Abstract

Retinal layer thickness, evaluated as a function of spatial position from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images is an important diagnostics marker for many retinal diseases. However, due to factors such as speckle noise, low image contrast, irregularly shaped morphological features such as retinal detachments, macular holes, and drusen, accurate segmentation of individual retinal layers is difficult. To address this issue, a computer method for retinal layer segmentation from OCT images is presented. An efficient two-step kernel-based optimization scheme is employed to first identify the approximate locations of the individual layers, which are then refined to obtain accurate segmentation results for the individual layers. The performance of the algorithm was tested on a set of retinal images acquired in-vivo from healthy and diseased rodent models with a high speed, high resolution OCT system. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides accurate segmentation for OCT images affected by speckle noise, even in sub-optimal conditions of low image contrast and presence of irregularly shaped structural features in the OCT images.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A.F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. Schuman, and C. Hitzenberger, “Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology: introduction,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3978–3979 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-5-3978.
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.
  5. S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, “Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373–379 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. Fernández, H. Salinas, and C. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-25-10200.
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. Ishikawa, D. Stein, Ga. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. Fujimoto, and J. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197–203 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase. org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15659.
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13, 9480–9491 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-23-9480.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. the SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).
  14. M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract. cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410.
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Hee, D. Huang, E. Swanson, and J. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 9(6), 903–908 (1992), http://www. opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-6-903.
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: active contour models,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 1(4), 321–331 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  19. V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, “Geodesic active contours,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 22(1), 61–97 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Mishra, P. Fieguth, and D. Clausi, “Accurate boundary localization using dynamic programming on snake,” Proc. Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision, 261–268 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Mishra, P. Fieguth, and D. Clausi, “Robust snake convergence based on dynamic programming,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 1092–1095 (2008).
  22. P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629–639 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. Puvanathasan, P. Forbes, Z. Ren, D. Malchow, S. Boyd, and K. Bizheva, “High-speed, high-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system for retinal imaging in the 1060 nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2479–2481 (2008).
    [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. Schuman, and C. Hitzenberger, “Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology: introduction,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3978–3979 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-5-3978.
[Crossref]

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, “Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373–379 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase. org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15659.
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

A. Mishra, P. Fieguth, and D. Clausi, “Robust snake convergence based on dynamic programming,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 1092–1095 (2008).

M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract. cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410.
[Crossref]

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197–203 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Puvanathasan, P. Forbes, Z. Ren, D. Malchow, S. Boyd, and K. Bizheva, “High-speed, high-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system for retinal imaging in the 1060 nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2479–2481 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. the SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

2005 (3)

H. Ishikawa, D. Stein, Ga. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. Fujimoto, and J. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Fernández, H. Salinas, and C. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-25-10200.
[Crossref]

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13, 9480–9491 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-23-9480.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, “Geodesic active contours,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 22(1), 61–97 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A.F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. Hee, D. Huang, E. Swanson, and J. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 9(6), 903–908 (1992), http://www. opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-6-903.
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629–639 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: active contour models,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 1(4), 321–331 (1988).
[Crossref]

Abràmoff, M.

M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. the SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

Ahlers, C.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract. cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410.
[Crossref]

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197–203 (2008).
[Crossref]

Akkin, T.

Apostolopoulos, M.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, “Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373–379 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baumann, B.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract. cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410.
[Crossref]

Beaton, S.

H. Ishikawa, D. Stein, Ga. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. Fujimoto, and J. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bizheva, K.

Boyd, S.

Caselles, V.

V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, “Geodesic active contours,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 22(1), 61–97 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cense, B.

Chan, R. C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Cheung, C.

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

Clausi, D.

A. Mishra, P. Fieguth, and D. Clausi, “Robust snake convergence based on dynamic programming,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 1092–1095 (2008).

A. Mishra, P. Fieguth, and D. Clausi, “Accurate boundary localization using dynamic programming on snake,” Proc. Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision, 261–268 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dastmalchi, S.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197–203 (2008).
[Crossref]

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

J. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. Schuman, and C. Hitzenberger, “Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology: introduction,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3978–3979 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-5-3978.
[Crossref]

Fabritius, T.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase. org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15659.
[Crossref]

Fan, N.

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

Fercher, A.F.

A.F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fernández, D.

D. Fernández, H. Salinas, and C. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-25-10200.
[Crossref]

Fieguth, P.

