Abstract

We introduce a novel sensor scheme combining nano-photonics and nano-fluidics on a single platform through the use of free-standing photonic crystals. By harnessing nano-scale openings, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that both fluidics and light can be manipulated at sub-wavelength scales. Compared to the conventional fluidic channels, we actively steer the convective flow through the nanohole openings for effective delivery of the analytes to the sensor surface. We apply our method to detect refractive index changes in aqueous solutions. Bulk measurements indicate that active delivery of the convective flow results in better sensitivities. The sensitivity of the sensor reaches 510 nm/RIU for resonance located around 850 nm with a line-width of ~10 nm in solution. Experimental results are matched very well with numerical simulations. We also show that cross-polarization measurements can be employed to further improve the detection limit by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Raiteria, M. Grattarola, and R. Berge, “Micromechanics senses biomolecules,” Materials Today 5(1), 22–29 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Erickson, S. Manda, H. J. Allen, Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale.” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1–2), 33–52 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. S. Waggoner and H. G. Craighead, “Micro- and nanomechanical sensors for environmental, chemical, and biological detection,” Lab Chip, Volume 7(10), 1238–1255 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nature Photon. 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: A review,” Analytica Chimica Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. E. Sheehan and L. J. Whitman, “Detection limits for nanoscale biosensors,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 803–807 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Bishop, S. Blair, and A. Chagovetz, “Convective flow effects on DNA biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2192–2198 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. M. Squires, R. J. Messinger, and S. R. Manalis, “Making it stick: convection, reaction and diffusion in surface-based biosensors,” Nature Biotechnol. 26(4), 417–426 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. P. Golden, T. M. Floyd-Smith, D. R. Mott, and F. S. Ligler, “Target delivery in a microfluidic immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11Issue 11), 2763–2767 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. W. Boyd and J. E. Heebner, “Sensitive disk resonator photonic biosensor,” Applied Optics, Volume 40(31Issue 31), 5742–5747 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: The Long Range Distance Dependence of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Noble Metal Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(1), 109–116 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors.” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7–8), 920–930 (2004).
  14. A. D. Leebeeck, L. K. Swaroop Kumar, V. D. Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-Chip Surface-Based Detection with Nanohole Arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, “Ultracompact biochemical sensor built with two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1093–1095 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Altug and J. Vuckovic, “Polarization control and sensing with two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 982 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Skivesen, A. Têtu, M. Kristensen, J. Kjems, L. H. Frandsen, and P. I. Borel, “Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3169–3176 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Shi, P. Pottier, Y.-A. Peter, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Guided-mode resonance photonic crystal slab sensors based on bead monolayer geometry,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17962–17971 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).
  21. D. Nedelkov and R. W. Nelson, “Surface plasmon resonance mass spectrometry: recent progress and outlooks,” Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 21(7Issue 7), 301–305 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Mandal and D. Erickson, “Nanoscale optofluidic sensor arrays,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1623–1631 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities.” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Chana, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Nanoscale silicon microcavities for biosensing.” Mat. Scie. Engin. C 15(1–2), 277–282 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sensors 8(3), 274–280 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), (1528–1530).

2009 (1)

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sensors 8(3), 274–280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Squires, R. J. Messinger, and S. R. Manalis, “Making it stick: convection, reaction and diffusion in surface-based biosensors,” Nature Biotechnol. 26(4), 417–426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, “Nanoscale optofluidic sensor arrays,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1623–1631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Shi, P. Pottier, Y.-A. Peter, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Guided-mode resonance photonic crystal slab sensors based on bead monolayer geometry,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17962–17971 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (10)

N. Skivesen, A. Têtu, M. Kristensen, J. Kjems, L. H. Frandsen, and P. I. Borel, “Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3169–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Golden, T. M. Floyd-Smith, D. R. Mott, and F. S. Ligler, “Target delivery in a microfluidic immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11Issue 11), 2763–2767 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Erickson, S. Manda, H. J. Allen, Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale.” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1–2), 33–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Waggoner and H. G. Craighead, “Micro- and nanomechanical sensors for environmental, chemical, and biological detection,” Lab Chip, Volume 7(10), 1238–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nature Photon. 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: A review,” Analytica Chimica Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities.” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Bishop, S. Blair, and A. Chagovetz, “Convective flow effects on DNA biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2192–2198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Leebeeck, L. K. Swaroop Kumar, V. D. Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-Chip Surface-Based Detection with Nanohole Arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, “Ultracompact biochemical sensor built with two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1093–1095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: The Long Range Distance Dependence of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Noble Metal Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(1), 109–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors.” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7–8), 920–930 (2004).

2003 (1)

D. Nedelkov and R. W. Nelson, “Surface plasmon resonance mass spectrometry: recent progress and outlooks,” Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 21(7Issue 7), 301–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. Raiteria, M. Grattarola, and R. Berge, “Micromechanics senses biomolecules,” Materials Today 5(1), 22–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. W. Boyd and J. E. Heebner, “Sensitive disk resonator photonic biosensor,” Applied Optics, Volume 40(31Issue 31), 5742–5747 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Chana, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Nanoscale silicon microcavities for biosensing.” Mat. Scie. Engin. C 15(1–2), 277–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allen, H. J.

D. Erickson, S. Manda, H. J. Allen, Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale.” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1–2), 33–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic, “Polarization control and sensing with two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 982 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities.” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Artar, A.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berge, R.

R. Raiteria, M. Grattarola, and R. Berge, “Micromechanics senses biomolecules,” Materials Today 5(1), 22–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, J.

