Abstract

We developed a tissue discrimination algorithm of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) based on the optical properties of tissues. We calculated the three-dimensional (3D) feature vector from the parameters intensity, extinction coefficient, birefringence, which were obtained by PS-OCT. The tissue type of each pixel was determined according to the position of the feature vector in the 3D feature space. The algorithm was applied for discriminating tissues of the human anterior eye segment. The conjunctiva, sclera, trabecular meshwork (TM), cornea, and uvea were well separated in the 3D feature space, and we observed them with good contrast. The TM line can be observed in the 3D discriminated volume, as observed by gonioscopy. We validated our method by applying our algorithm and histological data to porcine eyes. A marker was injected into sub-Tenon’s space and the tissues that were anterior to the marker and posterior to the marker were successfully segmented by our algorithm.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (5)

K. Kawana, T. Kiuchi, Y. Yasuno, and T. Oshika, "Evaluation of trabeculectomy blebs using 3-dimensional cornea and anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmol. 116, 848-855 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, "Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, "In vivo depth-resolved tissue contrast by local birefringence and differential optic axis orientation using polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 7168, 716888 (2009).

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, and M. Miura, "Investigation of post-glaucoma-surgery structures by three-dimensional and polarization sensitive anterior eye segment optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 17, 3980-3996 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3980.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, "Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye bypolarization-sensitive swept-sourceoptical coherence tomography with1-textmum probe," Opt. Express 17, 12385-12396 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12385.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, "Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation," Opt. Express 16, 5892-5906 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-8-5892.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 16, 16410-16422 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, "Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Sakata, R. Lavanya, D. S. Friedman, H. T. Aung, S. K. Seah, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, "Assessment of the scleral spur in anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 181-185 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, "Detailed visualization of the anterior segment using Fourierdomain optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 765-771 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Lingley-Papadopoulos, M. H. Loew, M. J. Manyak, and J. M. Zara, "Computer recognition of cancer in the urinary bladder using optical coherence tomography and texture analysis," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Szkulmowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, "Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M. V. SivakJr, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V.D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Fiber-Based Polarization-Sensitive Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography using B-Scan-Oriented Polarization Modulation Method," Opt. Express 14, 6502-6515 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-14-6502.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (7)

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, M. V. SivakJr, and J. A. Izatt, "Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology in the lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 537-546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomograpy," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2012-2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, "Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology," J. Dermatl. Sci. 40, 85-94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, "Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Opt. Express 13, 4611-4628 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4611.
[PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cence, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-23-9480.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Fern’andez, H. M. Slinas, and C. A. Puliafito, "Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 10200-10216 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-25-10200.
[CrossRef]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-26-10652.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

M. Todorovic, S. L. Jial, and L. V. Wang, "Determination of local polarization properties of biological samples in the presence of diattenuation by use of Mueller optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2402-2404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components," Opt. Lett. 29, 2512-2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

A. V. D‘Amico, M. Weinstein, X. Li, J. P. Richie, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography as a method for identifying benign and malignant microscopic structures in the prostate gland," Urology 55, 783-787 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography," Radiology 208, 81-86 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahlers, C.

Akiba, M.

Akkin, T.

Altmeyer, P.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, "Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology," J. Dermatl. Sci. 40, 85-94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asrani, S.

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, "Detailed visualization of the anterior segment using Fourierdomain optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 765-771 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aung, H. T.

L. M. Sakata, R. Lavanya, D. S. Friedman, H. T. Aung, S. K. Seah, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, "Assessment of the scleral spur in anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 181-185 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aung, T.

L. M. Sakata, R. Lavanya, D. S. Friedman, H. T. Aung, S. K. Seah, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, "Assessment of the scleral spur in anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 181-185 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Szkulmowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Beaton, S.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomograpy," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2012-2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, "Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography," Radiology 208, 81-86 (1998).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography," Radiology 208, 81-86 (1998).
[PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography," Radiology 208, 81-86 (1998).
[PubMed]

Carlier, S. G.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, "Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cence, B.

Cense, B.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components," Opt. Lett. 29, 2512-2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, K.

Chan, R. C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cence, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-23-9480.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chong, C.

D‘Amico, A. V.

A. V. D‘Amico, M. Weinstein, X. Li, J. P. Richie, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography as a method for identifying benign and malignant microscopic structures in the prostate gland," Urology 55, 783-787 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Feldchtein, F. I.

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, "Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fern’andez, D. C.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, P. J.

L. M. Sakata, R. Lavanya, D. S. Friedman, H. T. Aung, S. K. Seah, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, "Assessment of the scleral spur in anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 181-185 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, D. S.

