Abstract

Phase variance-based motion contrast imaging is demonstrated using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system for the in vivo human retina. This contrast technique spatially identifies locations of motion within the retina primarily associated with vasculature. Histogram-based noise analysis of the motion contrast images was used to reduce the motion noise created by transverse eye motion. En face summation images created from the 3D motion contrast data are presented with segmentation of selected retinal layers to provide non-invasive vascular visualization comparable to currently used invasive angiographic imaging. This motion contrast technique has demonstrated the ability to visualize resolution-limited vasculature independent of vessel orientation and flow velocity.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-15-11438 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, C. Readhead, D. M. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Phase-contrast OCT imaging of transverse flows in the mouse retina and choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5055–5059 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. Fingler, D. Schwartz, C. Yang, and S. E. Fraser, “Mobility and transverse flow visualization using phase variance contrast with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12636–12653 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-12636 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-um swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6121–6139 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6121 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1999

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, “Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective study,” Ophthalmology 98(7), 1139–1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

1989

B. K. Lipson and L. A. Yannuzzi, “Complications of intravenous fluorescein injections,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 29(3), 200–205 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Alam, S.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, Ch. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

Bajraszewski, T.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Bressler, N. M.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, “Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective study,” Ophthalmology 98(7), 1139–1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Bressler, S. B.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, “Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective study,” Ophthalmology 98(7), 1139–1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z. P.

Choi, S. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-4084 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, Ch. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J. W.

Fercher, A. F.

Fine, S. L.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, “Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective study,” Ophthalmology 98(7), 1139–1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Fingler, J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuller, A. R.

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-4084 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerth, Ch.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, Ch. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamann, B.

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-4084 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, Y.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kennedy, K. M.

Ko, T.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10584 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwiterovich, K. A.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, “Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective study,” Ophthalmology 98(7), 1139–1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-8-889 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, B. K.

B. K. Lipson and L. A. Yannuzzi, “Complications of intravenous fluorescein injections,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 29(3), 200–205 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

Maguire, M. G.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, “Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective study,” Ophthalmology 98(7), 1139–1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Makita, S.

Miura, M.

Morgner, U.

Morse, L.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, Ch. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Murphy, R. P.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, “Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective study,” Ophthalmology 98(7), 1139–1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Nassif, N. A.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Park, S. S.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, Ch. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Readhead, C.

J. Fingler, C. Readhead, D. M. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Phase-contrast OCT imaging of transverse flows in the mouse retina and choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5055–5059 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Saxer, C.

Schachat, A. P.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, “Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective study,” Ophthalmology 98(7), 1139–1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

Schuman, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, D.

Schwartz, D. M.

J. Fingler, C. Readhead, D. M. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Phase-contrast OCT imaging of transverse flows in the mouse retina and choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5055–5059 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q. M.

Srinivasan, V.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G. J.

Vakoc, B.

Wang, R. K.

Werner, J. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-4084 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, Ch. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiley, D. F.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10584 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, S. H.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C.

Yang, C. H.

Yannuzzi, L. A.

B. K. Lipson and L. A. Yannuzzi, “Complications of intravenous fluorescein injections,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 29(3), 200–205 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-4084 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, Ch. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3116 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, Y. H.

Expert Rev. Ophthalmol.

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Int. Ophthalmol. Clin.

B. K. Lipson and L. A. Yannuzzi, “Complications of intravenous fluorescein injections,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 29(3), 200–205 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

J. Fingler, C. Readhead, D. M. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Phase-contrast OCT imaging of transverse flows in the mouse retina and choroid,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5055–5059 (2008).
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J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, “Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective study,” Ophthalmology 98(7), 1139–1142 (1991).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, Ch. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology 113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3116 .
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Y. K. Tao, K. M. Kennedy, and J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-resolved 3D retinal microvessel imaging using single-pass flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4177–4188 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-4177 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10584 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-15-11438 .
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S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-17-7821 .
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J. Fingler, D. Schwartz, C. Yang, and S. E. Fraser, “Mobility and transverse flow visualization using phase variance contrast with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12636–12653 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-12636 .
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B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 microm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-3931 .
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S. Yazdanfar, C. H. Yang, M. V. Sarunic, and J. A. Izatt, “Frequency estimation precision in Doppler optical coherence tomography using the Cramer-Rao lower bound,” Opt. Express 13(2), 410–416 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-410 .
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B. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5483–5493 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-14-5483 .
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Y. Yasuno, Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-um swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6121–6139 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6121 .
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N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12(3), 367–376 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367 .
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R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-8-889 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-4084 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and Z. P. Chen, “In vivo blood flow imaging by a swept laser source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7449–7457 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-19-7449 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flowchart of OCT motion contrast data processing

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example images from selected stages in the motion contrast data processing for OCT data acquired across 1 mm of retina. Initial acquired OCT data presents in the form of a series of (a) intensity and (b) phase images. (c) Averaged intensity image created from 10 sequential B-scans. Phase changes calculated from two sequential B-scans (d) before and (e) after bulk motion removal. (f) Phase variance image calculated from 10 sequential B-scan phase images, with thresholds applied based on the average intensity image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

1 mm x 0.5 mm OCT retinal summation images. (a) Intensity summation image summed over entire image depth, analogous to fundus images. (b) Motion contrast summation image summed over the entire image depth. Motion contrast data are separated into summation images over the (c) retinal and (d) choroidal depth regions. Microvasculature is clearly observed within the retinal motion contrast summation image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

1 mm x 0.5 mm OCT summation images, using the same data presented in Fig. 2. (a) Intensity and (b) motion contrast B-scans demonstrate the depth regions (yellow boxes) which are summed to create the individual vascular layer images. The motion contrast summation images of 16 μm thickness located at depths of approximately (c) 60 μm, (d) 100 μm, and (e) 150 μm below the anterior surface of the retina. (f) Composite vascular image composed of the average of images (c) and (d) (in green) overlaid with image (e) (in red). Specifics on retinal layer labeling can be found within reference [25].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

1 mm x 1 mm OCT retinal summation images. (a) Intensity summation image over the entire image depth. (b) Motion contrast summation image over the retinal depth region.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OCT summation images over the foveal region of the retina. (a) 3mm x 3mm intensity summation image identifying approximate location of 1mm x 1mm scan area. (b) 1 mm x 1 mm intensity summation image. Motion contrast retinal summation images (c) before and (d) after additional noise removal..

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

2 mm x 2mm region of a fluorescein angiography image. OCT motion contrast images presented in Figs. 3 and 5 are overlaid over the approximate scan locations (right)

Equations (1)

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v axial (z) = λ 4 π nT φ (z,t + T) φ (z,t) = λ 4 π nT Δ φ (T)

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