A. Mishra, P. Fieguth, and D. Clausi, “Robust snake convergence based on dynamic programming,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 1092–1095 (2008).

A. Mishra, P. Fieguth, and D. Clausi, “Accurate boundary localization using dynamic programming on snake,” Proc. Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision, 261–268 (2008).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forbes, P.

Fujimoto, J.

J. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. Schuman, and C. Hitzenberger, “Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology: introduction,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3978–3979 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-5-3978.
[Crossref]

H. Ishikawa, D. Stein, Ga. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. Fujimoto, and J. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Hee, D. Huang, E. Swanson, and J. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 9(6), 903–908 (1992), http://www. opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-6-903.
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[Crossref]

Garvin, M.

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[Crossref]

Geitzenauer, W.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract. cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410.
[Crossref]

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197–203 (2008).
[Crossref]

Georgopoulos, G.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, “Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373–379 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract. cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410.
[Crossref]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haeker, M.

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. the SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

Hee, M.

M. Hee, D. Huang, E. Swanson, and J. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 9(6), 903–908 (1992), http://www. opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-6-903.
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

J. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. Schuman, and C. Hitzenberger, “Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology: introduction,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3978–3979 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-5-3978.
[Crossref]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract. cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410.
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

M. Hee, D. Huang, E. Swanson, and J. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 9(6), 903–908 (1992), http://www. opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-6-903.
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

H. Ishikawa, D. Stein, Ga. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. Fujimoto, and J. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[Crossref]

Joo, C.

Kaluzny, J. J.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kardon, R.

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. the SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

Kass, M.

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: active contour models,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 1(4), 321–331 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kimmel, R.

V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, “Geodesic active contours,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 22(1), 61–97 (1997).
[Crossref]

Koutsandrea, C.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, “Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373–379 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lam, D.

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

Leung, C.

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

Li, H.

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

Makita, S.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase. org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15659.
[Crossref]

Malchow, D.

Malik, J.

P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629–639 (1990).
[Crossref]

Michels, S.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract. cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410.
[Crossref]

Mishra, A.

A. Mishra, P. Fieguth, and D. Clausi, “Robust snake convergence based on dynamic programming,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 1092–1095 (2008).

A. Mishra, P. Fieguth, and D. Clausi, “Accurate boundary localization using dynamic programming on snake,” Proc. Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision, 261–268 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miura, M.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase. org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15659.
[Crossref]

Moschos, M.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, “Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373–379 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Myllylä, R.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase. org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15659.
[Crossref]

Niemeijer, M.

M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[Crossref]

Pang, C.

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

Papaconstantinou, D.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, “Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373–379 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Perona, P.

P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629–639 (1990).
[Crossref]

Pircher, M.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract. cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410.
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C.

D. Fernández, H. Salinas, and C. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-25-10200.
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puvanathasan, P.

Qiu, K.

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

Ren, Z.

Russell, S.

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Salinas, H.

D. Fernández, H. Salinas, and C. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-25-10200.
[Crossref]

Sapiro, G.

V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, “Geodesic active contours,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 22(1), 61–97 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract. cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410.
[Crossref]

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197–203 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, J.

J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schuman, J.

J. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. Schuman, and C. Hitzenberger, “Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology: introduction,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3978–3979 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-5-3978.
[Crossref]

H. Ishikawa, D. Stein, Ga. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. Fujimoto, and J. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, V. A.

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. the SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

Sikorski, B.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[Crossref]

Simader, C.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197–203 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sonka, M.

M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. the SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

Srinivasan, V. J.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stein, D.

H. Ishikawa, D. Stein, Ga. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. Fujimoto, and J. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stetson, P.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197–203 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stinson, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stock, G.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197–203 (2008).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E.

M. Hee, D. Huang, E. Swanson, and J. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 9(6), 903–908 (1992), http://www. opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-6-903.
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[Crossref]

Szkulmowski, M.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[Crossref]

Taliantzis, S.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, “Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373–379 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terzopoulos, D.

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: active contour models,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 1(4), 321–331 (1988).
[Crossref]

Tse, R.

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

van Ginneken, B.

M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[Crossref]

Weinreb, R.

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

Witkin, A.

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: active contour models,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 1(4), 321–331 (1988).
[Crossref]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wollstein, Ga.

H. Ishikawa, D. Stein, Ga. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. Fujimoto, and J. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. the SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

Xiang, S.

J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xu, G.