L. M. Sakata, R. Lavanya, D. S. Friedman, H. T. Aung, S. K. Seah, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, "Assessment of the scleral spur in anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 181-185 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Szkulmowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomograpy," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2012-2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. D‘Amico, M. Weinstein, X. Li, J. P. Richie, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography as a method for identifying benign and malignant microscopic structures in the prostate gland," Urology 55, 783-787 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography," Radiology 208, 81-86 (1998).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G¨otzinger, E.

Gambichler, T.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, "Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology," J. Dermatl. Sci. 40, 85-94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geitzenauer, W.

Gelikonov, G. V.

Gelikonov, V. M.

Gittins, C.

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, "Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladkova, N. D.

Gossage, K. W.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gotzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, "Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hoffmann, K.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, "Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology," J. Dermatl. Sci. 40, 85-94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, "Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isenberg, G.

X. Qi, M. V. SivakJr, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomograpy," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2012-2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J.

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, "Detailed visualization of the anterior segment using Fourierdomain optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 765-771 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, M. V. SivakJr, and J. A. Izatt, "Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology in the lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 537-546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jial, S. L.

Joo, C.

Kaluzny, J. J.

M. Szkulmowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawana, K.

Kemp, N. J.

Kiuchi, T.

K. Kawana, T. Kiuchi, Y. Yasuno, and T. Oshika, "Evaluation of trabeculectomy blebs using 3-dimensional cornea and anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmol. 116, 848-855 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Szkulmowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuranov, R. V.

Lavanya, R.

L. M. Sakata, R. Lavanya, D. S. Friedman, H. T. Aung, S. K. Seah, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, "Assessment of the scleral spur in anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 181-185 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

A. V. D‘Amico, M. Weinstein, X. Li, J. P. Richie, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography as a method for identifying benign and malignant microscopic structures in the prostate gland," Urology 55, 783-787 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, Y.

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lingley-Papadopoulos, C. A.

C. A. Lingley-Papadopoulos, M. H. Loew, M. J. Manyak, and J. M. Zara, "Computer recognition of cancer in the urinary bladder using optical coherence tomography and texture analysis," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loew, M. H.

C. A. Lingley-Papadopoulos, M. H. Loew, M. J. Manyak, and J. M. Zara, "Computer recognition of cancer in the urinary bladder using optical coherence tomography and texture analysis," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjarova, V. D.

Makita, S.

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, "In vivo depth-resolved tissue contrast by local birefringence and differential optic axis orientation using polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 7168, 716888 (2009).

M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, "Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye bypolarization-sensitive swept-sourceoptical coherence tomography with1-textmum probe," Opt. Express 17, 12385-12396 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12385.
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M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, "Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation," Opt. Express 16, 5892-5906 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-8-5892.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V.D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Fiber-Based Polarization-Sensitive Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography using B-Scan-Oriented Polarization Modulation Method," Opt. Express 14, 6502-6515 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-14-6502.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-26-10652.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manyak, M. J.

C. A. Lingley-Papadopoulos, M. H. Loew, M. J. Manyak, and J. M. Zara, "Computer recognition of cancer in the urinary bladder using optical coherence tomography and texture analysis," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michels, S.

Milner, T. E.

Miura, M.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, and M. Miura, "Investigation of post-glaucoma-surgery structures by three-dimensional and polarization sensitive anterior eye segment optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 17, 3980-3996 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3980.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morosawa, A.

Moussa, G.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, "Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology," J. Dermatl. Sci. 40, 85-94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mujat, M.

Nelson, J. S.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by highspeed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 934-936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oshika, T.

Park, B. H.

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cence, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-23-9480.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components," Opt. Lett. 29, 2512-2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by highspeed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Pierce, M. C.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components," Opt. Lett. 29, 2512-2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pircher, M.

Pitris, C.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography," Radiology 208, 81-86 (1998).
[PubMed]

Puliafito, C.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

Qi, X.

X. Qi, M. V. SivakJr, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richie, J. P.

A. V. D‘Amico, M. Weinstein, X. Li, J. P. Richie, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography as a method for identifying benign and malignant microscopic structures in the prostate gland," Urology 55, 783-787 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, J. J.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

X. Qi, M. V. SivakJr, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, M. V. SivakJr, and J. A. Izatt, "Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology in the lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 537-546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rylander, H. G.

Sakai, T.

Sakata, L. M.

L. M. Sakata, R. Lavanya, D. S. Friedman, H. T. Aung, S. K. Seah, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, "Assessment of the scleral spur in anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 181-185 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sand, D.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, "Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology," J. Dermatl. Sci. 40, 85-94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sand, M.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, "Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology," J. Dermatl. Sci. 40, 85-94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santiago, C.

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, "Detailed visualization of the anterior segment using Fourierdomain optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 765-771 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M.

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, "Detailed visualization of the anterior segment using Fourierdomain optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 765-771 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by highspeed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

Schmitt, J. M.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, "Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomograpy," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2012-2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seah, S. K.

