Abstract

Elastin is an essential and widespread structural protein in charge of the integrity on tissues and organs. In this study, we demonstrate that elastin is a major origin of the third-harmonic-generation (THG) contrast under Cr:forsterite laser excitation operating at 1230nm, with selective visualization inside many tissues such as lung tissues and arteries. In vivo imaging of the nude mouse elastic cartilage beneath the hypodermis by epi-THG microscopy keeps the high resolution and contrast in all three dimensions. Combined with second-harmonic-generation microscopy, THG microscopy exhibits the ability to show the extraordinary proliferation of elastic fibers for the ophthalmic disease of pterygium and the capability of distinguishable visualization from collagen.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2004 (3)

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “DPSK for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions,” J. Selected Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Pincemin, D. Grot, C. Borsier, J.D. Ania-Castañòn, and S.K. Turitsyn, “Impact of the fiber type and dispersion management on the performance of an NRZ 16x40 Gb/s DWDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2362–2364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

T. Hoshida, O. Vassilieva, K. Yamada, S. Choudhary, R. Pecqueur, and H. Kuwahara, “Optimal 40 Gb/s modulation formats for spectrally efficient long-haul DWDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1989–1996 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, L. Nelson, L. Leng, S. Stulz, S. Knudsen, and D. Peckham, “1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 2400 km of fibre with 100-km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 38, 647–648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, and P. Bayvel, “Reduction of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb/s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1624–1626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M.K. Liu, A.C. Vrahas, and M.J.B. Moretti, “Saddle point bit error rate computations for optical communication systems incorporating equalizers,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 989–1000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1576–1582 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, “Phase noise in photonics communications systems using linear amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1351–1355 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marcuse, “Derivation of analytical expressions for the bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1816–1823 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Agata, A.

T. Tsuritani, K. Ishida, A. Agata, K. Shimomura, I. Morita, T. Tokura, H. Taga, T. Mizuochi, and N. Edagawa, “70GHz-spaced 40 x 42.7Gbit/s transmission over 8700km using CS-RZ DPSK signal, all-Raman repeaters and symmetrically dispersion-managed fiber span,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD23. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD23.

Akasaka, Y.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

Ania-Castañón, J.D.

J.D. Ania-Castañón, I.O. Nasieva, N. Kurukitkoson, S.K. Turitsyn, C. Borsier, and E. Pincemin, “Nonlinearity management in fiber transmission systems with hybrid amplification,” Opt. Commun.233, 353(2004).
[CrossRef]

Ania-Castañòn, J.D.

E. Pincemin, D. Grot, C. Borsier, J.D. Ania-Castañòn, and S.K. Turitsyn, “Impact of the fiber type and dispersion management on the performance of an NRZ 16x40 Gb/s DWDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2362–2364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Azizoglu, M.

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1576–1582 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, S.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Baynham, P.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Bayvel, P.

R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, and P. Bayvel, “Reduction of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb/s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1624–1626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bennike, J.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Liu, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimmitt, K. Springer, D. Gapontsev, and V. Ivshin, “Transmission of 40×42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km ultraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.4.

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

Borsier, C.

E. Pincemin, D. Grot, C. Borsier, J.D. Ania-Castañòn, and S.K. Turitsyn, “Impact of the fiber type and dispersion management on the performance of an NRZ 16x40 Gb/s DWDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2362–2364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.D. Ania-Castañón, I.O. Nasieva, N. Kurukitkoson, S.K. Turitsyn, C. Borsier, and E. Pincemin, “Nonlinearity management in fiber transmission systems with hybrid amplification,” Opt. Commun.233, 353(2004).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, G.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Chandrasekhar, S.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Choudhary, S.

Dey, S.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Liu, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimmitt, K. Springer, D. Gapontsev, and V. Ivshin, “Transmission of 40×42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km ultraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.4.

Doerr, C.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

Doerr, S.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Edagawa, N.

T. Tsuritani, K. Ishida, A. Agata, K. Shimomura, I. Morita, T. Tokura, H. Taga, T. Mizuochi, and N. Edagawa, “70GHz-spaced 40 x 42.7Gbit/s transmission over 8700km using CS-RZ DPSK signal, all-Raman repeaters and symmetrically dispersion-managed fiber span,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD23. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD23.

