Abstract

We demonstrate in vivo measurements in human retinal vessels of an experimental parameter, the slope of the low coherence interferometry (LCI) depth reflectivity profile, which strongly correlates with the real value of blood hematocrit. A novel instrument that combines two technologies, spectral domain low coherence interferometry (SDLCI) and retinal tracking, has been developed and used for these measurements. Retinal tracking allows a light beam to be stabilized on retinal vessels, while SDLCI is used for obtaining depth-reflectivity profiles within the investigated vessel. SDLCI backscatter extinction rates are obtained from the initial slope of the A-scan profile within the vessel lumen. The differences in the slopes of the depth reflectivity profiles for different subjects are interpreted as the difference in the scattering coefficient, which is correlated with the number density of red blood cells (RBC) in blood. With proper calibration, it is possible to determine hematocrit in retinal vessels. Ex vivo measurements at various RBC concentrations were performed to calibrate the instrument. Preliminary measurements on several healthy volunteers show estimated hematocrit values within the normal clinical range.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Johner, P. Chamney, D. Schneditz, and M. Krämer, "Evaluation of an ultrasonic blood volume monitor," Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 13, 2098-2103 (1998).
  2. W. Secomsky, A. Nowicki, F. Guidi, P. Tortoli, and P.A. Lewin, "Non-invasive measurement of blood hematocrit in artery," Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences,  53 (3), 245-50 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003). [REMOVED HYPERLINK FIELD]
  6. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003).
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  8. N.A. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park,  et al., "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  10. H. Liang, M. G. Cid, R. G. Cucu, G. M. Dobre, A. G. Podoleanu, J. Pedro, and D. Saunders, "En-face optical coherence tomography - a novel application of non-invasive imaging to art conservation," Opt. Express 13,6133-6144 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, N. V. Iftimia, T. Ustun, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, W. D. Dilworth, L. Kagemann, and J. S. Schuman, "Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13,7937-7947 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  19. D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Image stabilization for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10,1542-1549 (2002)[REMOVED HYPERLINK FIELD].
  20. G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  24. D. J. Faber, E.G. Mick, M.C.G. Aalders, T.G. van Leeuwen, "Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Optt. Lett. 30(9), 1015-17 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]

2005

W. Secomsky, A. Nowicki, F. Guidi, P. Tortoli, and P.A. Lewin, "Non-invasive measurement of blood hematocrit in artery," Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences,  53 (3), 245-50 (2005).

D. J. Faber, E.G. Mick, M.C.G. Aalders, T.G. van Leeuwen, "Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Optt. Lett. 30(9), 1015-17 (2005).

M Yu Kirillin, A.V. Priezzhev, V V Tuchin, R K Wang, and R Myllylä, "Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 382582-2589 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Liang, M. G. Cid, R. G. Cucu, G. M. Dobre, A. G. Podoleanu, J. Pedro, and D. Saunders, "En-face optical coherence tomography - a novel application of non-invasive imaging to art conservation," Opt. Express 13,6133-6144 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and Z. Chen, "In vivo blood flow imaging by a swept laser source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 13,7449-7457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, N. V. Iftimia, T. Ustun, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, W. D. Dilworth, L. Kagemann, and J. S. Schuman, "Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13,7937-7947 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2002

1999

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Johner, P. Chamney, D. Schneditz, and M. Krämer, "Evaluation of an ultrasonic blood volume monitor," Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 13, 2098-2103 (1998).

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

J.M. Schmitt, Z Guan-Xiong, and J. Miller, "Measurement of blood hematocrit by dual-wavelength near-IR photoplethsymography, " Proc. SPIE 1441, 150-161 (1992).

1988

1987

1970

Aalders, M.C.G.

D. J. Faber, E.G. Mick, M.C.G. Aalders, T.G. van Leeuwen, "Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Optt. Lett. 30(9), 1015-17 (2005).

Andersen, P.E.

Bizheva, K.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chamney, P.