L. M. Sakata, R. Lavanya, D. S. Friedman, H. T. Aung, S. K. Seah, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, "Assessment of the scleral spur in anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 181-185 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A. M.

Sikorski, B.

M. Szkulmowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivak, M. V.

X. Qi, M. V. SivakJr, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, M. V. SivakJr, and J. A. Izatt, "Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology in the lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 537-546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slinas, H. M.

Southern, J. F.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography," Radiology 208, 81-86 (1998).
[PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by highspeed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

M. Szkulmowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, D. M.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomograpy," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2012-2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sticker, M.

Stinson, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

M. Szkulmowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

M. Szkulmowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography," Radiology 208, 81-86 (1998).
[PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Todorovic, M.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Virmani, R.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, "Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Weinstein, M.

A. V. D‘Amico, M. Weinstein, X. Li, J. P. Richie, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography as a method for identifying benign and malignant microscopic structures in the prostate gland," Urology 55, 783-787 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, V.

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, M. V. SivakJr, and J. A. Izatt, "Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology in the lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 537-546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, J.

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, M. V. SivakJr, and J. A. Izatt, "Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology in the lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 537-546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, J. E.

X. Qi, M. V. SivakJr, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomograpy," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2012-2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, "Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, and M. Miura, "Investigation of post-glaucoma-surgery structures by three-dimensional and polarization sensitive anterior eye segment optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 17, 3980-3996 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3980.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, "In vivo depth-resolved tissue contrast by local birefringence and differential optic axis orientation using polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 7168, 716888 (2009).

M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, "Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye bypolarization-sensitive swept-sourceoptical coherence tomography with1-textmum probe," Opt. Express 17, 12385-12396 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12385.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, "Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation," Opt. Express 16, 5892-5906 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-8-5892.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V.D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Fiber-Based Polarization-Sensitive Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography using B-Scan-Oriented Polarization Modulation Method," Opt. Express 14, 6502-6515 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-14-6502.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, "Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye bypolarization-sensitive swept-sourceoptical coherence tomography with1-textmum probe," Opt. Express 17, 12385-12396 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12385.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kawana, T. Kiuchi, Y. Yasuno, and T. Oshika, "Evaluation of trabeculectomy blebs using 3-dimensional cornea and anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmol. 116, 848-855 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, "In vivo depth-resolved tissue contrast by local birefringence and differential optic axis orientation using polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 7168, 716888 (2009).

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, and M. Miura, "Investigation of post-glaucoma-surgery structures by three-dimensional and polarization sensitive anterior eye segment optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 17, 3980-3996 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3980.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, "Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation," Opt. Express 16, 5892-5906 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-8-5892.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V.D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Fiber-Based Polarization-Sensitive Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography using B-Scan-Oriented Polarization Modulation Method," Opt. Express 14, 6502-6515 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-14-6502.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-26-10652.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yatagai, T.

Zaatari, H. N.

Zara, J. M.

C. A. Lingley-Papadopoulos, M. H. Loew, M. J. Manyak, and J. M. Zara, "Computer recognition of cancer in the urinary bladder using optical coherence tomography and texture analysis," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zysk, A. M.

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, "Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

L. M. Sakata, R. Lavanya, D. S. Friedman, H. T. Aung, S. K. Seah, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, "Assessment of the scleral spur in anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 181-185 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, "Detailed visualization of the anterior segment using Fourierdomain optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 765-771 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, M. V. SivakJr, and J. A. Izatt, "Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology in the lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 537-546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomograpy," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2012-2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (9)

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M. V. SivakJr, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Lingley-Papadopoulos, M. H. Loew, M. J. Manyak, and J. M. Zara, "Computer recognition of cancer in the urinary bladder using optical coherence tomography and texture analysis," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, "Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, "Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. Gittins, and N. Iftimia, "Automated algorithm for breast tissue differentiation in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by highspeed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dermatl. Sci. (1)

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, "Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology," J. Dermatl. Sci. 40, 85-94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Ophthalmol. (1)

K. Kawana, T. Kiuchi, Y. Yasuno, and T. Oshika, "Evaluation of trabeculectomy blebs using 3-dimensional cornea and anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmol. 116, 848-855 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (11)

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, and N. D. Gladkova, "In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa," Opt. Express 1, 432-440 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-1-13-432.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. G¨otzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-9-13-780.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, "Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Opt. Express 13, 4611-4628 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4611.
[PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cence, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-23-9480.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Fern’andez, H. M. Slinas, and C. A. Puliafito, "Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 10200-10216 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-25-10200.
[CrossRef]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-26-10652.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V.D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Fiber-Based Polarization-Sensitive Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography using B-Scan-Oriented Polarization Modulation Method," Opt. Express 14, 6502-6515 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-14-6502.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, "Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation," Opt. Express 16, 5892-5906 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-8-5892.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 16, 16410-16422 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16410.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, and M. Miura, "Investigation of post-glaucoma-surgery structures by three-dimensional and polarization sensitive anterior eye segment optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 17, 3980-3996 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3980.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, "Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye bypolarization-sensitive swept-sourceoptical coherence tomography with1-textmum probe," Opt. Express 17, 12385-12396 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12385.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, "In vivo depth-resolved tissue contrast by local birefringence and differential optic axis orientation using polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 7168, 716888 (2009).