J. Bishop, S. Blair, and A. Chagovetz, “Convective flow effects on DNA biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2192–2198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blair, S.

J. Bishop, S. Blair, and A. Chagovetz, “Convective flow effects on DNA biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2192–2198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Block, I. D.

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sensors 8(3), 274–280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd and J. E. Heebner, “Sensitive disk resonator photonic biosensor,” Applied Optics, Volume 40(31Issue 31), 5742–5747 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A. G.

A. D. Leebeeck, L. K. Swaroop Kumar, V. D. Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-Chip Surface-Based Detection with Nanohole Arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).

Chagovetz, A.

J. Bishop, S. Blair, and A. Chagovetz, “Convective flow effects on DNA biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2192–2198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chana, S.

S. Chana, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Nanoscale silicon microcavities for biosensing.” Mat. Scie. Engin. C 15(1–2), 277–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

Cordovez, B.

D. Erickson, S. Manda, H. J. Allen, Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale.” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1–2), 33–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

P. S. Waggoner and H. G. Craighead, “Micro- and nanomechanical sensors for environmental, chemical, and biological detection,” Lab Chip, Volume 7(10), 1238–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sensors 8(3), 274–280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nature Photon. 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nature Photon. 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, “Nanoscale optofluidic sensor arrays,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1623–1631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Erickson, S. Manda, H. J. Allen, Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale.” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1–2), 33–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), (1528–1530).

Fan, S.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

S. Chana, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Nanoscale silicon microcavities for biosensing.” Mat. Scie. Engin. C 15(1–2), 277–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities.” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Floyd-Smith, T. M.

J. P. Golden, T. M. Floyd-Smith, D. R. Mott, and F. S. Ligler, “Target delivery in a microfluidic immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11Issue 11), 2763–2767 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities.” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ganesh, N.

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sensors 8(3), 274–280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Girolami, G.

Golden, J. P.

J. P. Golden, T. M. Floyd-Smith, D. R. Mott, and F. S. Ligler, “Target delivery in a microfluidic immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11Issue 11), 2763–2767 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

A. D. Leebeeck, L. K. Swaroop Kumar, V. D. Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-Chip Surface-Based Detection with Nanohole Arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grattarola, M.

R. Raiteria, M. Grattarola, and R. Berge, “Micromechanics senses biomolecules,” Materials Today 5(1), 22–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grot, A.

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors.” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7–8), 920–930 (2004).

A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: The Long Range Distance Dependence of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Noble Metal Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(1), 109–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).

Heebner, J. E.

R. W. Boyd and J. E. Heebner, “Sensitive disk resonator photonic biosensor,” Applied Optics, Volume 40(31Issue 31), 5742–5747 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huskens, J.

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: A review,” Analytica Chimica Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Katz, E.

A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kjems, J.

Kristensen, M.

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities.” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuswandi, B.

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: A review,” Analytica Chimica Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lange, V. D.

A. D. Leebeeck, L. K. Swaroop Kumar, V. D. Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-Chip Surface-Based Detection with Nanohole Arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. M.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).

Leebeeck, A. D.

A. D. Leebeeck, L. K. Swaroop Kumar, V. D. Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-Chip Surface-Based Detection with Nanohole Arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Levi, O.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).

Li, Y.

S. Chana, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Nanoscale silicon microcavities for biosensing.” Mat. Scie. Engin. C 15(1–2), 277–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ligler, F. S.

J. P. Golden, T. M. Floyd-Smith, D. R. Mott, and F. S. Ligler, “Target delivery in a microfluidic immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11Issue 11), 2763–2767 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lousse, V.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).

Lu, M.

I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, “A sensitivity model for predicting photonic crystal biosensor performance,” IEEE Sensors 8(3), 274–280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manalis, S. R.

T. M. Squires, R. J. Messinger, and S. R. Manalis, “Making it stick: convection, reaction and diffusion in surface-based biosensors,” Nature Biotechnol. 26(4), 417–426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manda, S.

D. Erickson, S. Manda, H. J. Allen, Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale.” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1–2), 33–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mandal, S.

Messinger, R. J.

T. M. Squires, R. J. Messinger, and S. R. Manalis, “Making it stick: convection, reaction and diffusion in surface-based biosensors,” Nature Biotechnol. 26(4), 417–426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B. L.

S. Chana, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Nanoscale silicon microcavities for biosensing.” Mat. Scie. Engin. C 15(1–2), 277–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mirkarimi, L. W.

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nature Photon. 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mott, D. R.

J. P. Golden, T. M. Floyd-Smith, D. R. Mott, and F. S. Ligler, “Target delivery in a microfluidic immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11Issue 11), 2763–2767 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nedelkov, D.

D. Nedelkov and R. W. Nelson, “Surface plasmon resonance mass spectrometry: recent progress and outlooks,” Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 21(7Issue 7), 301–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, R. W.

D. Nedelkov and R. W. Nelson, “Surface plasmon resonance mass spectrometry: recent progress and outlooks,” Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 21(7Issue 7), 301–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nuriman, J.

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: A review,” Analytica Chimica Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), (1528–1530).

Peter, Y.-A.

Pottier, P.

Raiteria, R.

R. Raiteria, M. Grattarola, and R. Berge, “Micromechanics senses biomolecules,” Materials Today 5(1), 22–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

S. Chana, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Nanoscale silicon microcavities for biosensing.” Mat. Scie. Engin. C 15(1–2), 277–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: The Long Range Distance Dependence of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Noble Metal Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(1), 109–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, P. E.

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A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities.” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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