Emori, S.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Emori, Y.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

Fjelde, T.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

Freund, R.

A. Richter, I. Koltchanov, K. Kuzmin, E. Myslivets, and R. Freund, “Issues on Bit-Error Rate Estimation for Fiber-Optic Communication Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper NTuH3. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=NFOEC-2005-NTuH3

Gaarde, Y.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Gapontsev, D.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Liu, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimmitt, K. Springer, D. Gapontsev, and V. Ivshin, “Transmission of 40×42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km ultraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.4.

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

Gill, D. M.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

Gordon, J. P.

Grosz, D.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Grot, D.

E. Pincemin, D. Grot, C. Borsier, J.D. Ania-Castañòn, and S.K. Turitsyn, “Impact of the fiber type and dispersion management on the performance of an NRZ 16x40 Gb/s DWDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2362–2364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Harris, D.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

Hoshida, T.

Humblet, P. A.

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1576–1582 (1991).
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Hunsche, S.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Ishida, K.

T. Tsuritani, K. Ishida, A. Agata, K. Shimomura, I. Morita, T. Tokura, H. Taga, T. Mizuochi, and N. Edagawa, “70GHz-spaced 40 x 42.7Gbit/s transmission over 8700km using CS-RZ DPSK signal, all-Raman repeaters and symmetrically dispersion-managed fiber span,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD23. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD23.

Ivshin, V.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Liu, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimmitt, K. Springer, D. Gapontsev, and V. Ivshin, “Transmission of 40×42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km ultraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.4.

Judy, A.

A. Judy, “Dispersion Managed Spans in Terrestrial Routes: Technical Advantages and Practical Considerations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper TuS1. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-TuS1

Kado, S.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Killey, R. I.

R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, and P. Bayvel, “Reduction of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb/s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1624–1626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

Kimmitt, M.

C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Liu, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimmitt, K. Springer, D. Gapontsev, and V. Ivshin, “Transmission of 40×42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km ultraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.4.

Knudsen, S.

B. Zhu, L. Nelson, L. Leng, S. Stulz, S. Knudsen, and D. Peckham, “1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 2400 km of fibre with 100-km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 38, 647–648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Koltchanov, I.

A. Richter, I. Koltchanov, K. Kuzmin, E. Myslivets, and R. Freund, “Issues on Bit-Error Rate Estimation for Fiber-Optic Communication Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper NTuH3. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=NFOEC-2005-NTuH3

Kung, A.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Kurukitkoson, N.

J.D. Ania-Castañón, I.O. Nasieva, N. Kurukitkoson, S.K. Turitsyn, C. Borsier, and E. Pincemin, “Nonlinearity management in fiber transmission systems with hybrid amplification,” Opt. Commun.233, 353(2004).
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Kuwahara, H.

Kuzmin, K.

A. Richter, I. Koltchanov, K. Kuzmin, E. Myslivets, and R. Freund, “Issues on Bit-Error Rate Estimation for Fiber-Optic Communication Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper NTuH3. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=NFOEC-2005-NTuH3

Leng, L.

B. Zhu, L. Nelson, L. Leng, S. Stulz, S. Knudsen, and D. Peckham, “1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 2400 km of fibre with 100-km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 38, 647–648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, L. Leng, M. O. Pedersen, D. W. Peckham, and S. L. Stulz, “Transmission of 1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) Over Transoceanic Distance with Terrestrial 100-km Amplifier Spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FN2. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-FN2.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Leuthold, C.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Leuthold, J.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Lingle, R.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

Lingle, R. L.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Liu, F.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Liu, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimmitt, K. Springer, D. Gapontsev, and V. Ivshin, “Transmission of 40×42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km ultraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.4.

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

Liu, M.K.

M.K. Liu, A.C. Vrahas, and M.J.B. Moretti, “Saddle point bit error rate computations for optical communication systems incorporating equalizers,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 989–1000 (1995).
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Liu, X.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “DPSK for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions,” J. Selected Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
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X. Wei and X. Liu, “Analysis of intrachannel four-wave mixing in differential phase-shift keying transmission with large dispersion,” Opt. Lett.  28, 2300–2302 (2003).
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A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Mamyshev, P.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Liu, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimmitt, K. Springer, D. Gapontsev, and V. Ivshin, “Transmission of 40×42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km ultraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.4.

