Abstract

We present an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm for simulation of time-resolved fluorescence in a layered turbid medium. It is based on the propagation of excitation and fluorescence photon bundles and the assumption of equal reduced scattering coefficients at the excitation and emission wavelengths. In addition to distributions of times of arrival of fluorescence photons at the detector, 3-D spatial generation probabilities were calculated. The algorithm was validated by comparison with the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for time-resolved fluorescence from a homogeneous semi-infinite turbid medium. It was applied to a two-layered model mimicking intra- and extracerebral compartments of the adult human head.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, "Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain," Neuroimage 31, 600-608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

J. Swartling, A. Pifferi, A. M. K. Enejder, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Accelerated Monte Carlo models to simulate fluorescence spectra from layered tissues," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 714-727 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Diamond, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "Measurement of fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield in tissue-simulating phantoms using three diffusion models of steady-state spatially resolved fluorescence," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4135-4149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Stasic, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "The use of spatially resolved fluorescence and reflectance to determine interface depth in layered fluorophore distributions," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3459-3474 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder, "Scaling down imaging: Molecular mapping of cancer in mice," Nat. Rev. Cancer 2, 11-18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, K. Steinbrink, K. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

A. Becker, C. Hessenius, K. Licha, B. Ebert, U. Sukowski, W. Semmler, B. Wiedenmann, and C. Grotzinger, "Receptor-targeted optical imaging of tumors with near-infrared fluorescent ligands," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 327-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved fluorescence from depth-dependent fluorophore concentrations," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 369-383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hattery, V. Chernomordik, M. Loew, I. Gannot, and A. Gandjbakhche, "Analytical solutions for time-resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging in a turbid medium such as tissue," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1523-1530 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Weersink, M. S. Patterson, K. Diamond, S. Silver, and N. Padgett, "Noninvasive measurement of fluorophore concentration in turbid media with a simple fluorescence/reflectance ratio technique," Appl. Opt. 40, 6389-6395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. S. Reynolds, J. Lee, D. Hawrysz, A. B. Thompson, R. H. Mayer, R. Roy, and T. L. Troy, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging of tissue volumes using near- infrared frequency domain photon migration," Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 66S-66S (1999).

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Mayer, J. S. Reynolds, and E. N. Sevick-Muraca, "Measurement of the fluorescence lifetime in scattering media lay frequency-domain photon migration," Appl. Opt. 38, 4930-4938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, "Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 37, 3586-3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

J. Swartling, A. Pifferi, A. M. K. Enejder, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Accelerated Monte Carlo models to simulate fluorescence spectra from layered tissues," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 714-727 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M. A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. D. Schnall, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans," Opt. Express 15, 6696-6716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

A. Becker, C. Hessenius, K. Licha, B. Ebert, U. Sukowski, W. Semmler, B. Wiedenmann, and C. Grotzinger, "Receptor-targeted optical imaging of tumors with near-infrared fluorescent ligands," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 327-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betz, T.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bown, S.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, E.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richard-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, "Propagation of fluorescent light," Lasers. Surg. Med. 21, 166-178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, A. U.

Cheong, W. F.

Chernomordik, V.

Choe, R.

Colleen, S.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Cope, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corlu, A.

Cornell, K. K.

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crilly, R. J.

Criswell, G.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richard-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, "Propagation of fluorescent light," Lasers. Surg. Med. 21, 166-178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R.

Delpy, D. T.

T. S. Leung, I. Tachtsidis, M. Tisdall, M. Smith, D. T. Delpy, and C. E. Elwell, "Theoretical investigation of measuring cerebral blood flow in the adult human head using bolus Indocyanine Green injection and near-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 46, 1604-1614 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diamond, K.

Diamond, K. R.

K. R. Diamond, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "Measurement of fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield in tissue-simulating phantoms using three diffusion models of steady-state spatially resolved fluorescence," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4135-4149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diddens, H.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Dietel, M.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dirnagl, U.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Durduran, T.

Ebert, B.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, C. Hessenius, K. Licha, B. Ebert, U. Sukowski, W. Semmler, B. Wiedenmann, and C. Grotzinger, "Receptor-targeted optical imaging of tumors with near-infrared fluorescent ligands," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 327-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eick, A. A.

