Abstract

We report on the design and demonstration of an optical imaging system capable of exciting surface-bound fluorophores within the resonant evanescent electric field of a photonic crystal surface and gathering fluorescence emission that is directed toward the imaging objective by the photonic crystal. The system also has the ability to quantify shifts in the local resonance angle induced by the adsorption of biomolecules on the photonic crystal surface for label-free biomolecular imaging. With these two capabilities combined within a single detection system, we demonstrate label-free images self-registered to enhanced fluorescence images with 328x more sensitive fluorescence detection relative to a glass surface. This technique is applied to a DNA microarray where label-free quantification of immobilized capture DNA enables improved quality control and subsequent enhanced fluorescence detection of dye-tagged hybridized DNA yields 3x more genes to be detected versus commercially available microarray substrates.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  5. A. W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, "Advanced Methods for SPR Biosensing," in Handbook of Surface Plasmon Resonance, R. B. M. Schasfoort and A. J. Tudos, eds. (RSC Publishing, London, 2008), pp. 251-280.
  6. Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, "Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers," Meth. Molec. Bio. 503, 3-20 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, "Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver factal-like structures," Anal. Chem. 80, 1962-1966 (2008).
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  12. Q2. B. Lin, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "A Label-Free Biosensor-Based Cell Attachment Assay for Characterization of Cell Surface Molecules," Sens. Actuators B 114, 559-564 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, "General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors," ACS Chem. Bio. 3, 437-448 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, "Near ultraviolet-wavelength photonic-crystal biosensor with enhanced surface-to-bulk sensitivity ratio," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 023901 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Ganesh, A. Xiang, N. B. Beltran, D. W. Dobbs, and B. T. Cunningham, "Compact wavelength detection system incorporating a guided-mode resonance filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081103-081106 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. C. J. Choi and B. T. Cunningham, "A 96-sell microplate incorporating a replica molded microfluidic network integrated with photonic crystal biosensors for high throughput kinetic biomolecular interaction analysis," Lab On A Chip 7, 550-556 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation," Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Q5. L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library," Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Neuschaefer, W. Budach, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Evanescent resonator chips: a universal platform with superior sensitivity for fluorescence-based microarrays," Bio. Bioelectron. 18, 489-497 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces," Journal of Applied Physics 103, 083104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Graded Wavelength One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Reveals Spectral Characteristics of Enhanced Fluorescence," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094320 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, "Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay," Anal. Chem. 80, 9013-9020 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, "Combined enhanced fluorescence and label-free biomolecular detection with a photonic crystal surface," Appl. Opt. 46, 2351-2360 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Q6. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 515-520 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, "Employing two distinct photonic crystal resonances for improved fluorescence enhancement," Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  28. N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, "Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors," Opt. Express 16, 21626-21640 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. Q8. I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, "A sensitivity model for predicting photonic cyrstal biosensor performance," IEEE Sensors 8, 274-280 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. B. Dorvel, B. R. Jr., I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, S. E. Clare, D. E. Bergstrom, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bashir, "Vapor phase deposition of monofunctional alkoxysilanes for sub-nanometer level biointerfacing on oxide surfaces," Adv. Functional Mater. (under review).
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    [CrossRef]
  34. J. S. Shumaker-Parry and C. T. Campbell, "Quantitative methods for spatially resolved adsorption/desorption measurements in real time by surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Anal. Chem. 76, 907-917 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. X. Zhu, J. P. Landry, Y.-S. Sun, J. P. Gregg, K. S. Lam, and X. Guo, "Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscope for label-free high-throughput detection of biochemical reactions in a microarray format," Appl. Opt. 46, 1890-1895 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications," PNAS 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. E. Fu, T. Chinowsky, J. Foley, J. Weinstein, and P. Yager, "Characterization of a wavelength-tunable surface plasmon resonance microscope," Rev. Scie. Instruments 75, 2300-2304 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  38. Y.-J. Hung, I. I. Smolyaninov, C. C. Davis, and H.-C. Wu, "Fluorescence enhancement by surface gratings," Opt. Express 14, 10825-10830 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. C. R. Sabanayagam and J. R. Lakowicz, "Increasing the sensitivity of DNA microarrays by metal-enhanced fluorescence using surface-bound silver nanoparticles," Nucleic Acids Research 35, e13 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  42. A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, "The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization," Nucleic Acids Research 29, 5163-5168 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, "Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers," Meth. Molec. Bio. 503, 3-20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (9)