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Derivation of analytical expressions for the bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1816–1823 (1990).
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Marhelyuk, A.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Maywar, D.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Mikhailov, V.

R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, and P. Bayvel, “Reduction of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb/s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1624–1626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Liu, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimmitt, K. Springer, D. Gapontsev, and V. Ivshin, “Transmission of 40×42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km ultraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.4.

Mizuochi, T.

T. Tsuritani, K. Ishida, A. Agata, K. Shimomura, I. Morita, T. Tokura, H. Taga, T. Mizuochi, and N. Edagawa, “70GHz-spaced 40 x 42.7Gbit/s transmission over 8700km using CS-RZ DPSK signal, all-Raman repeaters and symmetrically dispersion-managed fiber span,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD23. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD23.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Moretti, M.J.B.

M.K. Liu, A.C. Vrahas, and M.J.B. Moretti, “Saddle point bit error rate computations for optical communication systems incorporating equalizers,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 989–1000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morita, I.

T. Tsuritani, K. Ishida, A. Agata, K. Shimomura, I. Morita, T. Tokura, H. Taga, T. Mizuochi, and N. Edagawa, “70GHz-spaced 40 x 42.7Gbit/s transmission over 8700km using CS-RZ DPSK signal, all-Raman repeaters and symmetrically dispersion-managed fiber span,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD23. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD23.

Movassaghi, M.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Myslivets, E.

A. Richter, I. Koltchanov, K. Kuzmin, E. Myslivets, and R. Freund, “Issues on Bit-Error Rate Estimation for Fiber-Optic Communication Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper NTuH3. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=NFOEC-2005-NTuH3

Namiki,

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Namiki, S.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

Nasieva, I.O.

J.D. Ania-Castañón, I.O. Nasieva, N. Kurukitkoson, S.K. Turitsyn, C. Borsier, and E. Pincemin, “Nonlinearity management in fiber transmission systems with hybrid amplification,” Opt. Commun.233, 353(2004).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L.

B. Zhu, L. Nelson, L. Leng, S. Stulz, S. Knudsen, and D. Peckham, “1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 2400 km of fibre with 100-km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 38, 647–648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L. E.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, L. Leng, M. O. Pedersen, D. W. Peckham, and S. L. Stulz, “Transmission of 1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) Over Transoceanic Distance with Terrestrial 100-km Amplifier Spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FN2. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-FN2.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Oguri, A.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

Ohki, Y.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

Peckham, D.

B. Zhu, L. Nelson, L. Leng, S. Stulz, S. Knudsen, and D. Peckham, “1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 2400 km of fibre with 100-km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 38, 647–648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Peckham, D. W.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, L. Leng, M. O. Pedersen, D. W. Peckham, and S. L. Stulz, “Transmission of 1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) Over Transoceanic Distance with Terrestrial 100-km Amplifier Spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FN2. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-FN2.

Pecqueur, R.

Pedersen, M. O.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, L. Leng, M. O. Pedersen, D. W. Peckham, and S. L. Stulz, “Transmission of 1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) Over Transoceanic Distance with Terrestrial 100-km Amplifier Spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FN2. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-FN2.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Pincemin, E.

E. Pincemin, D. Grot, C. Borsier, J.D. Ania-Castañòn, and S.K. Turitsyn, “Impact of the fiber type and dispersion management on the performance of an NRZ 16x40 Gb/s DWDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2362–2364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.D. Ania-Castañón, I.O. Nasieva, N. Kurukitkoson, S.K. Turitsyn, C. Borsier, and E. Pincemin, “Nonlinearity management in fiber transmission systems with hybrid amplification,” Opt. Commun.233, 353(2004).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, C.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Liu, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimmitt, K. Springer, D. Gapontsev, and V. Ivshin, “Transmission of 40×42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km ultraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.4.

Rasmussen, C. J.

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

Raybon, G.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Reeves-Hall, P.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

Richter, A.

A. Richter, I. Koltchanov, K. Kuzmin, E. Myslivets, and R. Freund, “Issues on Bit-Error Rate Estimation for Fiber-Optic Communication Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper NTuH3. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=NFOEC-2005-NTuH3

Serbe, P.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

Shimomura, K.