Elwell, C. E.

Enejder, A. M. K.

Erdmann, R.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, "Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain," Neuroimage 31, 600-608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Essenpreis, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

D. Stasic, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "The use of spatially resolved fluorescence and reflectance to determine interface depth in layered fluorophore distributions," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3459-3474 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Diamond, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "Measurement of fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield in tissue-simulating phantoms using three diffusion models of steady-state spatially resolved fluorescence," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4135-4149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved fluorescence from depth-dependent fluorophore concentrations," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 369-383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firbank, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleige, B.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freyer, J. P.

Gandjbakhche, A.

Gannot, I.

Gardner, C.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richard-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, "Propagation of fluorescent light," Lasers. Surg. Med. 21, 166-178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, G.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Grotzinger, C.

A. Becker, C. Hessenius, K. Licha, B. Ebert, U. Sukowski, W. Semmler, B. Wiedenmann, and C. Grotzinger, "Receptor-targeted optical imaging of tumors with near-infrared fluorescent ligands," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 327-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hattery, D.

Hawrysz, D.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. S. Reynolds, J. Lee, D. Hawrysz, A. B. Thompson, R. H. Mayer, R. Roy, and T. L. Troy, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging of tissue volumes using near- infrared frequency domain photon migration," Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 66S-66S (1999).

Hein, E.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hessenius, C.

A. Becker, C. Hessenius, K. Licha, B. Ebert, U. Sukowski, W. Semmler, B. Wiedenmann, and C. Grotzinger, "Receptor-targeted optical imaging of tumors with near-infrared fluorescent ligands," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 327-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A. H.

Hiraoka, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hortnagl, H.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, C. L.

Hyde, D. E.

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved fluorescence from depth-dependent fluorophore concentrations," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 369-383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Idvall, I.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ingvar, C.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

Jocham, D.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

Klohs, J.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klump, B.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kohl-Bareis, M.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, K. Steinbrink, K. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. S. Reynolds, J. Lee, D. Hawrysz, A. B. Thompson, R. H. Mayer, R. Roy, and T. L. Troy, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging of tissue volumes using near- infrared frequency domain photon migration," Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 66S-66S (1999).

Leung, T. S.

Licha, K.

A. Becker, C. Hessenius, K. Licha, B. Ebert, U. Sukowski, W. Semmler, B. Wiedenmann, and C. Grotzinger, "Receptor-targeted optical imaging of tumors with near-infrared fluorescent ligands," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 327-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebert, A.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, "Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain," Neuroimage 31, 600-608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindauer, U.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Lochs, H.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loew, M.

Macdonald, R.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, "Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain," Neuroimage 31, 600-608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malak, K.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, K. Steinbrink, K. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayer, R. H.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. S. Reynolds, J. Lee, D. Hawrysz, A. B. Thompson, R. H. Mayer, R. Roy, and T. L. Troy, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging of tissue volumes using near- infrared frequency domain photon migration," Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 66S-66S (1999).

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Mayer, J. S. Reynolds, and E. N. Sevick-Muraca, "Measurement of the fluorescence lifetime in scattering media lay frequency-domain photon migration," Appl. Opt. 38, 4930-4938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moller, M.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, "Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain," Neuroimage 31, 600-608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montan, S.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

Ms, F.

Nolte, D.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oberhuber, G.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Obrig, H.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, "Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain," Neuroimage 31, 600-608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, K. Steinbrink, K. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortner, M.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, N.

Paithankar, D. Y.

Patterson, M.

Patterson, M. S.

K. R. Diamond, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "Measurement of fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield in tissue-simulating phantoms using three diffusion models of steady-state spatially resolved fluorescence," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4135-4149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Stasic, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "The use of spatially resolved fluorescence and reflectance to determine interface depth in layered fluorophore distributions," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3459-3474 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weersink, M. S. Patterson, K. Diamond, S. Silver, and N. Padgett, "Noninvasive measurement of fluorophore concentration in turbid media with a simple fluorescence/reflectance ratio technique," Appl. Opt. 40, 6389-6395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved fluorescence from depth-dependent fluorophore concentrations," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 369-383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Paithankar, A. U. Chen, B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, and E. M. SevickMuraca, "Imaging of fluorescent yield and lifetime from multiply scattered light reemitted from random media," Appl. Opt. 36, 2260-2272 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L.