C. Johner, P. Chamney, D. Schneditz, and M. Krämer, "Evaluation of an ultrasonic blood volume monitor," Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 13, 2098-2103 (1998).

Chen, Z.

Cid, M. G.

Cornsweet, T. N.

Crane, H. D.

Cucu, R. G.

de Boer, J. F.

de Boer, J.F.

Dilworth, W. D.

Do, M. N.

Dobre, G. M.

Dörschel, K.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

Elsner, A. E.

Faber, D. J.

D. J. Faber, E.G. Mick, M.C.G. Aalders, T.G. van Leeuwen, "Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Optt. Lett. 30(9), 1015-17 (2005).

D. J. Faber, E.G. mick, M.C.G. Aalders, T.G. van Leeuwen, "Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett 28(16), 1436-38 (2003).

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

Friebel, M.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frosz, M.H.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gabriele, M. L.

Guan-Xiong, Z

J.M. Schmitt, Z Guan-Xiong, and J. Miller, "Measurement of blood hematocrit by dual-wavelength near-IR photoplethsymography, " Proc. SPIE 1441, 150-161 (1992).

Guidi, F.

W. Secomsky, A. Nowicki, F. Guidi, P. Tortoli, and P.A. Lewin, "Non-invasive measurement of blood hematocrit in artery," Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences,  53 (3), 245-50 (2005).

Hahn, A.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, D. X.

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography- principles and application," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66. 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003). [REMOVED HYPERLINK FIELD]

Hughes, G. W.

Iftimia, N.

Iftimia, N. V.

Ishikawa, H.

Johner, C.

C. Johner, P. Chamney, D. Schneditz, and M. Krämer, "Evaluation of an ultrasonic blood volume monitor," Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 13, 2098-2103 (1998).

Jørgensen, T.M.

Kagemann, L.

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

Krämer, M.

C. Johner, P. Chamney, D. Schneditz, and M. Krämer, "Evaluation of an ultrasonic blood volume monitor," Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 13, 2098-2103 (1998).

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography- principles and application," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66. 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Lewin, P.A.

W. Secomsky, A. Nowicki, F. Guidi, P. Tortoli, and P.A. Lewin, "Non-invasive measurement of blood hematocrit in artery," Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences,  53 (3), 245-50 (2005).

Liang, H.

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Magill, J. C.

Marks, D. L.

Mick, E.G.

D. J. Faber, E.G. Mick, M.C.G. Aalders, T.G. van Leeuwen, "Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Optt. Lett. 30(9), 1015-17 (2005).

Miller, J.

J.M. Schmitt, Z Guan-Xiong, and J. Miller, "Measurement of blood hematocrit by dual-wavelength near-IR photoplethsymography, " Proc. SPIE 1441, 150-161 (1992).

Müller, G.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Myllylä, R

M Yu Kirillin, A.V. Priezzhev, V V Tuchin, R K Wang, and R Myllylä, "Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 382582-2589 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nassif, N.

Nassif, N.A.

Nowicki, A.

W. Secomsky, A. Nowicki, F. Guidi, P. Tortoli, and P.A. Lewin, "Non-invasive measurement of blood hematocrit in artery," Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences,  53 (3), 245-50 (2005).

Park, B.H.

Pedro, J.

Pierce, M.C.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Povazay, B.

Priezzhev, A.V.

M Yu Kirillin, A.V. Priezzhev, V V Tuchin, R K Wang, and R Myllylä, "Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 382582-2589 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roggan, A.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, H.

Saunders, D.

Schmetterer, L.

Schmitt, J.M.

J.M. Schmitt, Z Guan-Xiong, and J. Miller, "Measurement of blood hematocrit by dual-wavelength near-IR photoplethsymography, " Proc. SPIE 1441, 150-161 (1992).

Schneditz, D.

C. Johner, P. Chamney, D. Schneditz, and M. Krämer, "Evaluation of an ultrasonic blood volume monitor," Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 13, 2098-2103 (1998).