T. Tsuritani, K. Ishida, A. Agata, K. Shimomura, I. Morita, T. Tokura, H. Taga, T. Mizuochi, and N. Edagawa, “70GHz-spaced 40 x 42.7Gbit/s transmission over 8700km using CS-RZ DPSK signal, all-Raman repeaters and symmetrically dispersion-managed fiber span,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD23. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD23.

Springer, K.

C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Liu, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimmitt, K. Springer, D. Gapontsev, and V. Ivshin, “Transmission of 40×42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km ultraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.4.

Stulz, L.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Stulz, S.

B. Zhu, L. Nelson, L. Leng, S. Stulz, S. Knudsen, and D. Peckham, “1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 2400 km of fibre with 100-km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 38, 647–648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Stulz, S. L.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, L. Leng, M. O. Pedersen, D. W. Peckham, and S. L. Stulz, “Transmission of 1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) Over Transoceanic Distance with Terrestrial 100-km Amplifier Spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FN2. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-FN2.

Taga, H.

T. Tsuritani, K. Ishida, A. Agata, K. Shimomura, I. Morita, T. Tokura, H. Taga, T. Mizuochi, and N. Edagawa, “70GHz-spaced 40 x 42.7Gbit/s transmission over 8700km using CS-RZ DPSK signal, all-Raman repeaters and symmetrically dispersion-managed fiber span,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD23. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD23.

Thiele, H. J.

R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, and P. Bayvel, “Reduction of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb/s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1624–1626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tokura, T.

T. Tsuritani, K. Ishida, A. Agata, K. Shimomura, I. Morita, T. Tokura, H. Taga, T. Mizuochi, and N. Edagawa, “70GHz-spaced 40 x 42.7Gbit/s transmission over 8700km using CS-RZ DPSK signal, all-Raman repeaters and symmetrically dispersion-managed fiber span,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD23. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD23.

Tsukiji, N.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

Tsuritani, T.

T. Tsuritani, K. Ishida, A. Agata, K. Shimomura, I. Morita, T. Tokura, H. Taga, T. Mizuochi, and N. Edagawa, “70GHz-spaced 40 x 42.7Gbit/s transmission over 8700km using CS-RZ DPSK signal, all-Raman repeaters and symmetrically dispersion-managed fiber span,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD23. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD23.

Turitsyn, S.K.

E. Pincemin, D. Grot, C. Borsier, J.D. Ania-Castañòn, and S.K. Turitsyn, “Impact of the fiber type and dispersion management on the performance of an NRZ 16x40 Gb/s DWDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2362–2364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.D. Ania-Castañón, I.O. Nasieva, N. Kurukitkoson, S.K. Turitsyn, C. Borsier, and E. Pincemin, “Nonlinearity management in fiber transmission systems with hybrid amplification,” Opt. Commun.233, 353(2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Der Wagt, P.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Van Der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40 Gb/s Transmission over Transpacific distance (10000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and All-Raman amplified 100-km Ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 281–293 (2004).

C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

Vassilieva, O.

Vrahas, A.C.

M.K. Liu, A.C. Vrahas, and M.J.B. Moretti, “Saddle point bit error rate computations for optical communication systems incorporating equalizers,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 989–1000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “DPSK for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions,” J. Selected Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei and X. Liu, “Analysis of intrachannel four-wave mixing in differential phase-shift keying transmission with large dispersion,” Opt. Lett.  28, 2300–2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Xu, C.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “DPSK for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions,” J. Selected Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

Yamada, K.

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, L. Nelson, L. Leng, S. Stulz, S. Knudsen, and D. Peckham, “1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 2400 km of fibre with 100-km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 38, 647–648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, L. Leng, M. O. Pedersen, D. W. Peckham, and S. L. Stulz, “Transmission of 1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) Over Transoceanic Distance with Terrestrial 100-km Amplifier Spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FN2. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-FN2.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Zhu, L. Nelson, L. Leng, S. Stulz, S. Knudsen, and D. Peckham, “1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 2400 km of fibre with 100-km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 38, 647–648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. GillA. Sawchuk, “2.5 Tb/s (64×42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40×100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference,ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FC2.

J.D. Ania-Castañón, I.O. Nasieva, N. Kurukitkoson, S.K. Turitsyn, C. Borsier, and E. Pincemin, “Nonlinearity management in fiber transmission systems with hybrid amplification,” Opt. Commun.233, 353(2004).
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B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4-Tb/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD19. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD19.