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, "Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver factal-like structures," Anal. Chem. 80, 1962-1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, "General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors," ACS Chem. Bio. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces," Journal of Applied Physics 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Graded Wavelength One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Reveals Spectral Characteristics of Enhanced Fluorescence," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, "Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay," Anal. Chem. 80, 9013-9020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q5. L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library," Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, "Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors," Opt. Express 16, 21626-21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q8. I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, "A sensitivity model for predicting photonic cyrstal biosensor performance," IEEE Sensors 8, 274-280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications," PNAS 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (9)

D. S. Dandy, P. Wu, and D. W. Grainger, "Array feature size influences nucleic acid surface capture in DNA microarrays," PNAS 104, 8223-8228 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhu, J. P. Landry, Y.-S. Sun, J. P. Gregg, K. S. Lam, and X. Guo, "Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscope for label-free high-throughput detection of biochemical reactions in a microarray format," Appl. Opt. 46, 1890-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Sabanayagam and J. R. Lakowicz, "Increasing the sensitivity of DNA microarrays by metal-enhanced fluorescence using surface-bound silver nanoparticles," Nucleic Acids Research 35, e13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Moal, E. Fort, S. Leveque-Fort, F. P. Cordelieres, M.-P. Fontaine-Aupart, and C. Ricolleau, "Enhanced fluorescence cell imaging with metal-coated slides," Biophys. J. 92, 2150-2161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, "Combined enhanced fluorescence and label-free biomolecular detection with a photonic crystal surface," Appl. Opt. 46, 2351-2360 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q6. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, A. Xiang, N. B. Beltran, D. W. Dobbs, and B. T. Cunningham, "Compact wavelength detection system incorporating a guided-mode resonance filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081103-081106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Choi and B. T. Cunningham, "A 96-sell microplate incorporating a replica molded microfluidic network integrated with photonic crystal biosensors for high throughput kinetic biomolecular interaction analysis," Lab On A Chip 7, 550-556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation," Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (7)

Q3Q4. L. L. Chan, P. Y. Li, D. Puff, and B. T. Cunningham, "A Self-Referencing Method for Microplate Label-Free Photonic Crystal Biosensors," IEEE Sensors 6, 15510-11556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, "Near ultraviolet-wavelength photonic-crystal biosensor with enhanced surface-to-bulk sensitivity ratio," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 023901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham and L. L. Laing, "Label-free detection of biomolecular interactions: Applications in proteomics and drug discovery," Expert Reviews in Proteomics 3, 271-281 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q2. B. Lin, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "A Label-Free Biosensor-Based Cell Attachment Assay for Characterization of Cell Surface Molecules," Sens. Actuators B 114, 559-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shi, "The Microarray Quality Control (MAQD) project shows inter- and intraplatform reproducibility of gene expression measurements," Nature Biotechnol. 24, 1151-1161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Hung, I. I. Smolyaninov, C. C. Davis, and H.-C. Wu, "Fluorescence enhancement by surface gratings," Opt. Express 14, 10825-10830 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering 5: metal-enhanced fluorescence and plasmon emission," Anal. Biochem. 337, 171-194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

T. M. Chinowsky, T. Mactutis, E. Fu, and P. Yager, "Optical and electronic design for a high-performance surface plasmon resonance imager," Proc. SPIE 5261, 173-182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham and e. al, "Label-Free Assays on the BIND System," J. Biomolec. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, "A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions," Sens. Actuators B, Chemical 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shumaker-Parry and C. T. Campbell, "Quantitative methods for spatially resolved adsorption/desorption measurements in real time by surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Anal. Chem. 76, 907-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fu, T. Chinowsky, J. Foley, J. Weinstein, and P. Yager, "Characterization of a wavelength-tunable surface plasmon resonance microscope," Rev. Scie. Instruments 75, 2300-2304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Neuschaefer, W. Budach, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Evanescent resonator chips: a universal platform with superior sensitivity for fluorescence-based microarrays," Bio. Bioelectron. 18, 489-497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Q7. B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q1. C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence," J. Fluorescence 12, 121-129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, "The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization," Nucleic Acids Research 29, 5163-5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

