 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (177 KB)     
» Media 6: AVI (399 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Error measure, E, in mm plotted against number of gates per respiratory cycle.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Gated images of an oropharynx acquired at a medium rate of breathing with deep breaths. 1st row: 1 gate; 2nd row: 2 gates (Media 1); 3rd row: 4 gates (Media 2). 4th row: Summed plethysmography signal over two respiratory cycles, and gate positions for 4 gates. An animation is also available showing 8 gates (Media 3).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Gated images of a velopharynx acquired at a medium rate of breathing with inspiratory threshold-loaded breathing. 1st row: 1 gate; 2nd row: 2 gates (Media 4); 3rd row: 4 gates (Media 5). 4th row: Summed plethysmography signal over two respiratory cycles, and gate positions for 4 gates. An animation is also available showing 8 gates (Media 6).

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E = 1 m i = 1 m z i max z ̂ θ ( i ) max

Metrics