T. Tsuritani, K. Ishida, A. Agata, K. Shimomura, I. Morita, T. Tokura, H. Taga, T. Mizuochi, and N. Edagawa, “70GHz-spaced 40 x 42.7Gbit/s transmission over 8700km using CS-RZ DPSK signal, all-Raman repeaters and symmetrically dispersion-managed fiber span,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD23. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD23.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, S. Knudsen, C. Leuthold, S. Doerr, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Baynham, Y. Gaarde, S. Emori, and Namiki, “Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80×42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of UltraWave fiber with 100-km dispersion managed spans using RZ-DPSK format,” in proceedings ECOC’2002, DK, Copenhaguen, paper PD4.2.

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C. J. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10,000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100km UltraWave™ fiber spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD18. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD18.

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B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, L. Leng, M. O. Pedersen, D. W. Peckham, and S. L. Stulz, “Transmission of 1.6 Tb/s (40×42.7 Gb/s) Over Transoceanic Distance with Terrestrial 100-km Amplifier Spans,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FN2. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-FN2.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (691 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2252 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

System setup. (a) Experimental diagram of THG and multiphoton microscopes. (b) Fixation of the nude mouse ear. (c) Acquire images of the test animal under the microscope with a thermal blanket.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized emission spectra of elastin powder under 1230 nm nonlinear excitation. All emission spectra are with a central wavelength around 655nm. The emission spectra from elastin powder of aorta and lung are denoted in black and red colors respectively; while the emission spectra from elastin solution of aorta and lung are denoted in green and blue colors respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intra-tissue emission spectrum measured from the area of the elastic fiber in a rat aorta. SHG signal comes from the collagen closely adjacent to the elastic fiber in the artery media.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

THG and multi-photon fluorescence imaging of human lung tissue and rat aorta. (a) and (b) are simultaneous THG (blue) and endogenous 2PF (magenta) images of a human lung tissue and a rat aorta, respectively. (c) and (d) are simultaneous THG (blue) and eosin-stained exogenous fluorescence (orange) images of a human lung tissue and a rat aorta, respectively. The co-localization of blue and orange colors shows white color. All yellow arrows within four images indicate the location of elastic fibers. Scale bar: 20µm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized spectrum of eosin. The emission maximum is around 555nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

In vivo horizontal sections of nude mouse elastic cartilage using THG (blue) and endogenous 2PF (magenta) microscopes. (a) Endogenous 2PF image of elastic cartilage adjusted at the same contrast level with Fig. 6(c). PMT acquisition voltage: 3000V. (b)Endogenous 2PF image adjusted at a very low contrast level. PMT acquisition voltage: 3000V. (c) THG image. PMT acquisition voltage: 1200V. (d) Simultaneous THG and endogenous 2PF image. Yellow arrows indicate one of the locations of the elastic fibers. Elastic fibers in the elastic cartilage shows high contrast, high spatial resolution, and distinguishable intensity using in vivo THG microscopy. Scale bar: 20µm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(690 KB) A movie of in vivo depth-resolved horizontal sections in elastic cartilage of the nude mouse ear. This movie is composed of 15 horizontal images. The optical depth difference between adjacent images is 2.1 µm. Image size: 80µm×80µm. [Media 1]

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(2.19 MB) A movie of 3-D reconstruction of a sequential set of horizontally sectioned in vivo images from the elastic cartilage of the nude mouse ear. Green arrows indicate one of the locations of the elastic fibers. This movie is composed of 25 horizontal images. The optical depth difference between adjacent images is 2.1 µm. Image size: 120µm×120µm. [Media 2]

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Normalized THG intensity after a linear polarization as a function of the polarizer angle θ relative to the linear polarization angle of the incident excitation. The square data points represent the case that the excitation polarization is parallel (0°) to the elastic fiber. The triangular data points represent the case that the excitation polarization is 45° to the elastic fiber.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Simultaneous THG (blue) and SHG (green) images of human conjunctiva (a) Image of normal conjunctiva shows distribution of collagen without elastosis. (b) Image of diseased conjunctiva, pterygium, shows elastin proliferation revealed by THG signals. Scale bar: 20µm.

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