Schuman, J. S.

Secomsky, W.

W. Secomsky, A. Nowicki, F. Guidi, P. Tortoli, and P.A. Lewin, "Non-invasive measurement of blood hematocrit in artery," Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences,  53 (3), 245-50 (2005).

Shepherd, A.P.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Steinke, J.M.

Tearney, G. J.

Thrahe, L.

Tortoli, P.

W. Secomsky, A. Nowicki, F. Guidi, P. Tortoli, and P.A. Lewin, "Non-invasive measurement of blood hematocrit in artery," Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences,  53 (3), 245-50 (2005).

Tuchin, V V

M Yu Kirillin, A.V. Priezzhev, V V Tuchin, R K Wang, and R Myllylä, "Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 382582-2589 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tycho, A.

Unterhuber, A.

Ustun, T.

van Leeuwen, T.G.

D. J. Faber, E.G. Mick, M.C.G. Aalders, T.G. van Leeuwen, "Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Optt. Lett. 30(9), 1015-17 (2005).

Wang, R K

M Yu Kirillin, A.V. Priezzhev, V V Tuchin, R K Wang, and R Myllylä, "Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 382582-2589 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R. H.

White, B.R.

White, M. A.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wollstein, G.

Wornson, D. P.

Xu, C.

Yu Kirillin, M

M Yu Kirillin, A.V. Priezzhev, V V Tuchin, R K Wang, and R Myllylä, "Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 382582-2589 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Yura, H.T.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt.

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences

W. Secomsky, A. Nowicki, F. Guidi, P. Tortoli, and P.A. Lewin, "Non-invasive measurement of blood hematocrit in artery," Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences,  53 (3), 245-50 (2005).

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.

M Yu Kirillin, A.V. Priezzhev, V V Tuchin, R K Wang, and R Myllylä, "Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 382582-2589 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.

C. Johner, P. Chamney, D. Schneditz, and M. Krämer, "Evaluation of an ultrasonic blood volume monitor," Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 13, 2098-2103 (1998).

Opt. Express

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Image stabilization for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10,1542-1549 (2002)[REMOVED HYPERLINK FIELD].

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003). [REMOVED HYPERLINK FIELD]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003).

B.R. White, M.C. Pierce, N. Nassif,  et al., "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-highspeed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490-3497 (2004).

N.A. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park,  et al., "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, L. Schmetterer, A. F. Fercher and W. Drexler, "Precision of extracting absorption profiles from weakly scattering media with spectroscopic time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 1677-1688 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, D. L. Marks, M. N. Do, and S. A. Boppart, "Separation of absorption and scattering profiles in spectroscopic optical coherence tomography using a least-squares algorithm," Opt. Express 12,4790-4803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Liang, M. G. Cid, R. G. Cucu, G. M. Dobre, A. G. Podoleanu, J. Pedro, and D. Saunders, "En-face optical coherence tomography - a novel application of non-invasive imaging to art conservation," Opt. Express 13,6133-6144 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and Z. Chen, "In vivo blood flow imaging by a swept laser source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 13,7449-7457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, N. V. Iftimia, T. Ustun, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, W. D. Dilworth, L. Kagemann, and J. S. Schuman, "Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13,7937-7947 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett

D. J. Faber, E.G. mick, M.C.G. Aalders, T.G. van Leeuwen, "Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett 28(16), 1436-38 (2003).

Opt. Lett.

Optt. Lett.

D. J. Faber, E.G. Mick, M.C.G. Aalders, T.G. van Leeuwen, "Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Optt. Lett. 30(9), 1015-17 (2005).

Proc. SPIE

J.M. Schmitt, Z Guan-Xiong, and J. Miller, "Measurement of blood hematocrit by dual-wavelength near-IR photoplethsymography, " Proc. SPIE 1441, 150-161 (1992).

Rep. Prog. Phys.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography- principles and application," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66. 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson and F. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12- (1998).

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