Pfefer, J.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richard-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, "Propagation of fluorescent light," Lasers. Surg. Med. 21, 166-178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

Pogue, B.

Pogue, B. W.

Porschen, R.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

Reynolds, J. S.

R. H. Mayer, J. S. Reynolds, and E. N. Sevick-Muraca, "Measurement of the fluorescence lifetime in scattering media lay frequency-domain photon migration," Appl. Opt. 38, 4930-4938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. S. Reynolds, J. Lee, D. Hawrysz, A. B. Thompson, R. H. Mayer, R. Roy, and T. L. Troy, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging of tissue volumes using near- infrared frequency domain photon migration," Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 66S-66S (1999).

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richard-Kortum, R.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richard-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, "Propagation of fluorescent light," Lasers. Surg. Med. 21, 166-178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, "Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain," Neuroimage 31, 600-608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, M. A.

Roy, R.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. S. Reynolds, J. Lee, D. Hawrysz, A. B. Thompson, R. H. Mayer, R. Roy, and T. L. Troy, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging of tissue volumes using near- infrared frequency domain photon migration," Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 66S-66S (1999).

Rydell, R.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Schnall, M. D.

Schweiger, M.

Semmler, W.

A. Becker, C. Hessenius, K. Licha, B. Ebert, U. Sukowski, W. Semmler, B. Wiedenmann, and C. Grotzinger, "Receptor-targeted optical imaging of tumors with near-infrared fluorescent ligands," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 327-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick Muraca, E. M.

SevickMuraca, E. M.

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. S. Reynolds, J. Lee, D. Hawrysz, A. B. Thompson, R. H. Mayer, R. Roy, and T. L. Troy, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging of tissue volumes using near- infrared frequency domain photon migration," Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 66S-66S (1999).

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. N.

Shen, D.

Silver, S.

Smith, M.

Snyder, P. W.

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spears, J. R.

Stasic, D.

D. Stasic, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "The use of spatially resolved fluorescence and reflectance to determine interface depth in layered fluorophore distributions," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3459-3474 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, "Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain," Neuroimage 31, 600-608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbrink, K.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, K. Steinbrink, K. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolte, M.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sukowski, U.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, C. Hessenius, K. Licha, B. Ebert, U. Sukowski, W. Semmler, B. Wiedenmann, and C. Grotzinger, "Receptor-targeted optical imaging of tumors with near-infrared fluorescent ligands," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 327-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, K.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Swartling, J.

Tachtsidis, I.

Thompson, A. B.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. S. Reynolds, J. Lee, D. Hawrysz, A. B. Thompson, R. H. Mayer, R. Roy, and T. L. Troy, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging of tissue volumes using near- infrared frequency domain photon migration," Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 66S-66S (1999).

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tisdall, M.

Troy, T. L.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. S. Reynolds, J. Lee, D. Hawrysz, A. B. Thompson, R. H. Mayer, R. Roy, and T. L. Troy, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging of tissue volumes using near- infrared frequency domain photon migration," Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 66S-66S (1999).

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hutchinson, T. L. Troy, and E. M. Sevick Muraca, "Fluorescence-lifetime determination in tissues or other scattering media from measurement of excitation and emission kinetics," Appl. Opt. 35, 2325-2332 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, C. H.

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uludag, K.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, K. Steinbrink, K. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Zee, P.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, "Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain," Neuroimage 31, 600-608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, K. Steinbrink, K. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, "Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain," Neuroimage 31, 600-608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, I.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.

Warren, S.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richard-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, "Propagation of fluorescent light," Lasers. Surg. Med. 21, 166-178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waters, D. J.

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber-Eibel, J.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weersink, R.

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder, "Scaling down imaging: Molecular mapping of cancer in mice," Nat. Rev. Cancer 2, 11-18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richard-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, "Propagation of fluorescent light," Lasers. Surg. Med. 21, 166-178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiedenmann, B.