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

Yasuno, Y.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase. org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15659.
[Crossref]

Yung, K.

J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197–203 (2008).
[Crossref]

Clin. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, “Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373–379 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629–639 (1990).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Comput. Vision (2)

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: active contour models,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 1(4), 321–331 (1988).
[Crossref]

V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, “Geodesic active contours,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 22(1), 61–97 (1997).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2)

H. Ishikawa, D. Stein, Ga. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. Fujimoto, and J. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA),” Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/ iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

A.F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. (1)

M. Hee, D. Huang, E. Swanson, and J. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 9(6), 903–908 (1992), http://www. opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-6-903.
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract. cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410.
[Crossref]

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase. org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15659.
[Crossref]

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13, 9480–9491 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-23-9480.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fernández, H. Salinas, and C. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-25-10200.
[Crossref]

J. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. Schuman, and C. Hitzenberger, “Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology: introduction,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3978–3979 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-5-3978.
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (1)

A. Mishra, P. Fieguth, and D. Clausi, “Robust snake convergence based on dynamic programming,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 1092–1095 (2008).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. Abràmoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[Crossref]

Proc. the SPIE: Medical Imaging (1)

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. the SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Mishra, P. Fieguth, and D. Clausi, “Accurate boundary localization using dynamic programming on snake,” Proc. Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision, 261–268 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Demonstration of the initial layer local approximation step on an OCT image. (a) The sparse trellis (red lines with green nodes) is overlayed on the OCT image. A possible solution for a retinal layer is shown in blue. (b) The approximate locations of the retinal layers (cyan lines) overlayed on the OCT image.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Demonstration of the precise layer boundary optimization step on an OCT image. The dense trellis (red lines with green nodes) for a particular retinal layer is overlayed on the OCT image. The approximate location of the retinal layer used as an initial condition for the optimization is shown in cyan, while a possible solution for a retinal layer is shown in blue.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

OCT cross-sectional tomograms (1000×250 pixels) of a healthy rat retina acquired in-vivo. Fig. 3(a) shows the raw (unprocessed) image, with a large blood vessel locate on the retinal surface (red arrow) and cross-sections of tiny capillaries imbedded in the inner and outer plexiform layers of the retina visible as black circular features (yellow arrows). Fig. 3(c) and Fig. 3(d) show 4x magnification of the region marked with the green box in Fig. 3(b), Fig. 3(e), and Fig. 3(f) show 4x magnification of the region marked with the yellow box in Fig. 3(b), containing cross-sections of retinal capillaries.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

OCT cross-sectional tomograms (1000×250 pixels) of a diseased rat retina acquired in-vivo. Fig. 4(a) shows the original, unprocessed image, while the segmented image is shown in Fig. 4(b). Red arrow points at clusters of PR and RPE debris.

Equations (16)

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E = s = 0 1 ( α ( v ( s ) ) 2 + ( β v ( s ) ) 2 Internal energy λ I ( v ( s ) ) External energy ) ds ,
E = s = 0 1 ( α ( v ( s ) ) 2 + λ ψ ( I ( v ( s ) ) ) 2 ) ds ,
ψ ( x ) = 1 1 + τ x 2 .
v = arg min v ( s = 0 1 ψ ( I ( v ( s ) ) ) v ( s ) ds ) .
v = arg min v 1 , v 2 v n ( Σ i = 1 q ψ i s i ) ,
v = { v 1 , v 2 , · · · , v n } where n = U Q .
v 1 * = arg min v ( s i ψ i ) ,
v 2 * = arg min v v 1 * ( s i ψ i ) ,
v 3 * = arg min v v 1 * , v 2 * ( s i ψ i ) ,
,
v z * = arg min v v 1 * , v 2 * , · · · , v z 1 * ( s i Ψ i ) .
V = { V ij } , { x ij , y ij } , i [ 1 , q ] , j [ 1 , u ] .
v m ( s ) = arg max j [ 1 , u ] ( p ( I | V ij ) ) , i [ 1 , q ] ,
p ( I | V ij ) = 1 Z ext exp ( ψ ( V ij ) ) ,
v * ( s ) = κ κ h ( k ) v m ( s k ) d k ,
h ( k ) = 1 z s exp ( ( v m ( s ) v m s k 2 σ s ) 2 ) 1 z t exp ( ( ψ ( v m ( s ) ) ψ ( v m ( s k ) ) 2 σ t ) 2 ) .

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