Radiology (1)

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Intraoperative assessment of microsurgery with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography," Radiology 208, 81-86 (1998).
[PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urology (1)

A. V. D‘Amico, M. Weinstein, X. Li, J. P. Richie, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography as a method for identifying benign and malignant microscopic structures in the prostate gland," Urology 55, 783-787 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Duda, P. Hart, and D. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed (Wiley, New York, 2001).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (1916 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (6178 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (1987 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (6451 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The 5 reference regions (light brown, conjunctiva; green, sclera; dark yellow, TM; blue, cornea; red, uvea) studied in subject 1. They were selected manually on the basis of their anatomical and histological features; (b) Feature distributions of the 5 reference regions in the 3D (I-EC-BR) feature space. The corresponding phase retardation image (c), the OCT intensity in a linear scale (d), the extinction coefficient (e), and the birefringence (f) are also shown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Results of the tissue discrimination. First column — OCT images of subject 1(a), 2(b), 3(c), and 4(d); second column — discriminated results of subject 1(e), 2(f), 3(g), and 4(h) displayed as a pseudo-color structural OCT. The light brown indicates conjunctiva, green indicates sclera, dark yellow indicates TM, blue indicates cornea, and red indicates uvea. Different tissues can be observed with good contrast and the trabecular meshwork can also be seen.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Gonioscopic image of the right eye of subject 1 at 9 o’clock position. The image is rotated clockwise by 90 degrees. 3-D discriminated volume of the (b) normal eye (Media 1) and (Media 2) and (c) narrow angle eye (Media 3) and (Media 4). These images correspond to the view of the green square in (a). TM can be observed as a yellow line as indicated by yellow arrows.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Intensity image of the porcine eye. The marker (dashed line) was injected into sub-Tenon’s space. The reference regions for the conjunctiva (light brown) and sclera (green) were selected manually. (b) Pseudo-color structural OCT. Tissues that were anterior to the marker (dashed line) and posterior to the marker were segmented. (c) Specimen of the porcine eye stained by Masson’s trichrome method. The marker was injected into sub-Tenon’s space. The anterior portion of the marker consists of the conjunctiva and episclera, and the posterior portion is identified as the sclera histologically.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Feature distributions in the 2D feature spaces (a) I-EC, (b) I-BR, and (c) EC-BR (light brown, conjunctiva; green, sclera; dark yellow, TM; blue, cornea; red, uvea). The 5 tissues could not be simultaneously discriminated by 1D or 2D analysis.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The normalized distances of all the pairs of the 5 reference regions in each feature space. The same dataset and the same reference regions with those of Fig. 1(a) were used. I: intensity, EC: extinction coefficient, BR: birefringence; TM: trabecular meshwork, S: sclera, CJ: conjunctiva, CN: cornea, and U: uvea.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a)–(r) An example of the selection of reference regions. The raw represents the tissue of interest. The first and second columns represent the reference regions selected in the first step, and similarities obtained from the first selected reference regions, respectively. The third and fourth columns represent the reference regions of the second, i.e. the final, step, and similarities obtained from this final selections. (s) A pseudo-color structural OCT image obtained by the reference regions indicated in (c), (g), (k), (o) and (q).

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Di(x)j=0Mi1G(xμi,j) ,
G(x)=exp[12k=0L1(xkσk)2]=exp [12x.xTσ.σT] ,
σ=[σ0σkσL1] .
Di(x)=j=0Mi1exp[12k=0L1(xkμi,j,kσk)2]=j=0Mi1[12(xμi,j)(xμi,j)Tσ·σT] .
D(x)[D0(x)Di(x)DN1(x)] .
SpD(μp)=[D0(μp)Di(μp)DN1(μp)] ,
Ci=[RiGiBi] ,
Sp=[SoSaSN1] , where Sa={1:a=i0:ai .
A[C0TCiTCN1T]=[R0RiRN1G0GiGN1B0BiBN1] .
Qp=ASpT .
RpQpL·QpT Ip ,
L[0.2990.5870.114] .
Δl,m(n)Ml(n)Mm(n)(SDl(n))2+(SDm(n))2
Δl,m(n,o)(Δl,m(n))2+(Δl,m(o))2 ,
Δl,m(n,o,p)(Δl,m(n))2+(Δl,m(o))2+(Δl,m(p))2 .

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