B. Rothenhausler and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).

1970 (1)

K. H. Drexhage, "Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time," J. Luminescence 1, 693-701 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Anger, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arima, Y.

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, "Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers," Meth. Molec. Bio. 503, 3-20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beltran, N. B.

N. Ganesh, A. Xiang, N. B. Beltran, D. W. Dobbs, and B. T. Cunningham, "Compact wavelength detection system incorporating a guided-mode resonance filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081103-081106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergstein, D. A.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications," PNAS 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, I. D.

Q8. I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, "A sensitivity model for predicting photonic cyrstal biosensor performance," IEEE Sensors 8, 274-280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, "Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors," Opt. Express 16, 21626-21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, "Near ultraviolet-wavelength photonic-crystal biosensor with enhanced surface-to-bulk sensitivity ratio," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 023901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Budach, W.

D. Neuschaefer, W. Budach, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Evanescent resonator chips: a universal platform with superior sensitivity for fluorescence-based microarrays," Bio. Bioelectron. 18, 489-497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cabodi, M.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications," PNAS 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, C. T.

J. S. Shumaker-Parry and C. T. Campbell, "Quantitative methods for spatially resolved adsorption/desorption measurements in real time by surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Anal. Chem. 76, 907-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, L.

L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation," Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, L. L.

Q5. L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library," Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, "General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors," ACS Chem. Bio. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, "Combined enhanced fluorescence and label-free biomolecular detection with a photonic crystal surface," Appl. Opt. 46, 2351-2360 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q3Q4. L. L. Chan, P. Y. Li, D. Puff, and B. T. Cunningham, "A Self-Referencing Method for Microplate Label-Free Photonic Crystal Biosensors," IEEE Sensors 6, 15510-11556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, I.-F.

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, "Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver factal-like structures," Anal. Chem. 80, 1962-1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chibout, S.-D.

D. Neuschaefer, W. Budach, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Evanescent resonator chips: a universal platform with superior sensitivity for fluorescence-based microarrays," Bio. Bioelectron. 18, 489-497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chinowsky, T.

E. Fu, T. Chinowsky, J. Foley, J. Weinstein, and P. Yager, "Characterization of a wavelength-tunable surface plasmon resonance microscope," Rev. Scie. Instruments 75, 2300-2304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chinowsky, T. M.

T. M. Chinowsky, T. Mactutis, E. Fu, and P. Yager, "Optical and electronic design for a high-performance surface plasmon resonance imager," Proc. SPIE 5261, 173-182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. J.

C. J. Choi and B. T. Cunningham, "A 96-sell microplate incorporating a replica molded microfluidic network integrated with photonic crystal biosensors for high throughput kinetic biomolecular interaction analysis," Lab On A Chip 7, 550-556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, E.

Q6. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cordelieres, F. P.

