Abstract

We report a new variation of the conventional Z-scan method to characterize the third-order optical nonlinearity of photonic materials. By exploiting the combination of the eclipse Z-scan with a thermal nonlinearity management technique, we demonstrate an improvement in sensitivity and flexibility of the method to simultaneously characterize the thermal and nonthermal nonlinearity of optical materials. The method is demonstrated by measuring the nonlinear refractive index in CS2, SiO2 and H2O, standard materials, and also in a biomaterial, the amino acid Tryptophan in water solution, using a femtosecond Ti-Sapphire laser operating at 76MHz repetition rate.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Z-scan measurements using high repetition rate lasers: how to manage thermal effects

Andrea Gnoli, Luca Razzari, and Marcofabio Righini
Opt. Express 13(20) 7976-7981 (2005)

Thermally managed Z-scan methods investigation of the size-dependent nonlinearity of graphene oxide in various solvents

Paul Burkins, Robinson Kuis, Isaac Basaldua, Anthony M. Johnson, Siva Ram Swaminathan, Dajie Zhang, and Sudhir Trivedi
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(11) 2395-2401 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York, 1982).
  2. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2002), 2nd Edition.
  3. R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).
  4. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-26,760 –769 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ/104 wave-front distortion,” Opt. Lett. 19,317–319 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59,2666–2668 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Measurements of nondegenerate nonlinearities using a two-color Z-scan,” Opt. Lett. 17,260–262 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11,1009 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. DeSalvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-Scan Measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18,194–196 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Reflection Z-scan technique for measurement of optical properties of surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65,1067–1069 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zílio, “Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65,2121–2123 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Castillo, V. P. Kozich, and A. Marcano , O. “Thermal lensing resulting from one- and two-photon absorption studied with a two-color time-resolved Z-scan,” Opt. Lett. 19,171–173 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Falconieri, “Thermo-optical effects in Z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 1,662 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Gnoli, L. Razzari, and M. Righini, “Z-scan measurements using high repetition rate lasers: how to manage thermal effects,” Opt. Express 13,7976 –7981(2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69,133 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. X.-Q. Chen, R. A. Engh, and G. R. Fleming, Reorientation of tryptophan and simple peptides: onset of internal flexibility and comparison with molecular dynamics simulation, J. Phys. Chem. 92,4811 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Spatial phase modulation due to thermal nonlinearity in semiconductor-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 50,9092 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and T. S. Clement, “Determination of n2 by direct measurement of the optical phase” Opt. Lett. 21,1812–1814 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S-P Tai, W-J Lee, D-B Shieh, P-C Wu, H-Yi Huang, C-H Yu, and C-K Sun, “ In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy” Opt. Express 14,6178–6187 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. J. Rodrigues, C.H.T.P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Maters. 20,153 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

J. J. Rodrigues, C.H.T.P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Maters. 20,153 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69,133 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Falconieri, “Thermo-optical effects in Z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 1,662 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (6)

D. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Spatial phase modulation due to thermal nonlinearity in semiconductor-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 50,9092 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ/104 wave-front distortion,” Opt. Lett. 19,317–319 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11,1009 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Reflection Z-scan technique for measurement of optical properties of surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65,1067–1069 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zílio, “Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65,2121–2123 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Castillo, V. P. Kozich, and A. Marcano , O. “Thermal lensing resulting from one- and two-photon absorption studied with a two-color time-resolved Z-scan,” Opt. Lett. 19,171–173 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Measurements of nondegenerate nonlinearities using a two-color Z-scan,” Opt. Lett. 17,260–262 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59,2666–2668 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-26,760 –769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

L. X.-Q. Chen, R. A. Engh, and G. R. Fleming, Reorientation of tryptophan and simple peptides: onset of internal flexibility and comparison with molecular dynamics simulation, J. Phys. Chem. 92,4811 (1988).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2002), 2nd Edition.

Castillo, J.

Chen, L. X.-Q.

L. X.-Q. Chen, R. A. Engh, and G. R. Fleming, Reorientation of tryptophan and simple peptides: onset of internal flexibility and comparison with molecular dynamics simulation, J. Phys. Chem. 92,4811 (1988).
[Crossref]

Clement, T. S.

de Araújo, Cid B.

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Reflection Z-scan technique for measurement of optical properties of surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65,1067–1069 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Spatial phase modulation due to thermal nonlinearity in semiconductor-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 50,9092 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59,2666–2668 (1991).
[Crossref]

DeSalvo, R.

R. DeSalvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Z-Scan Measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals,” Opt. Lett. 18,194–196 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Measurements of nondegenerate nonlinearities using a two-color Z-scan,” Opt. Lett. 17,260–262 (1992).
[Crossref]

Engh, R. A.

L. X.-Q. Chen, R. A. Engh, and G. R. Fleming, Reorientation of tryptophan and simple peptides: onset of internal flexibility and comparison with molecular dynamics simulation, J. Phys. Chem. 92,4811 (1988).
[Crossref]

Falconieri, M.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69,133 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Falconieri, “Thermo-optical effects in Z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 1,662 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fleming, G. R.

L. X.-Q. Chen, R. A. Engh, and G. R. Fleming, Reorientation of tryptophan and simple peptides: onset of internal flexibility and comparison with molecular dynamics simulation, J. Phys. Chem. 92,4811 (1988).
[Crossref]

Gnoli, A.

Gomes, A. S. L.

D. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Spatial phase modulation due to thermal nonlinearity in semiconductor-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 50,9092 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Reflection Z-scan technique for measurement of optical properties of surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65,1067–1069 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59,2666–2668 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

Huang, H-Yi

Kozich, V. P.

Lee, W-J

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York, 1982).

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59,2666–2668 (1991).
[Crossref]

Marcano, A.

Mendonça, C. R.

J. J. Rodrigues, C.H.T.P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Maters. 20,153 (2002).
[Crossref]

Misoguti, L.

J. J. Rodrigues, C.H.T.P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Maters. 20,153 (2002).
[Crossref]

Oliveira, L. C.

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zílio, “Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65,2121–2123 (1994).
[Crossref]

Petrov, D.

D. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Spatial phase modulation due to thermal nonlinearity in semiconductor-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 50,9092 (1994).
[Crossref]

Petrov, D. V.

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Reflection Z-scan technique for measurement of optical properties of surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65,1067–1069 (1994).
[Crossref]

Razzari, L.

Righini, M.

Rodrigues, J. J.

J. J. Rodrigues, C.H.T.P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Maters. 20,153 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, G.

Said, A. A.

Salvetti, G.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69,133 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Shieh, D-B

Silva, C.H.T.P.

J. J. Rodrigues, C.H.T.P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Maters. 20,153 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sun, C-K

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).

Tai, S-P

Taylor, A. J.

Van Stryland, E. W.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11,1009 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Measurements of nondegenerate nonlinearities using a two-color Z-scan,” Opt. Lett. 17,260–262 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-26,760 –769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wu, P-C

Xia, T.

Yu, C-H

Zilio, S. C.

J. J. Rodrigues, C.H.T.P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Maters. 20,153 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zílio, S. C.

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zílio, “Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65,2121–2123 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69,133 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Reflection Z-scan technique for measurement of optical properties of surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65,1067–1069 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zílio, “Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65,2121–2123 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59,2666–2668 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Falconieri, “Thermo-optical effects in Z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 1,662 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

L. X.-Q. Chen, R. A. Engh, and G. R. Fleming, Reorientation of tryptophan and simple peptides: onset of internal flexibility and comparison with molecular dynamics simulation, J. Phys. Chem. 92,4811 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-26,760 –769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Maters. (1)

J. J. Rodrigues, C.H.T.P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonça, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions,” Opt. Maters. 20,153 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and Cid B. de Araújo, “Spatial phase modulation due to thermal nonlinearity in semiconductor-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 50,9092 (1994).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York, 1982).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2002), 2nd Edition.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up for thermally managed eclipse Z-scan. L1 through L5 are convex lens; CH stands for chopper; Pd1 and Pd2 are photodetectors; BS stands for beam splitter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan measurements: (a) time evolution; (b) z-scan signature for CS2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan measurements: (a) time evolution; (b) z-scan signature for quartz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time evolution for H2O and Tryptophan solution.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan measurements in water and Tryptophan solution: (a). z-scan signature for H2O; and (b). z-scan signature for Tryptophan solution for t = 0, both extrapolated from t>0 from Fig. 4.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔT p v = 0.406 ( 1 S ) 0.25 ΔΦ o ,
ΔT p v = 0.68 ( 1 S d ) 0.44 ΔΦo ,

Metrics