A. Becker, C. Hessenius, K. Licha, B. Ebert, U. Sukowski, W. Semmler, B. Wiedenmann, and C. Grotzinger, "Receptor-targeted optical imaging of tumors with near-infrared fluorescent ligands," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 327-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B.

Wilson, B. C.

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved fluorescence from depth-dependent fluorophore concentrations," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 369-383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Wunder, A.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

Zumbusch, K.

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Acta Radiol.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montan, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours--initial experience," Acta Radiol. 39, 2-9 (1998).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

M. Patterson and B. Pogue, "Mathematical model for time-resolved and frequency-domain fluorescence spectroscopy in biological tissues," Appl. Opt. 33, 1963-1974 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Mayer, J. S. Reynolds, and E. N. Sevick-Muraca, "Measurement of the fluorescence lifetime in scattering media lay frequency-domain photon migration," Appl. Opt. 38, 4930-4938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hutchinson, T. L. Troy, and E. M. Sevick Muraca, "Fluorescence-lifetime determination in tissues or other scattering media from measurement of excitation and emission kinetics," Appl. Opt. 35, 2325-2332 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Paithankar, A. U. Chen, B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, and E. M. SevickMuraca, "Imaging of fluorescent yield and lifetime from multiply scattered light reemitted from random media," Appl. Opt. 36, 2260-2272 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Crilly, W. F. Cheong, B. Wilson, and J. R. Spears, "Forward-adjoint fluorescence model: Monte Carlo integration and experimental validation," Appl. Opt. 36, 6513-6519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, "Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 37, 3586-3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Weersink, M. S. Patterson, K. Diamond, S. Silver, and N. Padgett, "Noninvasive measurement of fluorophore concentration in turbid media with a simple fluorescence/reflectance ratio technique," Appl. Opt. 40, 6389-6395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Leung, I. Tachtsidis, M. Tisdall, M. Smith, D. T. Delpy, and C. E. Elwell, "Theoretical investigation of measuring cerebral blood flow in the adult human head using bolus Indocyanine Green injection and near-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 46, 1604-1614 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gut

M. Ortner, B. Ebert, E. Hein, K. Zumbusch, D. Nolte, U. Sukowski, J. Weber-Eibel, B. Fleige, M. Dietel, M. Stolte, G. Oberhuber, R. Porschen, B. Klump, H. Hortnagl, H. Lochs, and H. Rinneberg, "Time gated fluorescence spectroscopy in Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 52, 28-33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, K. Steinbrink, K. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Lasers. Surg. Med.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richard-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, "Propagation of fluorescent light," Lasers. Surg. Med. 21, 166-178 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

A. Becker, C. Hessenius, K. Licha, B. Ebert, U. Sukowski, W. Semmler, B. Wiedenmann, and C. Grotzinger, "Receptor-targeted optical imaging of tumors with near-infrared fluorescent ligands," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 327-331 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med.

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Cancer

R. Weissleder, "Scaling down imaging: Molecular mapping of cancer in mice," Nat. Rev. Cancer 2, 11-18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurodegenerative

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Towards non-invasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain," Neurodegenerative 5, 296-303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neuroimage

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, "Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain," Neuroimage 31, 600-608 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photochem. Photobiol.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. S. Reynolds, J. Lee, D. Hawrysz, A. B. Thompson, R. H. Mayer, R. Roy, and T. L. Troy, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging of tissue volumes using near- infrared frequency domain photon migration," Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 66S-66S (1999).

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

K. R. Diamond, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "Measurement of fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield in tissue-simulating phantoms using three diffusion models of steady-state spatially resolved fluorescence," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4135-4149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved fluorescence from depth-dependent fluorophore concentrations," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 369-383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stasic, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "The use of spatially resolved fluorescence and reflectance to determine interface depth in layered fluorophore distributions," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3459-3474 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Pifferi, R. Berg, P. Taroni, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Fitting of time-resolved reflectance curves with a Monte Carlo model," in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (1996), pp. 311-314.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, "A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments," in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging II, K. Licha and R. Cubeddu, eds., (2005), p. 58590H.

A. J. Welch and R. Richards-Kortum, "Monte Carlo simulation of the propagation of fluorescent light" in Laser induced Interstitial Thermotherapy, G. Muller and A. Roggan, eds., (1995), p. 174-189.

J. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum US, 1999).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of propagation of a photon bundle (blue) between source and detector and generation of fluorescence (red) within a layered tissue model (DTOF - distribution of times of flight of diffusely reflected photons, DTA - distribution of times of arrival of fluorescence photons at the detector).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of distributions of times of arrival of fluorescence photons calculated for a homogeneous semi-infinite medium by the analytical solution of the diffusion equation (solid lines) with the results of Monte Carlo calculations (symbols) for several source-detector separations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Validation of the Monte Carlo code for a homogeneous semi-infinite medium. Moments of DTAs (NFtot , <t> F , VF ) simulated at 6 source-detector separations vs. absorption coefficient of the tissue at the excitation wavelength µax (upper row) and at emission wavelength µam (lower row), other optical properties as given in Table 1. The solid lines represent the data obtained from the diffusion model [Eq. (13)], the symbols mark the results of Monte Carlo simulations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Moments of DTAs vs. absorption coefficient of the dye at the excitation wavelength µafx (upper row) and at emission wavelength µafm (lower row). The lines represent the data obtained from the diffusion model [Eq. (13)], the symbols mark the results of Monte Carlo simulations.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spatial distribution of generation probabilities for homogeneous optical properties (a), for increased µafx in the lower layer (b) and increased µafx in the upper layer (c). Dimensions in mm. The gray scale is linear. In each panel black corresponds to the individual maximum.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Changes in moments (integral, mean time of flight and variance) of the DTAs (red squares, scale on the left axis) and DTOFs (blue circles, scale on the right axis) calculated by Monte Carlo simulations for increasing µafx in lower (filled symbols) and upper (open symbols) layers of the tissue model; all other optical properties as given in Table 1.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Changes of moments (normalized integral, mean time of flight and variance) of the DTAs (red lines) and DTOFs (blue lines) obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for interoptode distances of 2 cm (thick lines) and 3 cm (thin lines). The assumed time courses of µafx in lower (cyan symbols) and upper (magenta symbols) layers of the model are presented in the left column: homogeneous bolus (first row), slowly decaying bolus in the upper layer only (second row), fast decaying bolus in the lower layer only (third row).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Changes of moments (normalized integral, mean time of flight and variance) of the DTAs (red lines) and DTOFs (blue lines) obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for interoptode distances of 2 cm (thick lines) and 3 cm (thin lines). The assumed time courses of µafx (left column) in lower (cyan symbols) and upper (magenta symbols) layers reflect realistic changes of concentration of the fluorophore in the intra- and extracerebral tissue compartments.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Initial homogeneous optical properties of tissue and fluorescing dye distributed in tissue

Equations (13)

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L j = 1 n ( R ) μ s , j
L B * = L B μ s , A μ s , B
P c , i ( q ) = Φ [ 1 exp ( j μ afx , j ( l ij ( q ) l ij ( q 1 ) ) ) ]
W x , i ( q ) = exp ( j ( μ ax , j + μ afx , j ) l ij ( q ) )
W m , i ( q ) = exp ( j ( μ am , j + μ afm , j ) ( l ij ( e ) l ij ( q ) ) ) .
W m , i = q W x , i ( q ) P c , i ( q ) W m , i ( q ) .
t i = j l ij ( e ) c .
W m , i = q W x , i ( q ) P c , i ( q ) W m , i ( q ) exp ( j Δ μ a , j l ij ( q ) * )
Δ μ a , j = μ afx , j + μ ax , j μ afm , j μ am , j
W x , i = exp ( j ( μ ax , j + μ afx , j ) l ij ( e ) )
W m ( x , y , z ; r , t ) = q i W x , i ( q ) P c , i ( q ) W m , i ( q )
F xm ( r , t ) = μ afx Φ cz 0 ( 4 π Dc ) 3 2 t 5 2 ( β x β m ) exp ( r 2 + z 0 2 4 Dct ) [ exp ( β m t ) exp ( β x t ) ]
where z 0 = 1 μ s , D 1 ( 3 μ s ) and β m = ( μ am + μ afm ) c , β x = ( μ ax + μ afx ) c .

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