E. L. Moal, E. Fort, S. Leveque-Fort, F. P. Cordelieres, M.-P. Fontaine-Aupart, and C. Ricolleau, "Enhanced fluorescence cell imaging with metal-coated slides," Biophys. J. 92, 2150-2161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Graded Wavelength One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Reveals Spectral Characteristics of Enhanced Fluorescence," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, "Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay," Anal. Chem. 80, 9013-9020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q8. I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, "A sensitivity model for predicting photonic cyrstal biosensor performance," IEEE Sensors 8, 274-280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, "General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors," ACS Chem. Bio. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces," Journal of Applied Physics 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q5. L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library," Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, "Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors," Opt. Express 16, 21626-21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, "Combined enhanced fluorescence and label-free biomolecular detection with a photonic crystal surface," Appl. Opt. 46, 2351-2360 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation," Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Choi and B. T. Cunningham, "A 96-sell microplate incorporating a replica molded microfluidic network integrated with photonic crystal biosensors for high throughput kinetic biomolecular interaction analysis," Lab On A Chip 7, 550-556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, A. Xiang, N. B. Beltran, D. W. Dobbs, and B. T. Cunningham, "Compact wavelength detection system incorporating a guided-mode resonance filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081103-081106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q6. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, "Near ultraviolet-wavelength photonic-crystal biosensor with enhanced surface-to-bulk sensitivity ratio," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 023901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q3Q4. L. L. Chan, P. Y. Li, D. Puff, and B. T. Cunningham, "A Self-Referencing Method for Microplate Label-Free Photonic Crystal Biosensors," IEEE Sensors 6, 15510-11556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham and L. L. Laing, "Label-free detection of biomolecular interactions: Applications in proteomics and drug discovery," Expert Reviews in Proteomics 3, 271-281 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q2. B. Lin, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "A Label-Free Biosensor-Based Cell Attachment Assay for Characterization of Cell Surface Molecules," Sens. Actuators B 114, 559-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, "A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions," Sens. Actuators B, Chemical 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q7. B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, "Employing two distinct photonic crystal resonances for improved fluorescence enhancement," Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Dandy, D. S.

D. S. Dandy, P. Wu, and D. W. Grainger, "Array feature size influences nucleic acid surface capture in DNA microarrays," PNAS 104, 8223-8228 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, C. C.

Dobbs, D. W.

N. Ganesh, A. Xiang, N. B. Beltran, D. W. Dobbs, and B. T. Cunningham, "Compact wavelength detection system incorporating a guided-mode resonance filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081103-081106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dorvel, B.

B. Dorvel, B. R. Jr., I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, S. E. Clare, D. E. Bergstrom, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bashir, "Vapor phase deposition of monofunctional alkoxysilanes for sub-nanometer level biointerfacing on oxide surfaces," Adv. Functional Mater. (under review).

Drexhage, K. H.

K. H. Drexhage, "Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time," J. Luminescence 1, 693-701 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Foley, J.

E. Fu, T. Chinowsky, J. Foley, J. Weinstein, and P. Yager, "Characterization of a wavelength-tunable surface plasmon resonance microscope," Rev. Scie. Instruments 75, 2300-2304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine-Aupart, M.-P.

E. L. Moal, E. Fort, S. Leveque-Fort, F. P. Cordelieres, M.-P. Fontaine-Aupart, and C. Ricolleau, "Enhanced fluorescence cell imaging with metal-coated slides," Biophys. J. 92, 2150-2161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fort, E.

E. L. Moal, E. Fort, S. Leveque-Fort, F. P. Cordelieres, M.-P. Fontaine-Aupart, and C. Ricolleau, "Enhanced fluorescence cell imaging with metal-coated slides," Biophys. J. 92, 2150-2161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, E.

E. Fu, T. Chinowsky, J. Foley, J. Weinstein, and P. Yager, "Characterization of a wavelength-tunable surface plasmon resonance microscope," Rev. Scie. Instruments 75, 2300-2304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Chinowsky, T. Mactutis, E. Fu, and P. Yager, "Optical and electronic design for a high-performance surface plasmon resonance imager," Proc. SPIE 5261, 173-182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ganesh, N.

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces," Journal of Applied Physics 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q8. I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, "A sensitivity model for predicting photonic cyrstal biosensor performance," IEEE Sensors 8, 274-280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, "Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay," Anal. Chem. 80, 9013-9020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Graded Wavelength One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Reveals Spectral Characteristics of Enhanced Fluorescence," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, "Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors," Opt. Express 16, 21626-21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, "Combined enhanced fluorescence and label-free biomolecular detection with a photonic crystal surface," Appl. Opt. 46, 2351-2360 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q6. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, A. Xiang, N. B. Beltran, D. W. Dobbs, and B. T. Cunningham, "Compact wavelength detection system incorporating a guided-mode resonance filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081103-081106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, "Near ultraviolet-wavelength photonic-crystal biosensor with enhanced surface-to-bulk sensitivity ratio," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 023901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geddes, C. D.

Q1. C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence," J. Fluorescence 12, 121-129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Georgiadis, R. M.

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, "The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization," Nucleic Acids Research 29, 5163-5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gershoni, J. M.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications," PNAS 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerstenmaier, J.

P. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, "A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions," Sens. Actuators B, Chemical 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications," PNAS 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldys, E.

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, "Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver factal-like structures," Anal. Chem. 80, 1962-1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, R.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications," PNAS 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gosangari, S.

Q5. L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library," Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation," Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grainger, D. W.

D. S. Dandy, P. Wu, and D. W. Grainger, "Array feature size influences nucleic acid surface capture in DNA microarrays," PNAS 104, 8223-8228 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregg, J. P.

Gryczynski, I.

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, "Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver factal-like structures," Anal. Chem. 80, 1962-1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, Z.

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, "Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver factal-like structures," Anal. Chem. 80, 1962-1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

Heaton, R. J.

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, "The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization," Nucleic Acids Research 29, 5163-5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heeres, J.

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, "General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors," ACS Chem. Bio. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hergenrother, P.

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, "General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors," ACS Chem. Bio. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hugh, B.

Q7. B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hung, Y.-J.

Iwata, H.

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, "Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers," Meth. Molec. Bio. 503, 3-20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jr, B. R.

B. Dorvel, B. R. Jr., I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, S. E. Clare, D. E. Bergstrom, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bashir, "Vapor phase deposition of monofunctional alkoxysilanes for sub-nanometer level biointerfacing on oxide surfaces," Adv. Functional Mater. (under review).

Jung, L. S.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, K.

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, "Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers," Meth. Molec. Bio. 503, 3-20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

B. Rothenhausler and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).

Kotera, H.

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, "Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers," Meth. Molec. Bio. 503, 3-20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laing, L. L.

B. T. Cunningham and L. L. Laing, "Label-free detection of biomolecular interactions: Applications in proteomics and drug discovery," Expert Reviews in Proteomics 3, 271-281 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

C. R. Sabanayagam and J. R. Lakowicz, "Increasing the sensitivity of DNA microarrays by metal-enhanced fluorescence using surface-bound silver nanoparticles," Nucleic Acids Research 35, e13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering 5: metal-enhanced fluorescence and plasmon emission," Anal. Biochem. 337, 171-194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q1. C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence," J. Fluorescence 12, 121-129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lam, K. S.

Landry, J. P.

Leveque-Fort, S.

E. L. Moal, E. Fort, S. Leveque-Fort, F. P. Cordelieres, M.-P. Fontaine-Aupart, and C. Ricolleau, "Enhanced fluorescence cell imaging with metal-coated slides," Biophys. J. 92, 2150-2161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

Q2. B. Lin, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "A Label-Free Biosensor-Based Cell Attachment Assay for Characterization of Cell Surface Molecules," Sens. Actuators B 114, 559-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, "A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions," Sens. Actuators B, Chemical 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q7. B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, P. Y.

Q3Q4. L. L. Chan, P. Y. Li, D. Puff, and B. T. Cunningham, "A Self-Referencing Method for Microplate Label-Free Photonic Crystal Biosensors," IEEE Sensors 6, 15510-11556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

Q2. B. Lin, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "A Label-Free Biosensor-Based Cell Attachment Assay for Characterization of Cell Surface Molecules," Sens. Actuators B 114, 559-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, "A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions," Sens. Actuators B, Chemical 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q7. B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

Q8. I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, "A sensitivity model for predicting photonic cyrstal biosensor performance," IEEE Sensors 8, 274-280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mactutis, T.

T. M. Chinowsky, T. Mactutis, E. Fu, and P. Yager, "Optical and electronic design for a high-performance surface plasmon resonance imager," Proc. SPIE 5261, 173-182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malyarchuk, V.

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, "Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors," Opt. Express 16, 21626-21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q6. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mar, M. N.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mathias, P. C.

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, "Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay," Anal. Chem. 80, 9013-9020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces," Journal of Applied Physics 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Graded Wavelength One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Reveals Spectral Characteristics of Enhanced Fluorescence," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, "Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors," Opt. Express 16, 21626-21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, "Combined enhanced fluorescence and label-free biomolecular detection with a photonic crystal surface," Appl. Opt. 46, 2351-2360 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q6. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, "Employing two distinct photonic crystal resonances for improved fluorescence enhancement," Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Matveeva, E. G.

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, "Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver factal-like structures," Anal. Chem. 80, 1962-1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moal, E. L.

E. L. Moal, E. Fort, S. Leveque-Fort, F. P. Cordelieres, M.-P. Fontaine-Aupart, and C. Ricolleau, "Enhanced fluorescence cell imaging with metal-coated slides," Biophys. J. 92, 2150-2161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Needham, J. W.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications," PNAS 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuschaefer, D.

D. Neuschaefer, W. Budach, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Evanescent resonator chips: a universal platform with superior sensitivity for fluorescence-based microarrays," Bio. Bioelectron. 18, 489-497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozkumur, E.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications," PNAS 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pepper, J.

Q7. B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, A. W.

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, "The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization," Nucleic Acids Research 29, 5163-5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pineda, M. F.

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, "General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors," ACS Chem. Bio. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Puff, D.

Q3Q4. L. L. Chan, P. Y. Li, D. Puff, and B. T. Cunningham, "A Self-Referencing Method for Microplate Label-Free Photonic Crystal Biosensors," IEEE Sensors 6, 15510-11556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Q7. B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ricolleau, C.

E. L. Moal, E. Fort, S. Leveque-Fort, F. P. Cordelieres, M.-P. Fontaine-Aupart, and C. Ricolleau, "Enhanced fluorescence cell imaging with metal-coated slides," Biophys. J. 92, 2150-2161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rothenhausler, B.

B. Rothenhausler and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).

Sabanayagam, C. R.

C. R. Sabanayagam and J. R. Lakowicz, "Increasing the sensitivity of DNA microarrays by metal-enhanced fluorescence using surface-bound silver nanoparticles," Nucleic Acids Research 35, e13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

L. Shi, "The Microarray Quality Control (MAQD) project shows inter- and intraplatform reproducibility of gene expression measurements," Nature Biotechnol. 24, 1151-1161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shtoyko, T.

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, "Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver factal-like structures," Anal. Chem. 80, 1962-1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shumaker-Parry, J. S.

J. S. Shumaker-Parry and C. T. Campbell, "Quantitative methods for spatially resolved adsorption/desorption measurements in real time by surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Anal. Chem. 76, 907-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, A. D.

Q6. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

Soares, J. A. N. T.

Q6. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.-S.

Takiguchi, H.

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, "Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers," Meth. Molec. Bio. 503, 3-20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Teramura, Y.

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, "Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers," Meth. Molec. Bio. 503, 3-20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Unlu, M. S.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications," PNAS 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wanke, C.

D. Neuschaefer, W. Budach, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Evanescent resonator chips: a universal platform with superior sensitivity for fluorescence-based microarrays," Bio. Bioelectron. 18, 489-497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watkin, K.

L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation," Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watkin, K. L.

Q5. L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library," Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, J.

E. Fu, T. Chinowsky, J. Foley, J. Weinstein, and P. Yager, "Characterization of a wavelength-tunable surface plasmon resonance microscope," Rev. Scie. Instruments 75, 2300-2304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.-C.

Wu, H.-Y.

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, "Employing two distinct photonic crystal resonances for improved fluorescence enhancement," Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Wu, P.

D. S. Dandy, P. Wu, and D. W. Grainger, "Array feature size influences nucleic acid surface capture in DNA microarrays," PNAS 104, 8223-8228 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, A.

N. Ganesh, A. Xiang, N. B. Beltran, D. W. Dobbs, and B. T. Cunningham, "Compact wavelength detection system incorporating a guided-mode resonance filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081103-081106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yager, P.

T. M. Chinowsky, T. Mactutis, E. Fu, and P. Yager, "Optical and electronic design for a high-performance surface plasmon resonance imager," Proc. SPIE 5261, 173-182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Fu, T. Chinowsky, J. Foley, J. Weinstein, and P. Yager, "Characterization of a wavelength-tunable surface plasmon resonance microscope," Rev. Scie. Instruments 75, 2300-2304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Graded Wavelength One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Reveals Spectral Characteristics of Enhanced Fluorescence," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces," Journal of Applied Physics 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, "Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors," Opt. Express 16, 21626-21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q6. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

ACS Chem. Bio. (1)

L. L. Chan, M. F. Pineda, J. Heeres, P. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, "General method for discovering inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions using photonic crystal biosensors," ACS Chem. Bio. 3, 437-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Functional Mater. (1)

B. Dorvel, B. R. Jr., I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, S. E. Clare, D. E. Bergstrom, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bashir, "Vapor phase deposition of monofunctional alkoxysilanes for sub-nanometer level biointerfacing on oxide surfaces," Adv. Functional Mater. (under review).

Anal. Biochem. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering 5: metal-enhanced fluorescence and plasmon emission," Anal. Biochem. 337, 171-194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (3)

T. Shtoyko, E. G. Matveeva, I.-F. Chang, Z. Gryczynski, E. Goldys, and I. Gryczynski, "Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver factal-like structures," Anal. Chem. 80, 1962-1966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, "Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay," Anal. Chem. 80, 9013-9020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shumaker-Parry and C. T. Campbell, "Quantitative methods for spatially resolved adsorption/desorption measurements in real time by surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Anal. Chem. 76, 907-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apoptosis (1)

L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation," Apoptosis 12, 1061-1068 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, "Employing two distinct photonic crystal resonances for improved fluorescence enhancement," Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, "Near ultraviolet-wavelength photonic-crystal biosensor with enhanced surface-to-bulk sensitivity ratio," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 023901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, A. Xiang, N. B. Beltran, D. W. Dobbs, and B. T. Cunningham, "Compact wavelength detection system incorporating a guided-mode resonance filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081103-081106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bio. Bioelectron. (1)

D. Neuschaefer, W. Budach, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Evanescent resonator chips: a universal platform with superior sensitivity for fluorescence-based microarrays," Bio. Bioelectron. 18, 489-497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

E. L. Moal, E. Fort, S. Leveque-Fort, F. P. Cordelieres, M.-P. Fontaine-Aupart, and C. Ricolleau, "Enhanced fluorescence cell imaging with metal-coated slides," Biophys. J. 92, 2150-2161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Expert Reviews in Proteomics (1)

B. T. Cunningham and L. L. Laing, "Label-free detection of biomolecular interactions: Applications in proteomics and drug discovery," Expert Reviews in Proteomics 3, 271-281 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sensors (2)

Q3Q4. L. L. Chan, P. Y. Li, D. Puff, and B. T. Cunningham, "A Self-Referencing Method for Microplate Label-Free Photonic Crystal Biosensors," IEEE Sensors 6, 15510-11556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q8. I. D. Block, N. Ganesh, M. Lu, and B. T. Cunningham, "A sensitivity model for predicting photonic cyrstal biosensor performance," IEEE Sensors 8, 274-280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Graded Wavelength One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Reveals Spectral Characteristics of Enhanced Fluorescence," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomolec. Screening (1)

B. T. Cunningham and e. al, "Label-Free Assays on the BIND System," J. Biomolec. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluorescence (1)

Q1. C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence," J. Fluorescence 12, 121-129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Luminescence (1)

K. H. Drexhage, "Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time," J. Luminescence 1, 693-701 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Applied Physics (1)

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, "Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces," Journal of Applied Physics 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lab On A Chip (1)

C. J. Choi and B. T. Cunningham, "A 96-sell microplate incorporating a replica molded microfluidic network integrated with photonic crystal biosensors for high throughput kinetic biomolecular interaction analysis," Lab On A Chip 7, 550-556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meth. Molec. Bio. (1)

Y. Arima, Y. Teramura, H. Takiguchi, K. Kawano, H. Kotera, and H. Iwata, "Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers," Meth. Molec. Bio. 503, 3-20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

B. Rothenhausler and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).

Nature Biotechnol. (1)

L. Shi, "The Microarray Quality Control (MAQD) project shows inter- and intraplatform reproducibility of gene expression measurements," Nature Biotechnol. 24, 1151-1161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Nanotechnol. (1)

Q6. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nucleic Acids Research (2)

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, "The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization," Nucleic Acids Research 29, 5163-5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Sabanayagam and J. R. Lakowicz, "Increasing the sensitivity of DNA microarrays by metal-enhanced fluorescence using surface-bound silver nanoparticles," Nucleic Acids Research 35, e13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PNAS (2)

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications," PNAS 105, 7988-7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Dandy, P. Wu, and D. W. Grainger, "Array feature size influences nucleic acid surface capture in DNA microarrays," PNAS 104, 8223-8228 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. M. Chinowsky, T. Mactutis, E. Fu, and P. Yager, "Optical and electronic design for a high-performance surface plasmon resonance imager," Proc. SPIE 5261, 173-182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Scie. Instruments (1)

E. Fu, T. Chinowsky, J. Foley, J. Weinstein, and P. Yager, "Characterization of a wavelength-tunable surface plasmon resonance microscope," Rev. Scie. Instruments 75, 2300-2304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (3)

Q7. B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q5. L. L. Chan, S. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library," Sens. Actuators B 132, 418-425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q2. B. Lin, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "A Label-Free Biosensor-Based Cell Attachment Assay for Characterization of Cell Surface Molecules," Sens. Actuators B 114, 559-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B, Chemical (1)

P. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, "A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions," Sens. Actuators B, Chemical 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, "Advanced Methods for SPR Biosensing," in Handbook of Surface Plasmon Resonance, R. B. M. Schasfoort and A. J. Tudos, eds. (RSC Publishing, London, 2008), pp. 251-280.

W. Zhang, I. Shmulevich, and J. Astola, Microarray Quality Control (Wiley, Hoboken, 2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Combined enhanced-fluorescence and label-free imaging instrument schematic.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic (a) and atomic force microscope surface profile (b) of photonic crystal structure designed for label-free and enhanced-fluorescence imaging.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dispersion for (a) TM and (b) TE illumination of the PC used in this study. Resonance for label-free and enhanced excitation at 633 nm lies at ~2-deg in TM, while Cy5 emission can couple efficiently to TE resonant modes at 690 nm near the surface normal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Enhanced fluorescence (a) and label-free (b) images of 50 µg/ml SA-Cy5 spots on a PC. Inverted transmission versus angle response for a pixel inside and outside the SA-Cy5 spot (c) and cross-section of the label-free image through 2 SA-Cy5 spots(d).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Label-free response for two-fold dilution series of strepavidin-Cy5 spotted on a PC surface.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Gain and exposure-optimized images of SA-Cy5 fluorescence on glass compared to PC EF. (b) Signal-to-noise vs SA-Cy5 concentration showing over two orders of magnitude improvement in limit of detection (LOD).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Label-free image of spotted 70mer capture DNA(a) and enlarged view of four spots (b). Enhanced-fluorescence image of the same area after sample hybridization (c) and enlarged view of the same four spots (d).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Fluorescence image of hybridized DNA microarray on a PC illuminated on-resonance (a) and on a control glass slide (b). Intensity cross-sections through five replicate spots for the PC illuminated on-resonance, illuminated off-resonance, and for the glass slide (c).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Exposure and gain-optimized fluorescence images of hybridized DNA microarray on a PC illuminated on-resonance (a) and on a control glass slide (b). (c) Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of spots exceeding an SNR of 3 are plotted versus spot location in the array for each image.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured Photonic Crystal Fluorescence Enhancement

Metrics